CN205296060U - One set of new structural type's water conservancy building - Google Patents

One set of new structural type's water conservancy building Download PDF

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CN205296060U
CN205296060U CN201520599028.1U CN201520599028U CN205296060U CN 205296060 U CN205296060 U CN 205296060U CN 201520599028 U CN201520599028 U CN 201520599028U CN 205296060 U CN205296060 U CN 205296060U
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赵金龙
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赵金龙
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Abstract

The utility model discloses a new structural type's of cover hydraulic engineering building. The purpose be provide the one set of water transfer larger much, recoup capital outlay sooner much, the hydraulic engineering of benefits such as flood discharge in addition, electricity generation (transferring electric peak including the water -storage electricity generation) and transportation. The utility model discloses a river course lateral wall is the skeleton with " step " underground continuous wall group at least. The utility model discloses a " step " underground continuous wall group can also make the basic configuration of hole (or groove) the wall in other non - hydraulic engineering's the hole that the building field dug or groove. The utility model discloses an ultra -large defeated (accents) water (also can be other liquid or soup compound or gas) pipeline of resistant superhigh pressure, (or wherein) has the triangle -shaped's that is standing reinforcing frame on the pipeline roof, has wall group on the pipeline, in the middle of the wall group be not the sky and to fill out the material of ditching production. The utility model discloses an economic benefits and social should obviously be greater than current technical scheme.

Description

The water construction thing of a set of neotectonics pattern
Technical field
This utility model belongs to hydraulic engineering technical field, belongs to hydraulic engineering and the construction technique field thereof of mainly ultra-large water transfer (additionally, also having flood discharge, generating, water-retention, cultivation, shipping etc. function) specifically.
Background technology
Existing maximum-norm water diversion project is the south water to north of China, it is exactly water resource plentiful for China's Hanjiang River is transferred a part deliver to North China and the Northwest, is the Major Strategic engineering changing China's drought in the north and flooding in the south and northern area water resource critical shortage situation. Engineering purpose is the coordinated development promoting China's north and south economy, society and population, resource, environment. Project of South-to-North water diversion has eastern line, center line and three water transfer road of western line, gross investment 500,000,000,000 yuans. East Route Project is positioned at east, and because the Changjiang river physical features is low, North China is delivered in north of need to drawing water. Work centerline is from the Danjiangkou Reservoir diversion of river Han tributary maximum with it Danjiang River intersection, from water distribution manifold to Huang-Huai-Hai plain. Western lineman's journey by Upper Yangtze River to the upper reaches of the Yellow River moisturizing, owing to being located in Qinghai-Tibet Platean, height above sea level, complicated geological, earthquake intensity is big, and to build the high dam of about 200 meters and up to the tunnel of more than 100 kilometers, engineering is complicated, costly, existing still in the process of feasibility study, but without putting into operation. Project planning water transfer scale the most all the year round is: year water diversion volume 448 billion cubic meter. Wherein, east line 148 billion cubic meter, center line 130 billion cubic meter, western line 170 billion cubic meter. Three line water supply region control areas reach 1,450,000 square kilometres, account for the 15% of China's land area. Journey in the south water to north, can effectively alleviate North and Northwest China shortage of water resources really. But, even if project of South-to-North water diversion three line all supplies water, that can not meet north of China (including North China, northeast, northwest) needs at all, and cost-recovering is very slow, and these should be spoken more.
Big XiXia Characters (Guo opens " north canal, sky ") first stage of the project imagination, although water transfer scale is more much bigger than the existing south water to north, but in operability, voice object is too big.
US West have the title of arid " desert ".Owing to having built the long distance water transfers such as central river valley, California water transfer, Colorado water channel and Los Angeles water channel, the area of Dry Valley, California development irrigation area more than 2,000 ten thousand mu, make California develop into U.S. population is maximum, irrigated area is maximum, grain yield is a highest state, Los Angeles city rises to as the third-largest city of the U.S.. California (abbreviation California) water diversion project, to be the U.S. be solves in the middle part of California and southern areas drought and water shortage and urban development need one of 4 water diversion projects building, its partial target is identical with central river valley engineering, and water transfer scope is extended to the Los Angeles adding downstate. Water diversion volume is up to 52 billion cubic meters. All-work includes 23, reservoir, aggregate storage capacity 71 billion cubic meter, 5, water delivery Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches canal, overall length 1028 kilometers, pumping plant 22, total (pumping) head 2396 meters, 6, power station, total installed capacity 1,360,000 kilowatts, annual average power generation 6600000000 kilowatt hour, power consumption about 12,500,000,000 kilowatt hour of drawing water in pumping plant year. California water diversion project is called in the water yield of Southern California and is accounted for the 59% of whole engineering water supply amount, except ensureing urban industry water, also has the comprehensive benefits such as flood control, irrigation, hydroelectric generation and tourism.
North America water power alliance plan, imagine and the superfluous water of Alaska and the Northwest of Canada is transferred to Canada other area and 33 states of the U.S., Great Lakes region and all states of northern Mexico, irrigate the U.S. and 2,600,000 hectares of Mexico arable land, and to US West's urban water supply. But this plan needs more than 1,000 hundred million dollars, the duration was up to 20 years, and needed 50 years after completion can receive with investment. Have to allow people hang back. The ecological negative effect with environment is also allowed most people scratch the heart by water transfer, water transfer it is necessary to flood and migrate, large area farmland is flooded. Resident is forced resettlement, changes occupation, and resettled area district will increase land charges.
