CN211177901U - Energy-saving efficient tunnel kiln sintered by multilayer foamed ceramics - Google Patents

Energy-saving efficient tunnel kiln sintered by multilayer foamed ceramics Download PDF

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Publication number
CN211177901U
CN211177901U CN201921442425.2U CN201921442425U CN211177901U CN 211177901 U CN211177901 U CN 211177901U CN 201921442425 U CN201921442425 U CN 201921442425U CN 211177901 U CN211177901 U CN 211177901U
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kiln
burners
smoke exhaust
pipe
energy
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荆海山
祝守焱
曾磊
陈军
余晓俊
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Foshan Dlt Technology Co ltd
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Foshan Dlt Technology Co ltd
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Abstract

The embodiment of the utility model discloses an energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln sintered by multilayer foamed ceramics, which comprises a kiln main body consisting of a kiln body frame and a fireproof heat-insulating layer, wherein the kiln main body comprises a heating section (comprising a smoke exhaust section, a preheating section and a high-temperature sintering section); the smoke exhaust section is provided with a smoke exhaust system, a top flue positioned at the top of the kiln body and kiln wall flues positioned in kiln walls at two sides, a smoke inlet of each kiln wall flue is positioned at the lower part in the kiln, and the top flue and the kiln wall flues are both connected with the smoke exhaust system and used for simultaneously extracting smoke from the top and the bottom of the kiln cavity; the preheating section and the high-temperature burning section are provided with a burning system and a combustion-supporting system. The utility model discloses a section of discharging fume, preheating section and high temperature firing section cooperation realize that multilayer foamed ceramics burns till simultaneously, the energy can be saved improves production efficiency.

Description

Energy-saving efficient tunnel kiln sintered by multilayer foamed ceramics
Technical Field
The utility model relates to a high temperature kiln especially relates to an energy-conserving high-efficient tunnel cave of multilayer foamed ceramics firing.
Background
The foamed ceramic material is prepared by sintering industrial wastes (such as ceramic tile polishing wastes, coal slag, steel slag and the like), low-quality clay (such as silt, shale and the like), inorganic foaming agent (such as silicon carbide powder) and other raw materials at a high temperature, belongs to an energy-saving and environment-friendly material, has the performances of excellent heat preservation, high temperature resistance, good sound insulation and the like, and is mainly used for the industries of building walls (inner partition walls or external heat preservation), heat preservation in metallurgical industry, subway station noise reduction, automobile exhaust filtration and the like. The porous structure is formed through high-temperature foaming, and the required performances of heat preservation, heat insulation, noise reduction, filtration and the like are achieved. In recent years, as green building materials and fabricated buildings are popularized by the residential building department, a large-area (e.g., 1200mm × 2400mm) foamed ceramic partition plate has quietly emerged. However, due to the restriction of high energy consumption, low yield, low qualification rate and other factors in the firing process, the foamed ceramics meet the technical bottleneck in the industrialization process, and ceramic enterprises urgently need an energy-saving, efficient, high-yield and iterative upgrading technology and equipment to reduce process loss, reduce cost and enhance profitability.
The existing continuous firing kilns are roughly 2 types:
the roller kiln is characterized in that raw material powder is distributed on a refractory backing plate paved with ceramic paper, material blocking blocks are arranged on the periphery of the refractory backing plate, the refractory backing plate and the powder are transmitted through a roller rod, and the powder is melted, foamed and cooled at high temperature to form a porous ceramic plate. However, because the roller bar is supported by two points outside the kiln and has smaller bearing capacity, the inner width of the roller bar is generally within 2.5m, only a single layer can be loaded, the thickness of a product is within 100mm, the yield is low, and the maximum daily yield of the single-bar kiln is 60m at present3Product of 80m3The consumption of natural gas per unit product is 150m3Natural gas/m3And (4) controlling the product.
The other is a tunnel kiln, a refractory backing plate is flatly paved on a kiln car silicon carbide beam, ceramic paper is arranged, powder is distributed, and the porous ceramic plate is formed after the powder is melted, foamed and cooled at high temperature through the operation of the kiln car. Compared with suspended roller rods, the kiln car runs on the track, the bearing capacity is greatly increased, the inner width can be 3-6 m, and the product thickness can be 100-300 mm. However, the existing tunnel kiln is generally loaded with a single layer, and the daily output is only 120m3About the product, the consumption of natural gas of unit product is about 120m3Natural gas/m3And (5) producing the product.
