Motor is widely used in all trades and professions, and transport facility generally adopts with the piston internal-combustion engine of fuel oil as power source such as in automobile, the steamer etc. in modern times.This employing fuel oil is insufficient because of oil inflame on the one hand as the motor of power source; Contain a large amount of harmful matters and befouling environment in the feasible gas of discharging; Because of the fuel oil that uses is from oil, to refine to obtain, the in short supply day by day of petroleum resources makes the development of fuel engine and utilization receive increasing restriction on the other hand.Therefore develop new, clean, free of contamination alternative energy source, perhaps reduce fuel consume as much as possible, reduce discharging and become urgent problem in the motor development.For this reason, various countries have experienced the road of complicated and hard exploration, have researched and developed multiple power source, such as substitute fuel, motorized motions, fuel cell and solar cell etc.
The substitute fuel automobile; Like rock gas (CNG, LNG) automobile, alcohols automobile, dimethyl ether automobile etc. exhaust emission and thermal effect are arranged still; Some fuel is also toxic, some fuel combustion control difficulty, thereby still have many difficulties and challenge in actual use.
Non-pollution discharge in the electric automobile during traveling, noise is low, energy conversion efficiency is high; But battery-driven electric vehicle is limited by on-vehicle battery; In the degree that is difficult to for the moment aspect specific power, cycle life, charge-discharge performance, cost and the Security reach practical; Simultaneously, there is serious secondary pollution in battery itself.Hybrid-power electric vehicle has the advantage of cell electric vehicle and internal-combustion engines vehicle, but still has discharging and pollution problem, and because the existence of two cover power plant, it drives and control system becomes unusual complicated, thereby has hindered practical application and development.
Fuel cell is placed high hopes by people, can realize the zero-emission of power output, and energy conversion rate is high, but the manufacture cost of fuel cell is high, and the safe storage of hydrogen, preparation and can all have many problems, and this has just restricted the development and the use of this power source greatly.Solar cell still need reduce the battery volume and improve photoelectric transformation efficiency, thereby specifically is applied on the transport facility and still need makes a breakthrough.
In sum, all there is deficiency in the hybrid power source that above-mentioned various new power source or their constitute, thereby, pressing for a kind of not have pollution, nexhaustible novel energy, this requirement has just in time been satisfied in the compressed-air power source.
Study the Designer Guy Negre for French MDI company of compressed-air power engine the earliest; It has proposed the notion of compressed air engine; Attempt to solve the problem of utilizing of " zero-emission " and the energy capable of circulation; From then on opened the new page of engine research, and released the pure aerodynamic economical family expenses bridge car of first item in 2002.The pressurized air compressor uses high pressure air as power source, and air when compressed air engine is worked, can convert the pressurized air stored pressure into other forms of mechanical energy as medium.About the visible FR2731472A1 of the research of compressed air engine, US6311486B1, US20070101712A1 etc.
FR2731472A1 discloses a kind of motor that can under supply of fuel and two kinds of patterns of pressurized air supply, work; On expressway, adopt conventional fuel such as gasoline or diesel oil; In low speed particularly urban district and suburbs, pressurized air (or other any on-contaminated pressurized gass) is injected the firing chamber.Though this motor has partly reduced fuel consumption, owing to still adopted fuel oil mode of operation, emission problem still to fail to solve.
For further pollution abatement; US6311486B1 discloses a kind of pure air-powered motor; Such motor has adopted three independently chambers: air-breathing-pressing chamber, expansion exhaust chamber and constant volume firing chamber; And air-breathing-pressing chamber is connected to the constant volume firing chamber through valve, and the constant volume firing chamber is connected to the expansion exhaust chamber through valve.One of problem of this motor is that time of experiencing from air-breathing-pressing chamber to the expansion exhaust chamber of pressurized gas is longer; The power source gas time that obtains the driven plunger acting is longer; Simultaneously; Fail to obtain to use from the pressurized gas that the expansion exhaust chamber is discharged, this has just limited this type efficiency of engine and single aeration continuous working period.
More domestic researchers and unit are also studied compressed air engine; But most concentrating on the feasibility and working principle of compressed-air power engine; Such as (" feasibility studies of compressed-air power automobile " such as Xu Hong; " Chinese mechanical engineering " the 13rd volume the 17th phase 1512-1515 page or leaf, in September, 2002).Though more domestic patent documentations are also studied compressed air engine such as CN1851260A, CN100560946C, CN101705841A; But belong to theoretical research and conceptual design more; All fail to solve compressed-air actuated discharging and (have higher pressure usually; Such as about 30bar) and the control and the allocation problem of high pressure air, the contract commercialization process of air engine of tripping is had got long long way to go.
The application's claimant discloses a kind of air power engine assembly that can be used for transport facility in its patent documentation CN101413403 A (its international application of the same clan is WO2010051668 A1), this motor comprises gas holder, air distributor, engine body, clutch, clutch, automatic transmission, differential mechanism and places the turbo dynamo in the exhaust chamber.This motor utilizes compressed air to do work and does not use any fuel, does not therefore have toxic emission, realized " zero-emission ", and recycling waste gas generates electricity, and has saved the energy, has reduced cost.But this motor is based on traditional four stroke engine, every rotation 720 degree of bent axle, and piston does work once.And can promote the piston acting can be in getting into cylinder the time as the high-pressure air of power source, and discharging then, promptly the stroke of compressed air engine is actual is air inlet-expansion stroke and discharge stroke.Obviously, the disclosed this four-stroke compressed air engine of patent documentation CN101413403 A has been wasted effective expansion stroke greatly, has limited the efficient of motor.And the tail gas of this motor is failed recycle well, needs enough big gas holder to lay in high-pressure air and could work the sufficiently long time, and this has just reduced the application prospect of compressed air engine in industry.