Australia, for solving the drought and water shortage in inland, has built first water diversion project Snowy Mountain Scheme during 1949-1975. This engineering is positioned at the Australia southeast, by dam and reservoir and mountain stream tunnel net, builds reservoir filling from the Dong Po on snow mountain mountain range, and what the unnecessary water yield of a part in Si Nuoyi river, slope, east was guided into Xi Po needs water area. Utilize drop (total drop 760 meters) generating supply Canberra, capital and the city such as Melbourne, Sydney on the way.
The Aswan Dam got both praise and censure. The The Nile, Egypt Aswan High Dam that the former Soviet Union helps build, builds up for 1970, height of dam 111 meters, aggregate storage capacity 1690 billion cubic meter, is one of maximum in the world dam, cost 1,000,000,000 dollars. Aswan Dam obtains notable benefit in irrigation, flood control, shipping, generating etc., but its impact on environment, but cause many-sided blame.
According to incompletely statistics, the whole world is built, there have in the large-scale Inter-Basin Water Transfer Project built or plan to build to be 160 multinomial, is mainly distributed on 24 countries. Tellurian great rivers, as the Henghe of India, the Egyptian Nile, the Amazon in South America, North America Mississippi ... all can find the trace of water diversion project.
Bring the Yellow River under control the technical scheme such as the flow-sediment regulation of downstream hanging river problem, clearing sands with converging flow (increasing river levee, narrowed channel), and effect is also obvious, but namely takes stopgap measures, it is difficult to effect a permanent cure. The maximum feature in the Yellow River is that the few sand of water is many. Flow-sediment regulation makes Lower Reaches of The Yellow River no longer stop, and goes around and make moderate progress in riverbed, and two sides water also makes moderate progress. Xiaolangdi Dam Project has begun to flow-sediment regulation after building up, and is found that dignified flow phenomenon later, has started again Vancomycin resistance and lower reservoir associating flow-sediment regulation, and effect is better than originally, but can't solve the Yellow River and continue the present situation of deterioration.It has been proposed that newly dig two the Yellow River, dredge in turn, but investment is too big. In The Lower Yellow River is essentially from middle reaches, many kinds of measures (as conceded the land to forestry and grass, building silt arrester and comprehensive treatment of small watersheds) is taked to administer the soil erosion problem in loess plateau, to reduce the silt entering the Yellow River, also to build hydraulic engineering in a large number simultaneously.
The method of harness the Huaihe River is, builds reservoir in mountain area, upstream, builds flood storage project in middle reaches, expands water channel in downstream, with " storage lets out double raising " for controlling Huaihe River policy, in the recent period to let out. North Jiangsu Main Irrigation Canal sea of faces's water channel is opened up at the Lower Reaches of Huaihe; build Wang Hezha, expand Huaihe-Changjiang Waterway, regulation Ru Haizhu river port, lane housing Plain and other river courses drained off floodwater; the flood damage of preventing and treating the Lower Reaches of Huaihe is played great function, but scale is still not. The still waterlogging that present Huaihe River problem is maximum, Huaihe River is administered through for many years, but main stem is not but dredged for many years, and downstream sediment precipitation is serious, and (Hongchehu Lake is due to Sediment Siltation, become " on the ground lake "), define the land river of similar the Yellow River. Adding the Huaihe River major part water yield has not been solely flow into sea, but through Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal to the Changjiang river, Huaihe River flood season and the Changjiang river are similar for flood season, Huai River Flood be difficult to by the Changjiang river quickly under leak into sea. The main problem that Huaihe River is present, it is simply that downstream drainage is not smooth. It is proposed and newly digs the method that canal allows Huai River Water directly leak into sea, but investment is too big.
The science and technology such as existing Diaphragm Wall are remarkably contributing to deep-cut riverbed. But safer, firmer, deeper dig riverbed, it is necessary to development new technique.
Existing erosion-resisting cement, reinforcing bar, be remarkably contributing to strengthen the durability of hydraulic engineering.
Existing improvement water pollutes technology, the technology of factory's burning coal pollutions such as existing improvement steel mill, cement plant, power plant, provides environmental conservation for distruting water transregionally and ensures.
In general, China and many rivers in the world, although administered and make use of many, but also need to efficiently administer energetically further and utilize. China and the flood problem in many areas in the world, drought and water shortage problem etc. problem, in addition it is also necessary to efficiently solve energetically further.
Summary of the invention
Task of the present utility model, be to provide some investment be little, recoup capital outlay faster, water transfer is larger, flood discharge is larger, water-retention etc. is larger, the thing such as river alongshore area soil safer, that dig out obtain some ultra-large hydraulic engineerings and the construction technique scheme thereof that high benefit utilizes.
First macrospecies technical scheme of the present utility model (is called for short A technical scheme, A scheme, divide again Aa, Ab, Ac, Ad tetra-kinds of technical schemes), it it is the technical scheme of transferring the part water yield of the downstream from river, it is characterized in that, dig in from region, 35 kilometers of existing coastline and build ultra-deep (deep more than 35 meters or even deep 50 meters or 100 meters or 200 meters ...) Grand Canal; Bank toplap width, more than 65 meters, exceedes the artificial bank top of existing Breadth Maximum; " step " or " relay-type " the diaphram wall group technology of employing digs deep river course, hardening river course sidewall gradually downward; The things such as the soil that digs out, sand make ground, marine reclamation land (then selling ground) for padded beach.