From the above situation, although the foamed ceramics are products which turn waste into wealth and have obvious advantages, the tunnel kiln is more advanced than the roller kiln in terms of yield and unit fuel consumption, the comprehensive cost (the energy cost accounts for more than 40 percent) is still higher than that of the existing products, such as building blocks for partition walls, prefabricated partition walls, gypsum keels, glass bricks and the like, so that the requirements of ceramic enterprises and markets are still difficult to meet, and the popularization is difficult.
SUMMERY OF THE UTILITY MODEL
The embodiment of the utility model provides a technical problem that will solve provides an energy-conserving high-efficient tunnel cave that multilayer foamed ceramics burnt, realizes that multilayer foamed ceramics burns till simultaneously, and the energy can be saved improves production efficiency.
In order to solve the technical problem, an embodiment of the utility model provides an energy-saving and high-efficiency tunnel kiln sintered by multilayer foamed ceramics, which comprises a kiln main body consisting of a kiln body frame and a fireproof heat preservation layer, wherein the kiln main body comprises a smoke exhaust section and a high-temperature sintering section;
the smoke exhaust section is provided with a smoke exhaust system, a top flue positioned at the top of the kiln body and kiln wall flues positioned in kiln walls at two sides, a smoke inlet of each kiln wall flue is positioned at the lower part in the kiln, and the top flue and the kiln wall flues are both connected with the smoke exhaust system and used for simultaneously extracting smoke from the top and the bottom of the kiln cavity;
the high-temperature burning section is provided with a burning system and a combustion-supporting system, the burning system comprises a main gas pipe, a falling gas branch pipe, a longitudinal gas branch pipe and more than three rows of burners at different heights, the same row of burners in the horizontal direction in each burning module are supplied with gas by the same longitudinal gas branch pipe, and the longitudinal gas branch pipes are connected with the main gas pipe through the corresponding falling gas branch pipes; the combustion-supporting system comprises a combustion-supporting main pipe, a combustion-supporting falling branch pipe and a longitudinal combustion-supporting branch pipe, wherein the longitudinal combustion-supporting branch pipe is connected with the combustion-supporting main pipe through the combustion-supporting falling branch pipe and supplies combustion-supporting air for each burner.
As an improvement of the scheme, a preheating section is further arranged between the smoke exhaust section and the high-temperature sintering section, preheating burners are arranged at positions, corresponding to the bottom flame paths, of kiln walls on two sides of the preheating section, the preheating burners are sprayed out from the flame paths in a cross mode, and products on other layers are heated through upward escape of hot gas.
As an improvement of the scheme, the top flues are arranged at the top of the kiln main body in rows.
As an improvement of the above scheme, the smoke exhaust system comprises a smoke exhaust fan, a smoke exhaust main pipe, an outer exhaust chimney, a top smoke exhaust falling pipe and a top smoke exhaust transverse pipe, wherein the smoke exhaust fan is arranged on the smoke exhaust main pipe, the outer exhaust chimney, the smoke exhaust main pipe, the top smoke exhaust falling pipe and the top smoke exhaust transverse pipe are sequentially connected, and the top smoke exhaust transverse pipe is connected with the outer exhaust chimney; the kiln wall flue is connected with the main smoke exhaust pipe through a side smoke exhaust branch pipe.
As an improvement of the scheme, the kiln car comprises a base, wherein wheels are arranged on the base, and a kiln car fireproof heat-insulating layer is arranged on the top surface of the base;
the base still is equipped with the support column, be equipped with the loading frame on the support column, the loading frame is including transversely being fixed in girder on the support column, vertically installing the strutbeam on the girder to and be located the concatenation on the strutbeam and form, be used for loading the fire-resistant backing plate of product, be provided with the fire-resistant backing plate of multilayer on the loading frame.
As an improvement of the scheme, the fire-resistant heat-insulating layer comprises a bottom fire-resistant heat-insulating layer positioned at the bottom of the kiln, concave-convex structures are arranged on the inner sides of two sides of the bottom fire-resistant heat-insulating layer and matched with the concave-convex structures on two sides of the kiln car to form a sealed kiln bottom.