Based on the problems referred to above, the utility model provides a kind of control for air distribution system that is used for air-powered motor, is intended to solve the pressurized air that is used for air-powered motor and regulates and allocation problem.
Below illustrative in nature on only be exemplary and be not in order to limit the disclosure, application or purposes.Should be understood that in whole accompanying drawings, corresponding reference character is represented identical or corresponding components and characteristic.
Before the embodiment of describing the utility model in detail, the energy with regard to compressed air engine carries out theory analysis earlier.
The acting process of compressed air engine is fairly simple, the process of having only pressurized air to expand and do work.Shown in Figure 12 A, Fig. 1-5 is a pressurized air isothermal expansion process, and 1-6 is a pressurized air adiabatic expansion process.It can not be isothermal process completely that pressurized air does work in motor; Usually between isothermal process and adiabatic process; Can adopt multistage adiabatic process to be similar to isothermal process in order to improve compressed-air actuated capacity usage ratio, perhaps adopt appearance endothermic process such as multistage to be similar to isothermal process.Compressed-air actuated double expansion acting process 1-2-3-4 has been shown among Figure 12 A, and 1-2 and 3-4 accomplish in first cylinder and second cylinder.Working medium through the acting of the adiabatic expansion of the first order after, carry out isobaric heat absorption 2-3 through a heat exchanger again, get back to initial temperature after, get into the acting of expanding of second cylinder again.Theoretically, can regard the acting process of motor as the isothermal expansion process approx, so curve 1-5 and coordinate figure V
2Between the energy of the cartographic represenation of area pressurized air storage that comprised discharge the gas expansion work that can change.And in Figure 12 B, curve 1,2 is represented compressed-air actuated isothermal, adiabatic expansion process respectively among the figure, and actual puffing process is between curve 1, between 2.A is a starting point among the figure, and the pressure classification point when B, C, D, E are the control of corresponding transfer pressure has endothermic process such as the appearance of grade, like BC and DE etc. at these some places.Theoretically, curve 1 and coordinate figure V
2Between the energy of the cartographic represenation of area pressurized air storage that comprised discharge the gas expansion work that can change.
The inflation pressure of supposing high pressure gas holder is p
1, the gas storage volume is V
1Perfect gas in complete isothermal expansion to normal pressure p
2Whole expansion works that Shi Suoneng does are:
In the formula, (p
1) and (p
2) being initial, end of a period state accordingly, the end of a period state after the adiabatic expansion is (p
2, V '
The parameter of choosing French MDI company motor is initial gas storage pressure p
1=30MPa, gas storage volume V
1=300L, the pressure p under the end of a period room temperature state
2=0.1MPa can be calculated whole expansion work W=51.334MJ of the complete isothermal expansion between initial, end of a period state by formula (1), formula (2).
The operating temperature of supposing compressed-air power engine is 300K, and the compressed-air actuated quality that can obtain under 300L, the 300MPa air pressure is 104.553 kilograms, and the quality of supposing gas holder is a double centner, and then corresponding specific energy is about 75Wh/kg.The on-vehicle battery of comparing, for example lead-acid battery and nicad battery, it is high that compressed-air actuated specific energy is wanted, and equal Ni-MH battery substantially, has development prospect preferably.Along with the development of the big capacity of high pressure tank, big pressure and lightweight, compressed-air actuated specific energy also has raising significantly, even can be near sodium-sulphur battery and lithium polymer battery.
Pressurized air has two kinds of acting forms in motor, promptly isothermal expansion process and adiabatic expansion process are explained both characteristics below with concrete calculation of parameter.
Choose original state 1 (30MPa, 300K), end of a period state 2 (0.1MPa, 300K), the expansion work of asking unit mass pressurized air to do in isothermal process and adiabatic process respectively.The merit that isothermal expansion process unit mass gas is done is W=491kJ/kg, and adiabatic expansion process unit mass pressurized air institute work is W '=242.3kJ/kg.Can be known that by theoretical calculation the expansion work of isothermal process almost is 2 times of adiabatic expansion process, so the capacity usage ratio of isothermal expansion is higher than adiabatic expansion, it is desirable adopting the isothermal expansion acting in theory.But " isothermal " is to be difficult to realize in cylinder, must have a secondary hot-fluid to import motor machine wall to keep enough heats.This has just increased technical difficulty, makes engine structure complicated unusually.Further utilize angle that two kinds of power distribution patterns of compressed air engine are discussed below from compressed-air actuated energy.
Under parallel way, the pressurized gas of equivalent is input to the acting of expanding of each cylinder simultaneously.If original state 1 (30MPa; 300K); End of a period state 2 (0.1MPa; 300K); Pressurized air carries out isothermal expansion in cylinder, isothermal is similar to rate η=80%, and cylinder number is 4 cylinders; The pressurized air that gets into motor is 1 kilogram of unit mass; The total technological merit that 4 cylinder gases are done is visible for
, though the isothermal expansion process is desirable acting process, the gas volume after expanding is 300 times before expanding.This just needs the cylinder of acting must have very big volume.If the cylinder of the cylinder that adopts available engine after as isothermal expansion; Selecting compression ratio is 10, then
W=198.3kJ/kg.Obviously, technological merit significantly reduces, the technological merit of not only doing not as adiabatic expansion, and also residual pressure is very high, and energy does not make full use of.But the advantage of parallel way is that each cylinder structure is measure-alike, arranges simply, and power output steadily.Consider present technology; Cylinder can not keep complete isothermal; And the compression ratio of cylinder can not be done too much, and the head pressure of pressurized gas after the acting of expanding is higher, still can be used for continuing acting; Therefore adopting multistage adiabatic process or closed loop to reclaim the energy of tail gas, is comparatively practical at present, effective and efficient manner.