The river course sidewall in this ultra-deep Grand Canal has the gradient as well, if straight up and down, just in case there being war, it is possible to be afraid of fried; River course sidewall is slope, and all right vehicle up and down on slope, if climb and fall is hard, inconvenient, it is also possible to by means of tractive facility on the bank; The starting point section in ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area also can build natural flow station, and ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area is dug after building up, and the wet season enters ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area from the water transfer of natural river downstream, moreover it is possible to generating; After being transferred to water, then water it is extracted into the place needing water again from ultra-deep Grand Canal or is stored to reservoir; It addition, ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area also corresponds to reservoir, it is also possible to retain the water that a part is transferred to, use during in order to needing; Ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, too increases and lets out passage under natural river, it should the flood also helping natural river is faster let out down, has certain flooding action; Ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area can be higher than embankment upcountry to the embankment in sea, and the period that can prevent, some sea water was likely to disembarkation; Ultra-wide bank Ding Shangkejian building district or road, waterlogging can be substantially slight or even do not have, and can conveniently view and admire again ultra-deep Grand Canal landscape, and building should be sold well, selling price high; Moreover, digging the things such as the soil, the sand that dig out in river is padded riverbank gradually, builds subsoil drain and be also beneficial to reduce cost in this process, more much lower than holing cost, also builds subsoil drain than cut and cover method and more saves trouble.
Although digging and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area and take place, but the things such as the soil dug out, sand making ground, marine reclamation land for padded beach, the new land area quickly obtained is more much bigger, even can reach tens times;Then selling ground, the land price of coastal area is comparatively speaking higher than interiorly; The money selling ground is reinvested and digs hydraulic engineering and conveyance systems such as building ultra-deep Grand Canal. So dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, invest little (starting fund being necessary, develops at a progressive speed, recycling economy). When conditions permit, more deep-cutting, the thing such as the soil that digs out under unit are, sand is more many, more the padded greater area of beach of energy make or marine reclamation land more in large area, take in more many with selling, more can faster recoup capital outlay, more can reduce investment or even the even many profits of profit. Its principle, similarly is build a building, and Gai get Lou is more high more to economize land for building, development cost more low, and the Qian Yue that can earn is many .... Further, dig deeply, water drop is just big, and the flow velocity of water is just high, and water transfer speed is just high. Certainly, more digging deep, after water is transferred in ultra-deep Grand Canal, (or says take out) bigcatkin willow journey also greatly, also more takes electricity toward lifting up, and later stage operation cost is also high, so, also should not dig too deep, it is impossible to more than 900 meters.
Transfer the Aa technical scheme of the part water yield from lower reaches of river, be dig at Coastal beach place to build ultra-deep Grand Canal; The padded beach of thing such as the soil that digs out, sand make ground, marine reclamation land; Then ground is sold; The money selling ground is reinvested and digs hydraulic engineering and conveyance systems such as building ultra-deep Grand Canal.
The Ab scheme of the part water yield is transferred from lower reaches of river, it is build the ultra-deep Grand Canal almost parallel with existing coastline digging higher than the coastal land of beach, the things such as the soil that digs out, sand or padded beach make ground, marine reclamation land, then sell ground, the money selling ground is reinvested and digs hydraulic engineering and conveyance systems such as building ultra-deep Grand Canal. It is otherwise varied that this Ab scheme and Aa scheme mainly dig the place built, but apart from not far, other differences are little, so the relevant content of Aa scheme is just not repeated.
Transfer digging of the part water yield from lower reaches of river and build ultra-deep Grand Canal Ac scheme, be dig the thing such as silt in seabed, grooving at the edge (shallow sea) in sea, fill out sea with things such as the silts dug out and make not only wide but also high embankment, make ground. Available Large Surface Effect Ship digs the things such as shallow sea bed mud is husky, digs riverbed, fill out sea with things such as the silts dug out again makes embankment and padded beach beach makes ground and marine reclamation land. Can first build Chang Hu, sea water in lake is drained, build the hardening river course sidewall of energy anti-seawater corrosion, then connect one-tenth river course, lake; Wide dike, levee crown wants wide more than 65 meters, exceedes the widest existing artificial bank top, in case wave impacts for a long time; High external wall (border on the sea dike), in case wave enters; Rivers former enter sea relevant path can be re-routed to the new access to the sea in the high embankment of width in the lake first built, side, rivers new access to the sea dike (being also Hu Di) sets sluice gate, can regulate and control fresh water inflow ultra-deep Grand Canal; Sluice gate connects pipeline, passes to depths, lake, and pipeline hypomere can set water-power plant; Rivers can build tunnel under new access to the sea, it is simple to the fresh water in the other river new access to the sea by these rivers; The estuary of the new access to the sea of rivers to build gear tide (water) lock, regulates and controls rivers fresh water seaward waterway, it is prevented that sea water (tide) enters; Other embankments of downstream river also to be increased accordingly; ... Ac technical scheme further aspect and Aa technical scheme have many something in common, and the particular content of Aa scheme is just not repeated here.