As an improvement of the scheme, the total width of the assembled refractory backing plate is larger than that of the refractory heat-insulating layer of the kiln car.
As an improvement of the scheme, in the same combustion module, the lowest row of burners is marked as bottom burners, the highest row of burners is marked as top burners, a plurality of rows of burners between the bottom burners and the top burners are marked as middle burners, and the top burners, the middle burners and the bottom burners are arranged in a staggered mode in the horizontal direction and the vertical direction.
As an improvement of the scheme, the top layer burner nozzles correspondingly heat the space above the products contained in the base plate at the uppermost layer, the middle layer burner nozzles correspondingly heat the space between the products contained in the bottom of the middle upper base plate and the products contained in the middle lower base plate, and the bottom layer burner nozzles correspondingly heat the space below the refractory base plate at the lowermost layer.
As an improvement of the scheme, the number of the bottom burners in each row is twice that of the top burners in each row.
Implement the embodiment of the utility model provides a, following beneficial effect has:
the utility model discloses a set up before the high temperature burns till the district section and preheat the district section and the district section of discharging fume, can reduce the temperature of exhaust waste gas, prolong the life-span of exhaust pipe and fan. The raw materials are preheated by the high-temperature flue gas, so that the heat energy of the waste gas can be fully utilized, and the energy is saved. In addition, the raw materials are preheated step by step through the smoke exhaust section and the preheating section, and the temperature of the raw materials is raised according to a preset temperature curve, so that the phenomenon that the raw materials directly contact flame sprayed by a burner in a low-temperature state and the product defects are caused due to too fast temperature rise is avoided.
The utility model discloses a section of jurisdiction cooperation is burnt with the high temperature of kiln car of special design and kiln, realizes that multilayer foamed ceramics burns till simultaneously, and the energy can be saved improves production efficiency.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the overall structure of an energy-saving and efficient tunnel kiln sintered from multi-layer foamed ceramics of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side view of a smoke evacuation section of the tunnel kiln of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a top view of the smoke evacuation section of the tunnel kiln of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a smoke evacuation section of the tunnel kiln of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of portion A of FIG. 4;
fig. 6 is a schematic structural view of the kiln car of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a schematic structural view of a high-temperature firing section of the tunnel kiln of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is an enlarged view of portion A of FIG. 7;
FIGS. 9 and 10 are cross-sectional views of the high temperature firing zone of the tunnel kiln of the present invention at different longitudinal positions;
FIG. 11 is a schematic structural view of a quench section of the tunnel kiln of the present invention;
FIG. 12 is a schematic structural view of a slow cooling section of the tunnel kiln of the present invention;
FIG. 13 is a schematic structural view of the tail cooling section of the tunnel kiln of the present invention;
fig. 14-16 are cross-sectional views of the tunnel kiln of the present invention at different longitudinal positions of the tail cooling section.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, the present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the application, the length direction of the kiln is longitudinal, the width direction of the kiln is transverse, the vertical direction is the height space direction, two sides of the kiln refer to two sides of the kiln, and the cross section refers to the width direction in the kiln.
As shown in figure 1, the embodiment of the utility model provides an energy-conserving high-efficient tunnel cave of multilayer foamed ceramics firing, include the kiln main part 1 that comprises kiln body frame 11 and fire-resistant heat preservation 12. The kiln top is made of cordierite-mullite plate and light heat-insulating cotton (the specific gravity is 0.128 g/cm)3) The structure and the kiln wall are light refractory bricks (the specific gravity is 0.8 g/cm)3) + light cotton board (specific gravity less than 0.3 g/cm)3) The structure and the kiln car fireproof layer mainly use light heat-preservation cotton, so that the kiln car fireproof layer has good heat-preservation and sealing effects, small heat dissipation and high energy-saving benefit. In order to realize different functions, the kiln body 1 is divided into different sections, and the shapes and supporting equipment of the kiln bodies 1 in the different sections are different. Specifically, the kiln body 1 comprises a smoke exhaust section 2, a high-temperature firing section 4 and a cooling section; the smoke exhaust section 2 is used for exhausting smoke generated by the high-temperature sintering section 4, the high-temperature sintering section 4 is used for heating the blank of the foamed ceramic to foam and sinter the blank, and the cooling section is used for cooling the foamed ceramic.