Under serial fashion, with pressurized air adiabatic expansion acting successively in each cylinder, the discharge gas of previous stage cylinder is the initial pressure of next cylinder.Can know through theoretical calculation analysis: the series connection classification is many more, and the series connection cylinder number that promptly uses is many more, and the pressurized air institute work of unit mass is many more, and capacity usage ratio is high more, and the level Four of generally connecting can realize 80% of complete isothermal expansion acting; In other series connection of ad eundem, the pressure value of intermediateness is different, and is not little to total technological work difference.The greatest problem of serial cylinders is that the volume of back one-level cylinder all is greater than the volume of cylinder of previous stage, and all will load heat exchanger so that isobaric heat absorption between the cylinder at different levels.Thus, increasing to the size requirement of motor, can have a strong impact on the integral layout of the equipment that uses compressed air engine.
Visible by last analysis, compressed air engine is different from traditional fuel engine and various electric power device, and it is feasible on principle, and the strategy of sustainable development that meets environmental protection, economizes on resources.And other forms such as that pressurized air convenient sources, energy storage mode are superior to is electric, hydraulic pressure.Compressed-air actuated power distribution form respectively has pluses and minuses, improves the pressurized air utilization efficiency, and increasing pressure pan capacity and inflation pressure is to improve the main means of once inflating continuous working period.Under the situation that jar holds, inflation pressure is confirmed relatively, compressed air energy utilization rate η is maximum running parameter.Problems such as engine structure optimization, tail gas energy recovery, pressurized air distribution are the problems that needs further investigation.
Through above-mentioned theory analysis; The application's claimant adopts compressed-air actuated parallelly connected power allocation model; In order to improve the pressure of compressed air energy utilization rate and acting back discharge gas; The claimant adopts and replenishes the pressurized air loop, will the concrete mode of the utility model be described in detail below.
With reference now to Fig. 1,, Fig. 1 is that the arrow among the figure is represented the flow direction of air draught according to the general illustration of the two-stroke compressed air engine assembly of the utility model.In Fig. 1, the compressed air engine assembly comprises the unidirectional air exhauster of engine body 1, multicolumn body power distribution device 2, power equipment 4, controller system 6, air compressor 7, condenser 11, tail gas recycle jar 9, high pressure gas holder group 13, constant voltage jar 16, air inlet control series flow control valve 23, electric turbine 19, electronic control unit ECU 29, pressure-limit valve 702, sequence valve 703 and exhaust gas sound-deadening device 22.As shown in Figure 1, high pressure gas holder group 13 is connected with external gas station or external aerator through compressed air inlet pipeline 14, to obtain required high pressure air from the external world.Compressed air inlet pipeline 14 is provided with flowmeter A, pressure meter P and manual switch (not shown).Flowmeter A is used to measure and monitor the compressed-air actuated flow that gets into high pressure gas holder group 13, and pressure meter P is used to measure and monitor the compressed-air actuated pressure that gets into high pressure gas holder group 13.When needs carry out aerating through external aerator or gas station to high pressure gas holder group 13; Open manual switch; High pressure air gets into high pressure gas holder group 13, when the flowmeter A on the compressed air inlet pipeline 14 and pressure meter P reach regulation numerical value, closes manual switch; Accomplish the gas replenishment process of high pressure gas holder group 13, so just can obtain under the rated pressure pressurized air such as 30MPa.In order to guarantee the Safety performance of gas holder, one, two or more safety valve (not shown) can be set on high pressure gas holder group 13.
High pressure gas holder group 13 can be to have one, two, three, four of enough capacity or more a plurality of high pressure gas holder to combine with the form of serial or parallel connection, according to the actual demand of application, confirms the composition gas tank number of high pressure gas holder group 13.High pressure gas holder group 13 is connected to constant voltage jar 16 through pipeline 15, is provided with flowmeter A and pressure meter P and the reduction valve 701 of monitoring and control compressed air require and pressure respectively on the pipeline 15 equally.The high pressure air that reduction valve 701 is used for high pressure gas holder group 13 is provided reduces pressure, and is sent to constant voltage jar 16 with suitable pressure.Constant voltage jar 16 is used for stablizing the pressure from the high-pressure air of high pressure gas holder group 13, and its pressure is a little less than the pressure in the high pressure gas holder group 13, such as between 21-25MPa, preferably about 21MPa.Between constant voltage jar 16 and air inlet control series flow control valve 23, be provided with pipeline 17, also be provided with the flowmeter A and the pressure meter P that monitor and control compressed air require and pressure respectively on the pipeline 17.Get into controller system 6 from the high-pressure air of constant voltage jar 16 by the road through the control of air inlet control series flow control valve 23 with after regulating.
Describe air inlet control series flow control valve 23 now in detail.The effect of air inlet control series flow control valve 23 is to decide the pressurized air air inflow according to the opening time of the command signal control electromagnetic valve of electronic control unit ECU 29.Because solenoid valve has decompression, it has just formed series flow control valve with the combination of decompression pressure regulator valve, thereby can the rotating speed of motor be adjusted in the suitable scope.Control signal 26 controls that air inlet control series flow control valve 23 is sent by ECU 29.On engine body 1, optionally be provided with multiple sensors; Such as the oily potentiometer of door of the velocity transducer of measuring engine speed, the position transducer of judging the cylinder top dead center position and decision gate oil pedal position, can also be the temperature transducer of measuring the engine body temperature.According to the exemplary embodiment of the utility model, show velocity transducer 24 and/or the oily potentiometer 242 of door.Velocity transducer 24 can be to measure the various velocity transducers of engine speed in the existing technology, and is arranged on usually on the bent axle 56.The oily potentiometer 242 of door can be an all places sensor of measuring accelerator pedal position in the existing technology, and it is arranged on an oily pedal position place usually.In the occasion of non-vehicle application; The oily potentiometer of door that is similar to pedal position can be an engine load sensor, for example monitors the position transducer of the electric current selection knob of controlling the generation current size in the torque sensor of engine output torque, the occasion of generating electricity etc.ECU 29 is according to the signal of various sensors; Such as any one or two in the position signal of the rate signal of velocity transducer 24 and the oily potentiometer 242 of door; Send control signal 26 through calculation process; Control signal 26 control air inlets control series flow control valves, thus can realize high speed, middling speed, the low speed needs of air inlet control series flow control valve, thus corresponding to high speed, the middling speed of motor with slowly run.