The comparison of the three kinds of schemes building ultra-deep Grand Canal is dug in coastline and near zone thereof. (1) digging on Coastal beach and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, benefit is expropriation of land few (major part beach is but without exploitation), but early stage difficulty of construction is big, obtains and first building site is fenced up, it is prevented that tide floods;Furthermore ..., dig when building, needed for pouring reinforcement concrete, cement must be the special cement of anti-seawater corrosion, cost than ordinary cement high much. But, the things such as the underground deep layer of coastal area more than beach is native, husky, it is also possible to have certain saline alkali, because land, coastal area is exactly often beach " evolution ", present beach, yet advancing to sea. So, it is simply that digging in the above coastal area of beach and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, in order to ensure project durability, required minimum major part cement also should be resistant to the saline and alkaline cement for construction in sea waiting burn into energy anti-seawater corrosion. Building ultra-deep Grand Canal further, dig in the above coastal area of beach, the problem such as railway, mistake highway is also more excessively, also can increase cost. Furthermore, even if many bridge constructions beam, following many built tunnels on ultra-deep Grand Canal, but to people's sensation or not as original level land has a good transport service. From the viewpoint of these, dig at Coastal beach place and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, it is possible to build ultra-deep Grand Canal to save cost than digging in the above coastal area of beach. (2) ultra-deep Grand Canal is built digging higher than the coastal area of beach, benefit is to construct relatively to be easier to, but expropriation of land cost is high, ... sand of (3) dredging at the edge (shallow sea) in sea digs riverbed, blow silt and fill out sea makes the advantage of the technical scheme that ultra-deep Grand Canal built by wide high embankment and is, need not take over the land for use, ... but the new soil building ground alkalization process that desalts, be slower than dig in the land of coastal area build ultra-deep Grand Canal and ground that padded beach is made with fill out the ground that sea is made; And, the probability that the fresh water in this ultra-deep canal is invaded by sea water, the ultra-deep Grand Canal built is dug also greater than the land of coastal area; ... seashore land is mountain region or seabeach is rock matter seabeach, is more suitable for adopting this to dig the things such as the mud in seabed, sand at the edge (shallow sea) in sea, digs riverbed, fills out sea with things such as silts and fill into the way construction ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area of embankment.
Ad scheme of the present utility model is hybrid plan, as the case may be, which section concrete in whole piece ultra-deep Grand Canal or which part, it is suitable for digging and build coastal land in and just dig and build coastal land in, it is suitable for digging and build on Coastal beach and just dig build on Coastal beach, be suitable for the edge built in sea and just build the edge in sea.
Dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, need the goods and materials such as a large amount of reinforcing bar, cement, the ultra-large water transfer that hoists needs super huge electric power, steel plant's many burnings coal, cement plant many burnings coal, thermal power plant many burnings coal, what if is air pollution problems inherent? what if also has water pollution problems? it is reported, administer now and burn coal pollution, solve not individual difficult matter youngster at last technically, it is important to need to pay cost. If super huge reinforcing bar sales volume can make steel plant also have many profits after conscientiously implementing environmental practice, super huge cement sales volume can make cement plant also have many profits after conscientiously implementing environmental practice, super huge electric power sales volume can make large-size thermal power plant also have many profits after conscientiously implementing environmental practice, ... administer burning coal and also pollute so difficulty? dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, it is also necessary to water pollution problems must be administered. Dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, economic benefit not only super large but also fast, then administer water and pollute and just have enough funds.
Dig how the benefit that the things such as soil, the sand of building ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area and produce make ground for padded beach is calculated? conservatively calculate, take the macrotidal range 5 meters of coastal area of china, dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, stay in 1 square meter area and dig the things such as native produced by 5 meters, husky, just can make 1 square metre of ground by average padded beach, namely beach on average padded 5 meters (place that physical features is low, can pad the thing such as soil, sand more;High land can pad the thing such as soil, sand less). 1 square area digs the thing such as native, husky produced by deep 200 meters, so that it may padded beach makes 40 square metres of ground. Dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area and lighten water, not only tentatively water transfer to the area of hydropenia, can be alternatively simultaneously and beach high for saline and alkaline is transformed into the arable land ample supply fresh water that saline and alkaline is low.
Dig how the things such as soil, the sand of building ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area and produce are calculated for the benefit of marine reclamation land? the thing marine reclamation land 1 square metre such as energy average 10 (even less) cubic meter that cost is low is native, husky. By the calculation of higher cost, average 20 cubic metres of thing energy marine reclamation lands such as sand, soil one square metre, down digging the thing such as native produced by 200 meters, husky in 1 square area just can marine reclamation land 10 square metres.
Padded beach make ground, marine reclamation land newly make ground benefit, integrate consideration, deep-cut 200 meters in average 1 square meter area and can make newly about 20 square metres, the output ratio of about 20 times.
Generally speaking, dig in coastline and near zone thereof and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, should be that profit is much larger than fraud, positive role is much larger than negative influence: both ultra-large be transferred to water, be conducive to preventing and reducing natural disasters, invest again the little (starting fund being necessary, develop at a progressive speed, recycling economy), recoup capital outlay fast, there may also be killing, perhaps can also be build other large hydraulic engineering to prepare fund, and greatly facilitate and pull building trade, steel industry, cement industry, coal industry, transportation, machine industry, real estate industry, power industry, the economic growth of agricultural etc. industry, thus pulling regional economic growth effectively. the countries concerned transfer to many energy on the ultra-large hydraulic engineering construction of interior of country, also help promotion international peace.
Namely A technical scheme of the present utility model is dug and is built ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area technical scheme and be widely used, can be applicable to China and (include the island of Taiwan, Hainan Island) coastal area, coastal area, the Korea peninsula, Russia coastal area, Japan coastal area, Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, the states such as Indonesia) coastal area, Indian coast area, Pakistan coastal area, Iran coastal area, coastal area, the Arabia Peninsula, coastal area, Africa, Coast of Europe area, North American Atlantic coast area, South America coastal area, Australia coastal area etc. coastal area, the ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area in even several continents can be connected and build up ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, the world. dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, it is appreciated that the prosperity in China and world many countries and area and peace.
Bank toplap width technical scheme in first macrospecies technical scheme of the present utility model, it may also be used for dig at low cost and build new the Yellow River downstream channel, basic solution Lower Reaches of The Yellow River hanging river problem; Can be additionally used in dig at low cost and build new the Lower Reaches of Huaihe river course (include fill out in Zhong Wa lake, Hongchehu Lake lake make embankment make river course), the basic problem solving the Lower Reaches of Huaihe impeded drainage; Can be additionally used in and dig the new big center line canal building Three Gorges Reservoir to the North China Plain or even Northeast plain at low cost, the part water yield in Three Gorges Reservoir flood season is transferred to the North China Plain or even Northeast plain; ...