With reference to fig. 2-5, the smoke exhaust section 2 is provided with a smoke exhaust system, a top flue 21 located at the top of the kiln body 1, and kiln wall flues 22 located in the kiln walls on both sides. The smoke inlet 221 of the kiln wall flue 22 is positioned at the lower part in the kiln, and the top flue 21 and the kiln wall flue 22 are both connected with the smoke exhaust system and used for simultaneously extracting smoke from the top and the bottom of the kiln cavity; the smoke exhaust system comprises a smoke exhaust fan 23, a smoke exhaust main pipe 24, an outer exhaust chimney 25, a top smoke exhaust falling pipe 26 and a top smoke exhaust transverse pipe 27, wherein the smoke exhaust fan 23 is arranged on the smoke exhaust main pipe 24, the outer exhaust chimney 25, the smoke exhaust main pipe 24, the top smoke exhaust falling pipe 26 and the top smoke exhaust transverse pipe 27 are sequentially connected, and the top smoke exhaust transverse pipe 27 is connected with the top flue 21. The kiln wall flues 22 are connected to the main smoke exhaust pipe 24 through side smoke exhaust branch pipes 28. The high-temperature flue gas contacts with the foamed ceramic blank to remove mechanical water and absorbed water in the raw materials, so that the blank does not undergo chemical change, and only undergoes physical changes such as volume shrinkage, water evaporation and the like. In order to reduce the temperature difference between the cross section and the vertical height direction, a mode of combining top extraction and two-side bottom extraction is adopted, the top flues 21 are arranged at the top of the kiln body 1 in rows, the size of the flue gas volume is adjusted through the valve 29 so as to change the size and the flow direction of the airflow with the same section, and the temperature difference between the sections is reduced through stirring and shunting. The two sides of the bottom suction are convenient for pulling down the flue gas gathered at the top part of the kiln, the temperature of the lower part of the flue gas is raised in the flowing process, the requirement of heating of multilayer materials is met, and the temperature difference between the upper part and the lower part in the kiln is reduced.
Preferably, a preheating section 3 is arranged between the smoke exhaust section 2 and the high-temperature sintering section 4, and the temperature in the preheating section is increased from 600 ℃ to about 1050 ℃. An independent combustion system (not shown in the figure) is arranged in the preheating section 3 and is matched with high-temperature flue gas discharged from the high-temperature sintering section 4 to preheat the foamed ceramic blank. Specifically, the bottom flame path (a channel formed between the kiln car surface and the bottom refractory liner plate) is heated, the burners of the kiln walls on two sides are sprayed out from the flame path in a cross mode, and hot gas can heat products on other layers after escaping upwards. In this zone, the main chemical changes of the raw material are the elimination of crystal water, the decomposition and oxidation of organic substances, carbonate, sulfate and other compounds contained in the raw material, and the crystal transformation of quartz. The preheating section 3 and the smoke exhaust section 2 are arranged in front of the high-temperature sintering section 4, so that the temperature of exhausted waste gas can be reduced, and the service lives of a smoke exhaust pipeline and a fan are prolonged. The raw materials are preheated by the high-temperature flue gas, so that the heat energy of the waste gas can be fully utilized, and the energy is saved. In addition, the raw materials are preheated step by step through the smoke exhaust section 2 and the preheating section 3, and the temperature of the raw materials is raised according to a preset temperature curve, so that the problem that the raw materials are in direct contact with flame sprayed by a burner in a low-temperature state and the product defects are caused due to too fast temperature rise is avoided.