High pressure air through air inlet control series flow control valve flows into controller system 6 through pressure duct; And to each cylinder of engine body 1 high pressure air is provided by controller system 6; Such as the pressure between about 7-18MPa; Being preferably 9-15MPa, more preferably is 11-13MPa, to drive engine piston 51 reciprocating in cylinder system 40 (with reference to figure 2-6); And the rotatablely moving of the bent axle 56 that the to-and-fro motion of piston 51 is transformed into via connecting rod 54, thereby satisfy the requirement under the various operating modes of motor.The concrete structure of controller system 6 will describe in detail at the back literary composition.
Continuation is with reference to figure 1, and the rotational motion of exporting from engine body 1 is assigned to application apparatus through multicolumn body power distribution device 2, and as shown in fig. 1, application apparatus comprises air compressor 7, power equipment 4.Air compressor 7 can be traditional vane compressor and piston compressor etc., also can be claimant's disclosed pressurization device in patent documentation (CN 201261386Y) of the application.Power equipment 4 can be transmission system, generator or transmission system etc.Multicolumn body power distribution device 2 can be fixedly connected with the flywheel on the bent axle 56, also can be through being connected with bent axle such as the link that is coupling.Multicolumn body power distribution device 2 is divided into two-way with power, and one the road distributes to power equipment 4, and air compressor 7 is distributed on another road.Power equipment 4 is connected with multicolumn body power distribution device 2 through the connection set of clutch 3 or similar functions, and air compressor 7 is through for example being that the coupling 5 of gearing is connected with multicolumn body power distribution device 2.When engine operation, the rotation of bent axle 56 drives 2 runnings of multicolumn body power distribution device, then power is distributed to power equipment 4 and air compressor 7 respectively, thereby drives power equipment 4 and air compressor 7 work.
Because the compressed air engine of the utility model is directly driven by high-pressure air, in the process of crankshaft rotating 0-180 degree, 51 motions of high pressure air drives piston; When piston arrives moves upward because of inertia after bottom dead center; Bent axle is rotated further 180 degree-360 degree, and motor carries out exhaust stroke, and the gas of exhaust this moment still has higher pressure; For example be about 3MPa; Discharge gas with elevated pressures directly is discharged to and forms high pressure exhaust gas stream in the atmosphere on the one hand easily, causes the tail gas noise, on the other hand loss the energy that pressurized air contained.Therefore, the tail gas of compressed air engine being utilized again is an imperative key technology.The additional pressurized air loop structure of the utility model is summarized as follows:
The tail gas of discharging from the discharge header 28 of engine body 1 27 is transported to exhaust gas sound-deadening device 22 by the road, and the tail gas of handling through eliminating the noise is taken out to the unidirectional air exhauster 19 of electric turbine via pipeline 18.Between unidirectional air exhauster 19 of electric turbine and tail gas recycle jar 9, be provided with pipeline 20, pipeline 20 is provided with one-way valve 21.The existence of one-way valve 21 only allows tail gas to get into tail gas recycle jar 9 from the unidirectional air exhauster of electric turbine, and does not allow the tail gas reverse flow.Pipeline 20 between tail gas recycle jar 9 and the air compressor 7 is provided with flowmeter A and pressure meter P, to detect and to monitor flow and the pressure through the tail gas after air compressor 7 compressions respectively.Its pressure of tail gas through after air compressor 7 compressions is increased significantly, can reach about 10MPa usually to approximately between the 25MPa.Tail gas after air compressor 7 will compress through pipeline 705 divides two-way that engine body 1 is replenished the supply.Downstream part at pipeline 705 is provided with branch line 704 and 706; Pipeline 706 is communicated with pipeline 12 fluids that lead to high pressure gas holder group 13; When the tail gas pressure after air compressor 7 superchargings during greater than 15MPa; It for example is the pressure-limit valve of 15MPa that supercharging tail gas is set at through cracking pressure; Get into condenser 11 through pipeline 10 subsequently, send into high pressure gas holder group 13 through pipeline 12 then, perhaps again through getting into high pressure gas holder group 13 after the exhaust gas filter (not shown) through condenser 11 cooled tail gas.Pipeline 705 is communicated with pipeline 704 fluids through sequence valve 703.When the tail gas pressure after air compressor 7 superchargings during less than 15MPa; It for example is that (this sequence valve is opened during less than 15MPa at suction pressure for the sequence valve of 15MPa that supercharging tail gas is set at through pressure limiting pressure; Automatically close during at suction pressure greater than 15MPa), get into constant voltage jars 16 through pipeline 704 subsequently.In alternative, can set the cracking pressure of pressure-limit valve and the closing pressure of sequence valve according to actual needs.For example can be any pressure between the 7Ma to 20MPa.Preferably, be 10,12,15,17, among the 20MPa any one.Can alternatively be, also can on the pipeline between condenser (11) and the high pressure gas holder group (13), the one-way valve (not shown) be set, only allow the unidirectional inflow high pressure gas holder of the clean tail gas group (13) after the supercharging.Thus; The high pressure air that is used to drive engine piston 51 after acting its quite a few be recovered to the high pressure gas holder group after through the supercharging purification of additional pressurized air loop (comprising exhaust gas sound-deadening device, pressure-limit valve, sequence valve, the unidirectional air exhauster of electric turbine, tail gas recycle jar 9, air engine 7, condenser 11 and the connecting pipeline between them), thereby realized the utilization again of tail gas.The existence that replenishes the pressurized air loop has not only solved the noise pollution problem that the direct exhaust atmosphere of the tail gas (being generally about 3MPa) with suitable pressure causes certain degree, and has reduced the volume requirements problem to big capacity high gas tank group 13 effectively.In other words; For the high pressure gas holder group 13 of giving constant volume; The existence that replenishes the pressurized air loop has increased the continuous working period of compressed air engine greatly; In the traffic tool or power generating equipment that use compressed air engine, increased the continuous working period of the traffic tool or power generating equipment greatly, thereby improved the efficient of compressed air engine significantly.