This utility model the second macrospecies technical scheme (is called for short B scheme, divide again Ba, Bb two schemes), it it is overpressure resistant ultra-large type defeated (tune) water underground piping, it is characterized in that, pipe interior shape of cross section is the shape being similar to tile-roofed house cross section, namely main body is rectangle and top is triangle, but pipe interior does not have tripod to support pipeline top;And the shelf that duct top wall forms with the triangular form erected thereon (can be prefabricated) is firmly connected (or the shelf of the triangle the erected composition that in concreting, duct top wall is outside upper), the effect playing reinforcing pipes upper wall, preventing pipeline upper wall from being damaged by pressure by internal pressure. And pipe side wall and pipeline base plate are all in underground, the resistance power that pipeline is intrinsic pressure is relatively strong, can additionally reinforce especially. The things such as the produced soil of grooving are filled out between the wall group on pipeline, both can hydraulic pressure suffered by partial offset pipeline top, canal pipeline can be prevented again to be frozen. Certainly, upper wall passage also must be built. This pipeline of the present utility model, can be used for conveying high-pressure liquid or slurry at least, inside adds the tube layer such as steel pipe layer or plastic pipe layer, it is also possible to conveying gas; Specification can build super large, and sturdy and durable, cost is low, it is easy to builds, can be mainly reinforced concrete structure. And can overpressure resistant GRP pipe, bore can not do big, and bore is more big more weak to the pressure in pipeline. Stainless steel pipes, it is possible to do the energy overpressure resistant that bore is big, but cost is high.
Ba scheme is newly to dig to build pipeline canal scheme.
Bb scheme is the scheme that one side of something is pipeline canal in the river that transformation is dried up, and another half of river course also must deep-cut, reinforce. It is pipeline canal that the south one side of something in dry river can be transformed in area, the Northern Hemisphere, and the north that dry river can be transformed in southern-hemisphere regions is half of for pipeline canal. Because transformation arroyo one one side of something digs the things such as soil, sand of building pipeline canal and produce, to pile between high wall group on the pipeline of canal, the sunlight of wall crops outward should not be sheltered from. Certainly, upper wall passage also must be built.
B scheme can be not only used for the water in lower area to carry toward eminence area, it is also possible in the water in eminence area is carried toward lower area. Bb scheme does not also delay river and crosses water (including the flood that contingency has again), infiltration (recharge of groundwater), water (can do cultivation) by the half of open channel deepening to reinforce.
The third-largest kind of technical scheme of the present utility model (is called for short C scheme), is the scheme from the Reservoir Regulation the river, mountain valley of height above sea level, in Shang Wajian river course, hillside; Armored concrete hardening river course, fill wall, river course sidewall can be step, low wide and up narrow; Firm lid can be added above river course; Cross cliff, wall built-up tunnel (such as wall built-up highway) can be built. Feature of the present utility model is, dig river course and between wall group that the things such as the stone that produces are filled out on river course lid, can build terraced fields with, can be used as to build road (above also can the firmer lid of build-up layers); Being likely to the place that there is mud-rock flow, river course is more necessary add firm lid.
C scheme of the present utility model can be used for saving and adjusting the part water yield in the rivers such as Nujiang, the Lancang River, Jinsha jiang River. Feasibility is big, scale is big. Carefully see " Earthquake In China band " scattergram, High aititude river valley, Nujiang should not on earthquake zone, at least not on pleistoseismic zone. High aititude river valley, Nujiang is big in the probability of earthquake zone not as High aititude river valley, the Lancang River. Dam water-retention should be built in High aititude river valley, Nujiang; For the purpose of for greater safety, high dam can not be built, and sectional staged builds some alto dams (containing power station) more, or step type builds the dam (containing power station) of elementary height more. The height above sea level in river valley, the Lancang River, in Hengduan Mountain Region of Yunnan, many places are higher than river valley, Nujiang, can pass through to beat the modes such as tunnel, part Lancang River water is called in river valley, Nujiang. Water in river valley, Nujiang reservoir can pass through river course, hillside from the place of the drought and water shortages such as water distribution manifold Yunnan, Guizhou.As adopted this hydrotechnics scheme, Yunnan water conservancy is just likely to obtain great development, is just likely to be very beneficial for the shaking off poverty of many residents in Nujiang River Basin, billows deep blue basin. Valley of Jinsha River hillside is dug and builds this canal, be also likely to be conducive to part Spora Lygodii river gravity flow water supply Yunnan Province, the height above sea level of the Yangtze river basin, Sichuan Province substantially exceeds drought and water shortage many local in the Changjiang river.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing is the cross sectional representation of a part of river course sidewall. In figure, 1 is diaphram wall, and 2 is horizontal floor, and 3 is riverway slope sidewall.
Detailed description of the invention
Hydraulic engineering, should determine relevant standard on data according to various places practical situation. So, example here, namely generally have a talk about, for reference.
The technical scheme building ultra-deep Grand Canal is dug in coastline and near zone thereof by example 1, China (especially the Changjiang river is toward north).