The high-temperature firing section 4 is provided with a combustion system and a combustion-supporting system, and is used for raising the temperature from 1050 ℃ to the maximum firing temperature (the temperature of the foamed ceramic is generally about 1150 ℃). The combustion system comprises a main gas pipe 41, a falling gas branch pipe 42, longitudinal gas branch pipes 43 and more than three rows of burners 44 positioned at different heights, the same row of burners 44 in each combustion module are supplied with gas by the same longitudinal gas branch pipe 43, and the longitudinal gas branch pipes 43 are connected with the main gas pipe 41 through the corresponding falling gas branch pipes 42; the combustion-supporting system comprises a combustion-supporting main pipe 45, a combustion-supporting falling branched pipe 46 and a longitudinal combustion-supporting branched pipe 47, wherein the longitudinal combustion-supporting branched pipe 47 is connected with the combustion-supporting main pipe 45 through the combustion-supporting falling branched pipe 46 (a hose for connecting the burner 44 with the longitudinal combustion-supporting branched pipe 47 is not shown in the figure), and supplies combustion-supporting air for each burner 44.
Referring to fig. 6, in order to sinter the multilayer foamed ceramics at a time, the kiln of the present invention further includes a kiln car 5 adapted to the kiln. The kiln car 5 comprises a base 51, wheels 52 are arranged on the base 51, and a kiln car fireproof heat-insulating layer 53 is arranged on the top surface of the base 51; the base 51 is further provided with a support column 54, the support column 54 is provided with a loading frame, and the loading frame comprises a main beam 55 transversely fixed on the support column 54, a support beam 58 longitudinally installed on the main beam 55, and a fire-resistant backing plate 56 supported on the main beam 55 and divided into at least two layers. A plurality of the refractory support plates 56 are spliced on the support beams 58 to form a bearing plate surface. During charging, if a 1200mm 2400mm foamed ceramic plate is produced, a 1200mm 2400mm space is formed around the fireproof backing plate 56 through the material blocking blocks 57, a whole piece of ceramic paper (capable of resisting the temperature of about 1200 ℃) with the thickness of about 2mm is laid inside the fireproof backing plate 56, material leakage from the spliced fireproof backing plate 56 is prevented, and adhesion and damage to the fireproof backing plate 56 and the material blocking blocks 57 are avoided after high-temperature melting. In this embodiment, the kiln car 5 is loaded with three layers of products, a top flame path is formed between the top of the kiln and the upper product, an intermediate flame path is formed between the product-loaded refractory lining plate 56 and its lower product, and a bottom flame path is formed between the kiln car refractory insulation layer 53 and the lowermost product-loaded refractory lining plate 56. 4 rows of burners 44 are distributed in the horizontal direction of the kiln, the top flame path, the middle flame path and the bottom flame path are respectively provided with a combustion group, and the two rows of burners 44 in the middle are the same combustion group, so that the temperature difference between the upper layer and the lower layer of products is controlled, and the product quality is stable.
Further, in conjunction with fig. 7-10, the high-temperature firing section 4 is composed of a plurality of combustion modules having the same structure. In the same combustion module, the lowest row of burners 44 is marked as a bottom burner 44a, the highest row of burners 44 is marked as a top burner 44c, and a plurality of rows of burners 44 between the bottom burner 44a and the top burner 44c are marked as middle burners 44b, wherein the top burners 44c, the middle burners 44b and the bottom burners 44a are staggered in the horizontal direction and the vertical direction. The top burner 44c heats the space above the product contained in the uppermost refractory pad, the middle burner 44b heats the space between the product contained in the middle upper pad and the product contained in the middle lower pad, and the bottom burner 44a heats the space below the lowermost refractory pad. When the temperature is raised, the flame is sprayed out from the flame path by the burners 44 on the two side walls in a cross way, and the heat is transferred to the product by radiation, convection and conduction. By arranging the multiple layers of burners 44 on each side, the temperature of each layer is controlled by parts such as a thermocouple 48, an electromagnetic valve 49, an electrically operated valve 40, a temperature control meter and the like, so that the problem of temperature difference among different layers of products is solved, and holes of each layer of products are uniform and stable in quality. The electromagnetic valve 49 is automatically switched on and off when power is turned on or off, and can automatically cut off an air source when sudden power failure occurs, so that the safety protection effect is achieved. The electric valve is used for automatically adjusting the opening of the air supply pipe according to the change of the temperature so as to control the air pressure of the burner 44.