Get back to Fig. 2 to Fig. 5 now, Fig. 2 to Fig. 5 has described the view of the engine body 1 Fig. 1 from different angles.Wherein, Fig. 2 is the front view of engine body, and Fig. 3 is the right, side view of engine body 1, and Fig. 4 is the left side side view of engine body 1, and Fig. 5 is the plan view of engine body.Can know referring to Fig. 6 that further engine body 1 comprises cylinder 40, cylinder cap system 36, air inlet pipeline 42 (valve trunnion), gas exhaust piping 27, piston 51, connecting rod 54, bent axle 56, exhaust cam shaft 800 (see figure 8)s, admission cam shaft 200 (being installed in the admission cam shaft mounting hole 113 among Fig. 9), front gear box system 43 and rear gear box 33.Front gear box system 43 is used for driving crank 56 and camshaft.Rear gear box 33 is provided with gear ring 31 and flywheel 32, and it can be connected to multicolumn body power distribution device 2.In the exemplary embodiment of this engine body 1, be respectively arranged with admission cam shaft 200 and exhaust cam shaft 800, they all link to each other with bent axle 56 through front gear box system 43, and do suitable rotation with the rotation of bent axle 56.Because the control and the distribution of the direct controlled device of pressurized air air inlet system 6; Thereby on engine cylinder convering system 36, cancelled suction valve, and outlet valve 62 only is set, in exemplary enforcement; Outlet valve is 4 in each cylinder, also can be set to 1,2,4 or 6 as required.Pressurized air from controller system 6 directly gets into expansion exhaust chamber 63 (see figure 6)s through valve trunnion 42; When engine operation; This pressurized air promotes piston 51 and moves downward; Piston 51 is converted into rotatablely moving of bent axle 56 through connecting rod 54 with the straight line motion of piston 51, and bent axle rotates the output that realizes motor.After piston 51 moved to lower dead center, bent axle 56 continued motion because of inertia, drive piston 51 and move to top dead center position from bottom dead center position, this moment exhaust cam shaft 800 through cam on it and corresponding rocking arm, open outlet valve 62, carry out exhaust stroke.In the exemplary embodiment, the tail gas of discharge preferably gets into and replenishes the pressurized air loop.
Also be provided with on the engine body 1 be used for ato unit starter 39 and through for example be belt pulley connected element and bent axle generator coupled 391, be used for the cylinder block oil sump 44 of lubricating oil return and the oil strainer 2 that machine oil is filtered.This generator 391 is integrate alternator, brushless type alternator, band pump formula alternator or permanent magnet generator etc. for example, and it charges to the engine assembly power supply and to storage battery or storage battery (not shown) when engine operation.
With reference now to Fig. 6,, Fig. 6 is the bent axle-connecting rod-piston system assembly of the engine body 1 of the two stroke engine assembly among Fig. 1, wherein, shows being connected of one of them piston-linkage unit and cylinder 40.In the illustrated embodiment, preferably have 6 cylinders 40, correspondingly have 6 pistons 51 and 6 connecting rods 54.In alternative, the number of piston 51, cylinder 40 and connecting rod 54 can be respectively that those skilled in the art can conceivable 1,2,4,6,8,12 or other number numbers.Correspondingly, bent axle 56 does to adapt to ground matching design, to adapt to piston-linkage unit number.In the exemplary embodiment, like Fig. 6 and seen in fig. 7, bent axle 56 preferably has 6 unit crank throws, the preferred embodiment of its corresponding the utility model.Continuation is with reference to figure 6, and in being connected of shown one of them piston-linkage unit and cylinder 40, the high pressure air of slave controller system 6 directly gets into expansion exhaust chamber 63 via air inlet pipeline 42 through the gas larynx hole 402 on the cylinder head 36.The pressurized gas acting of in expansion exhaust chamber 63, expanding promotes piston 51 and moves downward, and this is an expansion stroke.The merit of expansion stroke output is through the outside outputting power of crankshaft rod system.Piston 51 in cylinder 44 by bottom dead center position when top dead center position moves, outlet valve 62 is opened, and has in the air self-expanding exhaust chamber 63 of certain pressure to discharge via outlet pipe 27, this is an exhaust stroke.During near top dead center, outlet valve 62 is closed at piston 51, and controller system 6 begins to be expansion exhaust chamber 63 air feed again, gets into next circulation.Obviously, bent axle 56 revolutions of the motor of the utility model move a circle (360 degree), just do work once, and unlike traditional four stroke engine, in the process of bent axle rotation two circles (720 degree), accomplish air inlet, compression, expansion and the exhaust stroke of one whole.These are but different with traditional two stroke engine just as two stroke engine, because traditional two stroke engine is provided with suction port in cylinder bottom usually, and are provided with scavenging port and relief opening in the cylinder appropriate location.And the two stroke engine of the utility model is to be provided with gas larynx hole 402 that is used for the high pressure air air inlet and the exhaust port 272 that is used for exhaust emissions at the top of cylinder; And the connected sum closure in gas larynx hole 402 is that admission cam shaft 200 is realized through controller system 6; And the connected sum closure of exhaust port is to drive exhaust cam shaft 800 by bent axle to rotate, and opening and closing through rocking arm control outlet valve 62 realize.Therefore the two stroke engine of the utility model is to be different from traditional two stroke engine fully; But it has effectively utilized the high-pressure air of direct expansion acting; Bent axle 56 revolutions are moving once 51 actings of circle piston once; Thereby under identical air displacement situation, traditional four stroke engine of comparing, power can double.