The technical scheme (part therein illustrates) built is being dug in ultra-deep Grand Canal, North of Yangtze River coastal area in conjunction with accompanying drawing higher than the coastal land place of beach. because the construction of this technical scheme is relatively easy, so just illustrating for this technical scheme. this each section, ultra-deep Grand Canal, with existing coastline average distance at least within 10 kilometers, is beneficial to the thing padded beach nearby such as the soil, the sand that dig out and makes ground, marine reclamation land, to reduce cost of transportation, deep-cutting, the riverbed degree of depth reaches b.s.l. 200 meters, " step " diaphram wall prescription formula is adopted to dig downwards deeply, first building armored concrete 200 meters of the bank base of hardening being above the ground level wide, make important operation platform, the water being also prevented from not needing enters job site, then most high-order river course sidewall diaphram wall 1 (the outer subsoil water of river course sidewall can be blocked again and enter river course, it is simple to construction) is built, hardening bank base and most high-order diaphram wall 1 firmly being connected, it is prevented that diaphram wall 1 slump, this and Diaphragm Wall Support Structure play phase same-action, then can dig a well the water (the underground depth of water just need not be dug a well and be drawn water) taken away in the water-bearing layer that diaphram wall 1 fences up, digging downwards river course further along diaphram wall 1, but can not dig the bottom (or bottom) of diaphram wall 1, the bottom (or bottom) of diaphram wall 1 is also embedded in ground, just as root, it is possible to help diaphram wall 1 to establish, then level builds one section of reinforced concrete floor 2 in the middle of river course, the ratio on diaphram wall 1 and horizontal floor 2 to preset according to the gradient (as, riverway slope sidewall 3 angle of gradient in this ultra-deep Grand Canal is 30 degree, riverway slope sidewall 3 height overall 200 meters, slope body transverse direction overall length 400 meters, the relevant numerical value in each step vertical horizontal face can be calculated in proportion again), certainly, more obtain first this horizontal reinforcement concrete floor 2 and diaphram wall 1 firmly to be connected and (can first reinforcing bar firmly be connected, casting concrete again), so, diaphram wall 1 and horizontal floor 2 just constitute river course step, then outside limit, horizontal floor 2, the second high-order diaphram wall 1 is built downwards, and horizontal floor 2 top with in river course is firmly connected, subsoil water (words if necessary) is taken out in well-digging, river course is dug downwards further along second-order diaphram wall 1, dig one section, spread prefabricated armoured concrete slab along the step gradient and make riverway slope sidewall 3, sloped sidewall plate 3 and step are firmly connected along (convex right angle), this just constitutes triangle rock-steady structure, then river course is down dug further along second-order diaphram wall 1, do not dig (or bottom) bottom second-order diaphram wall 1,And start to build horizontal floor 2, after building up the horizontal floor 2 of second-order, build the 3rd rank diaphram wall 1 still further below, subsoil water (words if necessary) is taken out in well-digging, down dig and cut river course, build the second-order sloped sidewall 3 in river course again, be then followed by digging downwards river course along the 3rd rank diaphram wall 1 ...; According to so doing, build up each layer step and sloped sidewall, finally build up the armored concrete riverbed being firmly connected with river course sidewall, it is prevented that subsoil water enters river course; So dig and build river course, it is possible to dig to obtain ultra-deep; Dig and build up river course, then increase riverbank, but bank side reinforced concrete wall, certainly also firmly it is connected with river levee (river course sidewall); Bank top width more than 65 meters (exceedes the widest existing bank top width degree), and bank top is minimum partially hardened also, can make Urban Construction Land_use, can develop super Grand Canal, coastal area urban belt, can be used for building road ...; The reservoir that pipeline can be passed through relatively high with height above sea level in ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area connects, and can build hydroenergy storage station.
River course sidewall adopts step to combine with Domatic to be likely to better, and step is constructed well, and Domatic can convenient upper and lower vehicle on river course sidewall. It addition, the embodiment example given by this utility model is likely to excessively safety criterion height, it is possible to need not; Perhaps, river course sidewall can set in the establishment of " step " diaphram wall, more heavy grade construction can be adopted by " relay-type " diaphram wall group, when identical river width, river course flow surface is just bigger, dig out make the things such as ground, the soil of marine reclamation land and sand for padded beach just more, dig build ultra-deep Grand Canal cost will lower, income will be bigger; The difference of " relay-type " diaphram wall group and " step " diaphram wall group is that the distance between lower upper twice diaphram wall in " relay-type " diaphram wall group is less than the distance between the lower upper twice diaphram wall in " step " diaphram wall group. When Diaphragm Wall and other technology reach, the sidewall of side, river course can also be made up of one diaphram wall, just need not adopt " relay-type " diaphram wall group technology; Certainly, adopting " step " diaphram wall group technology, also license reduces number of steps, and river course sidewall can more directly build up ramp type.
It is reported, promote one ton of sand or soil to ground from below ground 200 meters, carry freight charges about 4 yuan. Being exactly marine reclamation land, transportation range is also within 10 kilometers, and every kilometer of cost of transportation is as by 1 yuan of calculation per ton, always carried fortune cost not very height.
Coastal area, the North China Plain major part of North of Yangtze River is especially suitable for dig builds ultra-deep Grand Canal. The North China Plain is typical alluvial plain, is caused by a large amount of sedimentations being with by the Yellow River, Haihe River, Huaihe River, the Luanhe River etc., and most local deposit thickness reach seven or eight hundred meters. Plain physical features is smooth, and lake, river is numerous, and traffic convenience is economically developed, is Chinese political, economy, cultural center from ancient times, and Plain population and cultivated area account for China 1/5. Namely the Chinese Capital Beijing is positioned at llanura the north.
The underwater gradient in the shallow sea of North of Yangtze River generally relatively relaxes, much smaller than the gradient of the river levee in ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area. So, dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, it should river course will not be caused to the relatively long narrow new epeirogenetic of part in sea ground situation about separating with continent.
Dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, obtain consideration seismic factors.As coast of eastern Taiwan and near, just build ultra-deep Grand Canal not as West Coast is more suitable for digging. That the island of Taiwan can West Coast, northern coast, northeast coast (precipitation is very abundant) and southwest seashore and near suitable place dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal. Such as, Tangshan City falls within coastal area, Tangshan Earthquake mistake, but the such as Tanghai County, more coastal area that Tangshan City has under its command is damaged degree with regard to not very weight, and the ultra-deep Grand Canal building high firm standard can be dug in Tanghai County, also can effectively drive the economic liftoff of prince wife Cao pasture.
Below specifically illustrated and dug the feasibility building ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, now further counted carefully and dig the economic benefit account building ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area.
For good calculation, if on average digging and building that long 1 myriametre (10 kilometers), 2 kms are wide, 200 meters deep, the ultra-deep Grand Canal at 30 degree of levee slope angle, can newly make land efficiency with 20 times of calculating is exactly, about 10 kilometers of * (the levee slope width 0.4 km * 2/2 of deep 200 meters of riverbed width 1.2 km of the degree of depth 200 meters+amount to into) * 20=320 square kilometre (480,000 mu; 1 square kilometre is closed 1500 mu). Coastal area, average 50,000 yuan can be sold by one mu of agricultural land, conservatively calculate, construction land (is let it pass less by average 500,000 yuan one mu of county land price, one mu of the millions of unit of the ground construction lands such as Shanghai), 300,000 mu of construction lands can sell 300,000 * 500,000+18 ten thousand * 50,000=159,000,000,000 yuan plus 180,000 mu of agricultural lands. The ultra-deep Grand Canal building 1 this standard of km length is on average dug in coastal area, so that it may gross income 15,900,000,000 yuan.
Cost? riverbed width 1200 meters; River course sidewall width (step+domatic, the root sum square+200*2+400 of the one-storey house of squares+the 400 of 200) * 2=2500 rice; The width in bridge and tunnel is counted too short with river course appearance ratio, even if the area in river course 10% (calculating height) is bridge and tunnel, close 10 kms and just have a bridge 500 meters wide and amount to into a pipe circumference 500 meters tunnel of (overall diameter about 160 meters), length 2000*2 (even access bridge etc. are counted in) * 2*10%=800 rice (letting it pass) more; Both sides, river embankment width 200*2=400 rice; On average (it is likely to calculate height by 1 meter of thickness, perhaps 0.5 meter of thickness) armored concrete calculates, every cubic metre of corrosion resistant steel reinforced concrete (includes labour cost) 1500 yuan (being likely to calculate height) at cost, digs and builds 1 myriametre long ultra-deep Grand Canal totle drilling cost (1200+2500+2000*2*2*10%+200*2) * 1 ten thousand * 15,00=,735 hundred million. Dig and build 1 kilometer of (1000 meters) long ultra-deep Grand Canal, cost 73.5 hundred million.
Is profit margin how many? (159-73.5=85.5 hundred million yuan), simply, generally, conservatively say, investing 73.5 yuan, the not very long time can earn back 85.5 yuan. Profit margin about 116%.
Algorithm above is to calculate expenditure more, calculates income less, and ratio algorithm more conservative, calm, is not the impetuous algorithm assumed as a matter of course, also for considering to be likely to there is other miscellaneous expenditure.
Shanghai, as Chinese first big city, is dug and is built ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area, and normally, profit margin is at Largest In China. The big city that Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Tianjin etc. are flourishing, digs in coastline and near zone thereof and builds ultra-deep Grand Canal, and profit margin should be poor with Shanghai not a lot of yet.
China builds ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area as dug, and First Year adjusts 300,000,000,000 tons of fresh water to Beijing from THE LOWER YANGTZE VALLEY, finally does accounts, it is possible to can not spend by smacker, also likely makes a lot of money. And Middle Line Project For Transferring Water From South To North First Year is transferred to Pekinese's water from Danjiangkou Reservoir, conjunction per ton spends 20 yuan.
Conservatively say, if Chinese 20 years dig in coastline and near zone thereof builds the ultra-deep Grand Canal of this standard in 2000 kilometers of long previous example, total income 85.5*2000=171000 (17.1 trillion yuan). This just has the money that can be used for building power plant, 450,000,000,000 tons of lifts of annual water transfer 1400 meters, need trillion degree of electricity of electricity 450,000,000,000 * 7=3.15, build year generating some big power stations (including thermal power plant, hydroelectric power plant etc. power plant) of totally 3.15 trillion degree, about 3.15 trillion yuan need to be invested. There is the money building aqueduct, it is possible to about need 2 trillion yuan. There is the money of pollution administration. There is the money building other many large hydraulic engineerings. ...
Can the Marine shoal of China and shallow sea, nearly land have how much can be used for making ground? enough build the thing such as native, husky produced by ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area and fully utilize digging and make newly? enough. Dig and build ultra-deep Grand Canal and can make newly 2000 kilometers * 1.6 kilometers (2000 meters wide, 30 degree angle sloped sidewall, amount to into the width of deep 200 meters) * 20 (times benefits)=6.4 ten thousand square kilometres. According to relevant information introduction, the Chinese Sea beach gross area 217.04 ten thousand hectares (closes more than 20,000 square kilometres, close more than 3,000 ten thousand mu). Padded beach makes ground, also produces artificial new beach incidentally, does not worry not having beach to produce serious ecological consequences. According to relevant information introduction, the subtidal zone neritic area area in the coastal area of china depth of water 15 meters be 12,400,000 hectares (close 12.4 ten thousand square kilometres, and 200,000,000 mu), be mostly in be developed and initial utilize the stage; Subtidal zone neritic area area in the coastal area of china depth of water 10 meters is 6.265 ten thousand square kilometres, closes 100,000,000 meters of mus. If neritic area is filled out really not, just fill out again deeper marine site; Or, (in order to reduce the cost, river course sidewall slopes can be increased), 1.5 kilometers wide or 1 kilometer wide or 800 meters wide ... are dug narrowly in part ultra-deep Grand Canal; Or dig more shallow; ...