The kiln body and kiln car structure of the light fireproof heat-preservation cotton is adopted, so that heat dissipation is reduced; heating by using an energy-saving isothermal high-speed burner; the waste heat of the cooling area is recycled for energy-saving technologies such as improving the temperature of combustion-supporting air and the like; optimizing loading modes, such as thinning the refractory backing plate (such as reducing the weight from 10mm to 8mm) and reducing the weight of the material blocking block, increasing the thickness of each layer of fired product, increasing the heat utilization rate by improving the weight ratio of the product in the kiln furniture, and the like. The daily output of a single kiln can reach 250m after the number of loading layers is increased3Above products, the energy-saving technology and the loading structure are optimized, so that the consumption of natural gas of a unit product can be controlled to be 80m3Natural gas/m3The method achieves the aims of large capacity, low fuel consumption and high qualification rate within the product, and solves the existing problems.
Preferably, the number of bottom burners 44a in each row is twice that of the top burners 44c in each row. Because the hot air rises, the temperature of the upper raw material rises quickly, so that the temperature rising speed of the raw material at the lower layer is close to that of the raw material at the upper layer by increasing the number of the burners 44a at the bottom layer, the temperature control difficulty is reduced, and the product quality is improved.
In this zone, the raw material changes such that the feldspar type flux in the body melts to form a liquid phase, forming a silicate eutectic. Due to the existence of the foaming agent, the gas escapes to form holes after volume expansion at high temperature, so that under the action of surface tension of the eutectic, particles are promoted to be rearranged tightly, thin walls among the holes are cemented with each other, and the closed-cell ceramic plate is formed after cooling. The porous ceramic also increases the volume and reduces the density, thereby achieving the effects of heat preservation, sound insulation and heat insulation.
The kiln car 5 is not only used for loading and transporting products, but also has the function of sealing the bottom of the kiln through the fireproof heat-insulating layer 53 of the kiln car. The fire-resistant insulating layer 12 comprises a bottom fire-resistant insulating layer 12a positioned at the bottom of the kiln, concave-convex structures 122 are arranged on the inner sides of two sides of the bottom fire-resistant insulating layer 121 and are matched with the concave-convex structures 531 on two sides of the kiln car 5 to form a sealed kiln bottom. And a sand sealing mechanism 13 is also arranged between the kiln car 5 and the kiln main body 1. Through the staggered fit of the protruding portions 122 and the fit portions 531, most of hot air can be blocked, and heat is prevented from being transferred to the bottom of the kiln. The sand seal mechanism 13 located below the protrusion 122 and the fitting 531 realizes further sealing of the flue gas, further preventing hot gas leakage.
Preferably, the top surface of the bottom refractory insulating layer 121 is higher than the top surface of the kiln car refractory insulating layer 53. The total width of the assembled fire-resistant backing plate 56 is larger than the width of the kiln car fire-resistant heat-insulating layer 53. Once accidents such as collapse of the kiln car 5 occur, the refractory pad 56 on the kiln car 5 is supported on the bottom refractory insulating layer 121 and cannot be completely toppled over and clamped in the kiln, so that the subsequent kiln car 5 can conveniently push out the refractory pad 56 and the foamed ceramics on the refractory pad 56.
After the sintering of the foamed ceramic is finished, the foamed ceramic enters a cooling section which comprises a quenching section 6, a slow cooling section 7 and a tail cooling section 8.
As shown in fig. 11, the quenching section rapidly cools the product from the maximum firing temperature to around 600 ℃, completing the quenching. The quenching section 6 is provided with a quenching fan (not shown in the figure), a quenching air pipe 62 and a quenching air channel 61, the quenching air channel 61 is arranged in two side walls of the kiln main body 1, and the quenching fan 61 is connected with the quenching air channel 61 through the quenching air pipe 62; the quenching air duct 61 faces the bottom flame path, the top flame path and the flame path between the products, and cold air is sprayed from the quenching air duct 61 to uniformly cool each layer of products. The main function of the quench section 6 is rapid cooling. At this stage the viscosity of the glassy phase in the article increases and transitions from a plastic state to a solid state, maximizing hardness and strength. Because the existence of the liquid phase can offset the stress generated by the product shrinkage, the air can be directly blown for rapid cooling, which is also a key area for shortening the firing period in the ceramic production.