With reference now to Fig. 5 and Fig. 6,, bent axle 56 comprises gear connecting bolt 79, crankshaft front end 80, helical gear 61, main journal 78, unit crank throw 71, balancer weight 77, crank pin 76, crankshaft rear end 75 and flywheel connecting bolt 72.Be respectively equipped with one or more oil lubricating oilholes on main journal 78 on the bent axle 56 and the crank pin 76, so that lubricating oil is provided for bent axle.The right side of crankshaft front end 80 (direction shown in figure) adjacent is provided with gear connecting bolt 79; With with front gear box system 43 in respective gears be connected; The left side of crankshaft front end 80 (direction shown in figure) adjacent is provided with helical gear 61, rotates to drive camshaft.The adjacent position, the outside of crankshaft rear end 75 is provided with flywheel connecting bolt 72, to form a fixed connection with flywheel 32.Be equipped with one, two or more counterweight holes on the balancer weight 77, with the heavy amount of adjustment.In the preferred embodiment of the utility model; The unit crank throw 71 of bent axle comprises six unit crank throws, is respectively first module crank throw 71a, the second unit crank throw 71b, the 3rd unit crank throw 71c, the 4th unit crank throw 71d, the 5th unit crank throw 71e, the 6th unit crank throw 71f.It corresponds respectively to first to the 6th connecting rod 54 or piston 51.In alternative, unit crank throw 71 can comprise the unit crank throw of different numbers, and such as 1,2,4,6,8 or more a plurality of, these all are that those skilled in the art expect easily.In the preferred embodiment in Fig. 6 or Fig. 7, the phase place of each unit crank throw is done following the setting: first module crank throw 71a and the second unit crank throw 71b differ 120 degree, the second unit crank throw 71b and the 3rd unit crank throw 71c differ 120 degree, the 3rd unit crank throw 71c and the 4th unit crank throw 71c differ 180 spend, the 4th unit crank throw 71d and the 5th unit crank throw 71e differ-120 spend, the 5th unit crank throw 71e and the 6th unit crank throw 71f differ-120 and spend.Crank throw unit under so being provided with, can realize that the job order of crank throw unit is: the first and the 5th unit crank throw is worked simultaneously, and then the 3rd and the 6th unit crank throw is worked together, and the second last and the 4th unit crank throw are worked together.Thus, the job order of corresponding cylinder is: 1-5 cylinder, 3-6 cylinder and 2-4 cylinder.According to the instruction of the utility model, those skilled in the art can be provided with unit crank throw and work phase place and the job order that is different from the utility model, but it all drops in the scope of the utility model.
Continuation is with reference to figure 6, and piston 51 is connected with bent axle 56 through connecting rod 54.Connecting rod 54 comprises connecting rod small end, connecting rod shank and connnecting rod big end.Connnecting rod big end comprises connecting rod cap 58, and the inboard of connecting rod cap 58 forms circular space, with through placing the connecting rod bearing shell 57 in the space to be connected with the crank pin 76 of bent axle.The external peripheral surface of piston 51 is provided with tetrafluoroethylene oil blocking ring 53 and tetrafluoroethylene piston ring 52.In illustrated exemplary embodiment, each piston 51 is provided with 4 road tetrafluoroethylene piston rings 52 and 2 road tetrafluoroethylene oil blocking rings 53.In alternative, the number of tetrafluoroethylene oil blocking ring 53 and tetrafluoroethylene piston ring 52 can change, and for example all can be 2 roads, 3 roads, 4 roads or multiple tracks more.Tetrafluoroethylene oil blocking ring 53 plays the oil resistance effect, 52 knife-type oil stripping actions of tetrafluoroethylene piston ring, and their actings in conjunction guarantee the lubricated reliably and sealing of lubricant oil.
With reference now to Fig. 8,, Fig. 8 is exhaust cam shaft 800 structural representations of the engine body 1 among Fig. 2.Exhaust cam shaft 800 comprises unit cam 81 and sprocket wheel 83.In the exemplary embodiment, unit cam 81 comprises 6 unit cams, and it is respectively first module cam 81a, the second unit cam 81b, the 3rd unit cam 81c, the 4th unit cam 81d, the 5th unit cam 81e, the 6th unit cam 81f.In alternative, the number of unit cam 81 can be 1,2,4,6,8,12 or more a plurality of, and this depends on the outlet valve number of cylinder number and each cylinder.In the exemplary embodiment of the utility model, each unit cam 81 comprises two cams 82, the unlatching of each cam 82 its corresponding outlet valve 62 of control.In the preferred embodiment in Fig. 8, the phase place of each unit cam 81 is done following the setting: first module cam 81a and the second unit cam 81b differ 120 degree, the second unit cam 81b and the 3rd unit cam 81c differ 120 degree, the 3rd unit cam 81c and the 4th unit cam 81c differ 180 spend, the 4th unit cam 81d and the 5th unit cam 81e differ-120 spend, the 5th unit cam 81e and the 6th unit cam 81f differ-120 and spend.Unit cam under so being provided with, can realize that the job order of unit cam is: the first and the 5th unit cam is worked simultaneously, and then the 3rd and the 6th unit cam is worked together, and the second last and the 4th unit cam are worked together.Thus, the job order of corresponding cylinder is: 1-5 cylinder, 3-6 cylinder and 2-4 cylinder.According to the instruction of the utility model, those skilled in the art can be provided with unit cam and work phase place and the job order that is different from the utility model, but it all drops in the scope of the utility model.