Chinese passing through builds ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area etc. ultra-large type hydraulic engineering, conservatively says, about more than 6,000 hundred million tons of fresh water altogether can be adjusted to the water-deficient area (being mainly the ground such as North China, northeast, southwest, northwest) of China from abundance of water district. In the Changjiang river annual runoff 9616 billion cubic meter water yield 300,000,000,000 tons can be transferred to north water deficit area, the Changjiang river is adjusted in the part water yield in the river such as the Zhujiang River (annual runoff is billion cubic meter more than 3300), the Min River (Average Annual Runoff is 620 billion cubic meters), the Qiantang River (mean annual discharge 442.5 billion cubic meter) totally 1,500 hundred million tons of north, and the Changjiang river recalls 150,000,000,000 tons of fresh water again to north water deficit area. Also can from river, the northeast water transfer 100,000,000,000 tons such as Heilungkiang (basin annual runoff 3465 billion cubic meter), Song Hua River by other technical scheme, the river part water yield such as the Yarlung Zangbo River (big corner annual runoff is likely to about 600 billion cubic meter), Nujiang (annual flow total amount about 700 billion cubic meter), the Lancang River (Average Annual Runoff 740 billion cubic meter) may bring up, and perhaps may bring up 80,000,000,000 tons and delivers to water-deficient area (also ensuring that half or even more some more water yield stream are abroad).
In these more than 6,000 hundred million tons of water, the existing residential areas of the mankind such as North China, northeast, southwest, northwests can be supplied by 150,000,000,000 tons of water, can be used for administering and developing desert by 450,000,000,000 tons of water, including desert earth's surface for ploughing and exploration exploitation desert underground mineral resources. China perhaps can come hundred million mu by newly-increased farmland ten. Mineral products can be increased newly without few. It is very beneficial for that China's economic is more high-quality, more rapid, the development of longer-term.
To administer with method water transfer of the present utility model and exploitation desert, how is direct economic benefit?Can make money? this obtains calculation. Promote 1 ton of fresh water from height above sea level in ultra-deep river course, coastal area average-100 meters to 1300 meters of height of height above sea level, about need 7 degree of electricity, the electricity charge calculate by often degree electricity 0.5 yuan (late into the night draws water, the electricity charge as cheaply can to 0.3 yuan), and it is 3.5 yuan or 2.1 yuan that fresh water per ton is transferred to water-deficient area, northwest cost. If the cost of industry, acceptable 10 yuan to 20 yuan of the water per ton of the quantity-unlimiting water of service trade, then agricultural water cost perhaps can be down to 1 to 0.5 yuan. Adopt water-saving irrigation technique, by every mu of annual two seasons, 400 tons of rice calculating of crops water, plant the crops of drought-enduring variety, other kind of Oryza sativa L., Oryza sativa L. water consumption is big, 1 year use water cost of 0.07 hectare 200 to 400 yuan, adds the investments such as chemical fertilizer, cost per mu 600-800 unit, mu annual income reaches 1200 yuan, just earning 400-600 unit, the large-scale farm management of mechanization for every mu, 10,000 mu of ground just can earn 4,000,000-600 ten thousand yuan in 1 year. Adding government agricultural subsidy, greening subsidy, income can be more some more. Certainly, calculate ground here and be likely to not with caution, but, how much every mu earned a little money is very possible, makes a lot of money, it is possible to by scale and benefit.
From more grand angle, Chinese practice can be adjusted from abundance of water district of this country the fresh water water-deficient area to this country of unnecessary more than 1,000,000,000,000 tons, can newly make water and water to plough and 20 come hundred million mu. Method is, the husky grooving of dredging of the estuary of great rivers, the technology filling out sea of blowing sand can be built up gear tide (water) embankment, if lock, greatly reduce great rivers fresh water and enter sea; Increase great rivers downstream embankment simultaneously; Meanwhile, then dig more and build (or two) ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area etc. ultra-large type hydraulic engineering; Meanwhile, padded beach makes ground, marine reclamation land, sells ground; Build big power station more; ... where is construction fund come? need not worry, dig and build that the padded beach in ultra-deep Grand Canal, coastal area makes ground, the money earned of marine reclamation land is sufficient for, before calculated. But, China is lightened 1,000,000,000,000 tons of water, relates to face too big too many, does not just make a concrete analysis of here, first tries one's best careful.

Claims (5)

1. the water construction thing of a set of neotectonics pattern, is characterized in that, its sidewall at least for " skeleton ", progressively builds hardening sidewall with " step " diaphram wall group or " relay-type " diaphram wall group.
2. the water construction thing of a set of neotectonics pattern according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the diaphram wall group of the water construction thing of this pattern builds dell for the digging of building field of non-water conservancy.
3. it is applied to an aqueduct for water construction thing described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, on aqueduct roof or wherein have the reinforcing shelf of the triangle erected firmly to be connected with aqueduct.
4. aqueduct according to claim 3, is characterized in that, this aqueduct interior cross-sectional shape is the shape similar in appearance to tile-roofed house cross section, and namely main body is rectangle, top is triangle, but does not have tripod to support pipeline top inside aqueduct.
5. the aqueduct according to claim 3 or 4, is characterized in that, adds steel pipe layer or plastic pipe layer in this aqueduct, is used for carrying other liquid or slurry or gas.
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