As shown in fig. 12, the slow cooling section 7 slowly cools the product from 600 ℃ to about 350 ℃. The kiln comprises a refrigerant supply system and heat exchange tubes 71 arranged in a kiln main body 1, wherein the refrigerant supply system is connected with the heat exchange tubes 71 and used for introducing a refrigerant into the heat exchange tubes 71; the refrigerant supply system includes a refrigerant supply pipe 72 and a refrigerant driving device (not shown), and the refrigerant includes any one of air, water or oil. In this embodiment, the refrigerant is air, the outside air automatically enters the heat exchange tube 71 with negative pressure, the air is pumped out from the other end of the heat exchange tube 71 by the fan, and the cold air passes through the wall of the heat exchange tube and exchanges with the hot air in the kiln to reduce the temperature. The heat exchange tubes 71 are longitudinally arranged in the kiln so as to ensure that the cooling speed of products with different heights in the kiln is consistent. The slow cooling area mainly has the functions of slow cooling, eliminating internal and external stresses of a product which is quenched, preventing cracking and generally adopting an indirect cooling mode. At this stage, the crystal transformation (573 ℃) of quartz occurs, and although the volume shrinkage is only 0.82%, the transformation time is only a few minutes, so the quartz must be slowly cooled, otherwise the defect of cold cracking occurs, and the firing yield is reduced.
With reference to fig. 13-16, the tail cooling section 8 includes a tail cooling air cooler (not shown), a tail cooling air pipe 82, a tail cooling air draft pipe 83 and a tail cooling air draft fan (not shown), and the tail cooling air cooler is connected to a tail cooling air outlet 81 through the tail cooling air pipe 82; the tail cooling air outlet 81 is arranged in the side wall of the kiln main body 1. Preferably, the tail cooling air outlets 81 are arranged on two side walls of the kiln main body 1 in a staggered manner. The tail cold air exhaust pipe 83 is connected with a top tail cold air exhaust port 85 and a side tail cold air exhaust port 86; the top tail cooling air suction port 85 is arranged on the top wall of the kiln main body 1. Preferably, the top-tail cooling suction opening 85 is connected to two suction hoods 84 provided on the top wall of the kiln body 1. The side surface tail cooling air suction openings 86 are symmetrically arranged on two side walls of the kiln main body 1. The main function of the tail cooling zone is final cooling, which reduces the temperature of the product to a temperature at which the product can be taken out of the kiln manually or mechanically. 2 air suction hoods 84 are adopted for top suction in the same row, a plurality of air suction pipes are respectively adopted on two side walls to be symmetrically sucked in a way of aligning with a flame path, and the air quantity of each air suction opening is adjusted through a valve; the air supply adopts a plurality of air pipes to aim at the staggered blowing of the flame paths from the two side walls so as to reduce the temperature difference in the kiln and prevent the product from cracking or deforming.
The conventional ceramic product has a sintering cycle proportion of over 60 percent and is cooled to within 40 percent. The utility model is designed according to the technical characteristics of the product, namely, the product is formed by foaming after the powder is melted, the cracking problem is not needed to worry after the product enters the kiln, and the temperature can be rapidly raised, so that the temperature can be rapidly raised to more than 300 ℃ and the highest firing temperature difference can be raised in a short time as soon as the product enters the kiln, and the firing process can be shortened; but the product has better heat preservation performance, the internal heat is difficult to release after cooling, the internal and external temperature difference is large, and the control is not good and the cracking is easy, so the length proportion of the cooling belt is improved to more than 60 percent of the length of the whole kiln (the conventional ceramic cooling accounts for less than 40 percent), the sintering period is shortened to the greatest extent, and the yield is increased.
The foregoing is a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and it should be noted that, for those skilled in the art, a plurality of improvements and decorations can be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, and these improvements and decorations are also considered as the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln sintered by the multilayer foamed ceramics is characterized by comprising a kiln main body consisting of a kiln body frame and a fireproof heat-insulating layer, wherein the kiln main body comprises a smoke exhaust section and a high-temperature sintering section;
the smoke exhaust section is provided with a smoke exhaust system, a top flue positioned at the top of the kiln body and kiln wall flues positioned in kiln walls at two sides, a smoke inlet of each kiln wall flue is positioned at the lower part in the kiln, and the top flue and the kiln wall flues are both connected with the smoke exhaust system and used for simultaneously extracting smoke from the top and the bottom of the kiln cavity;
the high-temperature burning section is provided with a burning system and a combustion-supporting system, the burning system comprises a main gas pipe, a falling gas branch pipe, a longitudinal gas branch pipe and more than three rows of burners at different heights, the same row of burners in the horizontal direction in each burning module are supplied with gas by the same longitudinal gas branch pipe, and the longitudinal gas branch pipes are connected with the main gas pipe through the corresponding falling gas branch pipes; the combustion-supporting system comprises a combustion-supporting main pipe, a combustion-supporting falling branch pipe and a longitudinal combustion-supporting branch pipe, wherein the longitudinal combustion-supporting branch pipe is connected with the combustion-supporting main pipe through the combustion-supporting falling branch pipe and supplies combustion-supporting air for each burner.