With reference now to Fig. 9,, Fig. 9 A-Fig. 9 C is referred to as Fig. 9, and it is the view of the controller system 6 of the two-stroke compressed air engine assembly among Fig. 1.As shown in Figure 9, controller system 6 comprises seat 98, controller valve 92, controller spring 94 and controller loam cake 108 in high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91, following 97 of controller, the controller.High-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91 has cylindrical outer shape, and it also can be profiles such as rectangle, triangle.High-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91 is inner for for example being columniform cavity; To accept high pressure admission from air inlet control series flow control valve 23; And keep the compressed air pressure in the cavity balanced substantially; So that make the expansion exhaust chamber 63 interior high-pressure airs of each cylinder 40 of initial entering have identical pressure, thereby make engine mildness.The two ends of high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91 fixedly are equipped with high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe end-cap 100; The end cap 100 that is connected at itself and air inlet control series flow control valve 23 has outward extending flange (unmarked among the figure); This flange extend in the pipeline between high pressure admission control series flow control valve 23 and the high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91, and through for example being that the Placement of screw thread removably is fixedly connected with pressure duct.High-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe end-cap 100 is connected with high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91 through the end cap connecting bolt.High-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91 is provided with the loam cake attachment hole 111 corresponding to the number of cylinder 40, and in illustrated compression, the number of loam cake attachment hole 111 is 6.Controller loam cake 108 is along having inverted T-shaped on the section of its center line; It has columniform air inlet pipeline 112 and circular lower surface (unmarked among the figure); Prop up air inlet pipeline 112 through its peripheral being threaded onto in the loam cake attachment hole 111 in upper end, removably be connected to form to fix with high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91.That controller loam cake 108 seals through seat 98 formation in loam cake and middle seat connecting bolt or other fastening pieces and the controller, detachably be fixedly connected.Seat 98 is through middle seat and a following connecting bolt 110 or following 97 detachable fixed connection that forms sealing of other fastening pieces and controller in the controller.
As shown in Figure 9, seat 98 is provided with the different hole of diameter in heart place therein in the controller, is followed successively by controller valve seat trepanning 120, controller valve port 117, oil sealing bush hole 116, controller valve spring hole 119 from top to bottom.In the exemplary embodiment, the diameter in hole 120 is greater than the diameter in hole 117 and greater than the diameter in hole 116.The diameter in hole 117 is greater than the diameter in hole 116.The diameter in hole 119 can be with identical or different with the diameter in hole 117, but require the diameter greater than hole 116.In a preferred embodiment, the diameter in hole 119 equals the diameter in hole 117, but is slightly less than the diameter in hole 120.Controller valve cover for seat 93 is installed in the controller valve seat trepanning 120, and is supported on the controller valve port 117.Controller valve port 117 is a cavity, and it is communicated with gas larynx hole attachment hole 118, with when controller valve 92 is opened, will get into gas larynx hole attachment hole 118 via an air inlet pipeline 112 from the pressurized air of high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91.One end of gas larynx hole attachment hole 118 is communicated with controller valve port 117; The gas larynx hole 402 of the other end communicated cylinder convering system 36, it keeps normal open, thereby can be when controller valve 92 is opened; Pressurized air is sent into expansion exhaust chamber 63, thereby drive engine operation.Oil sealing lining 99 is installed in the oil sealing bush hole 116, and is supported on the controller valve spring 94, passes through the valve stem (unmarked among the figure) of controller valve 92 in it.This oil sealing lining 99 also play the guiding role to valve stem except controller valve 92 is sealed.Controller valve spring 94 is installed in the controller valve spring hole 119, and its lower end is supported with the controller valve spring following 95, and is fastened on following 95 of the controller valve spring through controller valve collet sheet.When motor is not worked, the pretensioning that 94 preloads of controller valve spring are certain, it is resisted against controller valve 92 on the controller valve cover seat 93, and controller valve 92 is closed.
Following 97 inside of controller are provided with 6 exemplary controller tappet mounting holes 114; It is according to the difference of cylinder number; The controller tappet mounting hole 114 of different numbers can be set, and for example can be 1,2,4,6,8,10 or more.Controller tappet 115 is installed in the controller tappet mounting hole 114, and pumps with admission cam shaft 200 rotations that are installed in the admission cam shaft mounting hole 113.When needs provide high pressure air for cylinder 40; The cam of the admission cam shaft 200 jack-up controller tappet 115 that makes progress, controller tappet 115 is the valve stem of jack-up controller valve 92 then, makes valve stem overcome the pulling force of controller valve spring 94; Leave controller valve cover seat 93; Thereby the controller valve is opened, and high pressure air is able to get into expansion exhaust chamber 63 from high-pressure common rail constant voltage pipe 91, to satisfy the air feed demand of motor.After admission cam shaft 200 turned over several angle with bent axle 56, the valve stem of controller valve 92 had been seated on the controller valve cover seat 93 under the restoring force effect of controller valve spring 94 again, and controller valve 92 is closed, and air feed finishes.Because the compressed air engine of the utility model is a two stroke engine; Bent axle 56 revolutions move a week; Controller valve 92 respectively opens and closes once with outlet valve 62; Therefore, be easy to be provided with cam phase and they of admission cam shaft 200 and exhaust cam shaft 800 and the annexation of bent axle, structure that it is detailed and transmission of movement are seen the exemplary illustration of Figure 10.