2. The energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln sintered by the multilayer foamed ceramics as claimed in claim 1, wherein a preheating section is further arranged between the smoke discharging section and the high-temperature sintering section, preheating burners are arranged at positions of kiln walls on two sides of the preheating section, which correspond to a bottom flame path, and the preheating burners are crossly ejected from the flame path to heat products on other layers by upward escape of hot gas.
3. The multi-layer ceramic foam-fired energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln as claimed in claim 1, wherein the top flues are arranged in rows at the top of the kiln body.
4. The energy-saving and efficient tunnel kiln fired by multi-layer foamed ceramics according to claim 2, wherein the smoke exhaust system comprises a smoke exhaust fan, a smoke exhaust main pipe, an outer exhaust chimney, a top smoke exhaust falling pipe and a top smoke exhaust transverse pipe, the smoke exhaust fan is arranged on the smoke exhaust main pipe, the outer exhaust chimney, the smoke exhaust main pipe, the top smoke exhaust falling pipe and the top smoke exhaust transverse pipe are sequentially connected, and the top smoke exhaust transverse pipe is connected with the outer exhaust chimney; the kiln wall flue is connected with the main smoke exhaust pipe through a side smoke exhaust branch pipe.
5. The energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln sintered by the multilayer foamed ceramics as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a kiln car adapted to the tunnel kiln, wherein the kiln car comprises a base, wheels are arranged on the base, and a kiln car fireproof heat-insulating layer is arranged on the top surface of the base;
the base still is equipped with the support column, be equipped with the loading frame on the support column, the loading frame is including transversely being fixed in girder on the support column, vertically installing the strutbeam on the girder to and be located the concatenation on the strutbeam and form, be used for loading the fire-resistant backing plate of product, be provided with the fire-resistant backing plate of multilayer on the loading frame.
6. The multi-layer ceramic foam fired energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln as claimed in claim 5, wherein the fire-resistant insulation layer comprises a bottom fire-resistant insulation layer positioned at the bottom of the kiln, and concave-convex structures are arranged on the inner sides of the two sides of the bottom fire-resistant insulation layer and matched with the concave-convex structures on the two sides of the kiln car to form a sealed kiln bottom.
7. The energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln sintered by the multilayer foamed ceramics as claimed in claim 6, wherein the total width of the assembled fire-resistant backing plate is larger than the width of the fire-resistant heat-insulating layer of the kiln car.
8. The energy-saving high-efficiency tunnel kiln formed by firing multilayer foamed ceramics according to claim 1, wherein in the same combustion module, the lowest row of burners is marked as bottom burners, the highest row of burners is marked as top burners, and a plurality of rows of burners between the bottom burners and the top burners are marked as middle burners, wherein the top burners, the middle burners and the bottom burners are staggered in the horizontal direction and the vertical direction.
9. The energy-saving and efficient tunnel kiln made of multilayer foamed ceramic as claimed in claim 8, wherein the top burners are arranged to heat the space above the products mounted on the uppermost plate, the middle burners are arranged to heat the space between the products mounted on the bottom of the middle upper plate and the products mounted on the middle lower plate, and the bottom burners are arranged to heat the space below the lowermost refractory plate.
10. The multilayer ceramic foam fired energy efficient tunnel kiln of claim 9 wherein the number of burners in the bottom tier is twice the number of burners in the top tier.
CN201921442425.2U 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 Energy-saving efficient tunnel kiln sintered by multilayer foamed ceramics Active CN211177901U (en)

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