With reference now to Figure 10,, Figure 10 A-Figure 10 C is referred to as Figure 10, and it is the different views of the front gear box system 43 of the two-stroke compressed air engine assembly among Fig. 1.Shown in figure 10, the front gear box system comprises polygon female cap 313, driving gear 308, crankshaft gear 307, carrier gear 303, intake cam shaftgear 302, exhaust cam shaftgear 306.Crankshaft gear 307 is fixedly connected with the bent axle that passes polygon female cap 313 56 1 ends, to transmit the rotation from bent axle.It for example is the driving gear 308 of oil pump gear that the below of crankshaft gear 307 (orientation shown in Figure 10 B) is provided with, and for example is the member rotation of oil pump to drive through driving gear 308.(orientation shown in Figure 10 B) is disposed with intake cam shaftgear 302, carrier gear 303, exhaust cam shaftgear 306 from left to right above crankshaft gear 307.Crankshaft gear 307 directly engages to drive carrier gear 303 with carrier gear 303 and rotates.Carrier gear 303 engages with exhaust cam shaftgear 306 with the intake cam shaftgear 302 of the left and right sides simultaneously; With when bent axle 56 rotates; Drive the rotation of intake cam shaftgear 302 and exhaust cam shaftgear 306 through crankshaft gear 307, carrier gear 303; Thereby admission cam shaft 200 and exhaust cam shaft 800 are rotated, finally realize the opening and closing of outlet valve 62 and controller valve 92.In the exemplary embodiment, exhaust cam shaftgear 306 directly is fixedly connected on the exhaust cam shaft 800, thereby the rotation of exhaust cam shaftgear 306 directly drives the rotation of exhaust cam shaft 800.And be fixed with the belt pulley (not shown) on the appropriate location of the central shaft of intake cam shaftgear 302; This belt pulley is connected with belt pulley on being arranged on admission cam shaft 200 through camshaft drivign belt 35; Rotate thereby drive admission cam shaft 200, realize the opening and closing of controller valve 92.In alternative; Also can be fixed with the sprocket wheel (not shown) on the appropriate location of the central shaft of intake cam shaftgear 302; This sprocket wheel is connected with sprocket wheel on being arranged on admission cam shaft 200 through chain, rotates thereby drive admission cam shaft 200, realizes the opening and closing of controller valve 92.
Polygon female cap 313 is provided with the hole of a plurality of different effects, for example screw connecting hole 309, screw hole 310 and bolt connecting hole 311.Polygon female cap 313 is connected on the engine housing through screw connecting hole 309, and carrier gear 303 is connected on the polygon female cap 313 through screw hole 310, and bolt connecting hole 311 is used for polygon female cap 311 is connected with engine housing.Bolt connecting hole 311 can be arranged in the welded post 5 that is welded on the polygon female cap 311.Also be provided with on the polygon female cap 311 and supply lubricant oil oilhole 304 that flows and the rings seat 12 that is used to install suspension ring.
With reference now to Figure 11,, Figure 11 A-Figure 11 C is referred to as Figure 11, and it is the different views of the multicolumn body power distribution device 2 of the two-stroke compressed air engine assembly among Fig. 1.The exemplary embodiment of the utility model shown in figure 11, multicolumn body power distribution device 2 is multistage power distribution devices, it is made up of one-level 601, secondary 602, three grade 603, level Four 604, Pyatyi 605 (direction shown in Figure 10 B is from left to right).In alternative, multicolumn body power distribution device can be made up of other grades of the Pyatyi that is not used in the utility model, for example three grades, level Four, six grades or seven grades etc.The structure of each grade is identical substantially, includes planetary pinion 401, ring gear 407 and sun gear 405, wherein, planetary pinion 401 between ring gear 407 and sun gear 405, and with ring gear in engagement and with the sun gear outer gearing.Can evenly set the number of the planet wheel of each grade as required, for example 3,5,7 or more a plurality of.In the exemplary embodiment, each level includes 5 equally distributed planetary pinions 401.The benefit of doing like this is that planetary even distribution can make the stressed even of main shaft, and stable drive and transmission power are big.Shown in Figure 11 B, connect through planetary pinion pin 403 between the planetary pinion 401 of one-level 601 and secondary 602, so that one-level 601, secondary 602 are rotated synchronously.Planetary pinion pin 403 is connected with planetary pinion 401 through smooth flat key 4021 or spline.In the exemplary embodiment, planetary pinion pin 403 can be thin columniform pin, and its profile also can be a rectangle, trapezoidal, semicircle, and its number can be two of each grade employings, three, four, five or more a plurality of.Secondary 602 is connected through sun gear pin 406 with three grade 603 sun gear 405, to realize the interlock of secondary 602 and three grade 603.Annexation between three grade 603 and the level Four 604 is similar to the annexation between one-level 601 and the secondary 604, and the annexation between level Four 604 and the Pyatyi 605 is similar to the annexation between secondary 602 and three grade 603.Thus, the one-level 602 of multicolumn body power distribution device 4 has realized the transmission of power to Pyatyi 603, can be with the power input output from Pyatyi 605 from one-level 601.Especially be noted that 401 of planetary pinions of each grade are done the autobiography motion around self axis, and do not make revolution motion around corresponding sun gear 405, such layout makes the internal structure of multicolumn body power distribution device simple relatively, is easy to transferring power reposefully.
The working principle of multicolumn body power distribution device 2 is described now.The bent axle 56 of engine body 1 is provided with flywheel 32; The periphery of flywheel 32 is fixedly connected with gear ring 31; This gear ring 31 has external toothing; 407 engagements of the ring gear with internal tooth on the one-level 601 of itself and multicolumn body power distribution device 2 are with the transmission of movement of bent axle 56 ring gear 407 to one-level 601.The planetary pinion 401 of one-level 601 is connected with the planetary pinion of secondary 602, and power is delivered to secondary 602 from one-level 601, and the sun gear 405 that the planetary pinion 401 of secondary 602 drives secondary rotates.The sun gear 405 of secondary is connected through the sun gear of sun gear pin 406 with three grades, and the sun gear 405 that drives three grades rotates, and power is delivered to three grade 603 from secondary 602.Three grade 603 being similar to the mode of one-level 601, with three grade 603 power through planetary pinion 401 with transmission of power to level Four 604.Level Four 604 is delivered to Pyatyi 605 with the power of level Four 604 through sun gear 405 with the mode that is similar to secondary.In the embodiment of the utility model; The rotatingshaft of the planetary pinion 401 of Pyatyi 605 is a clutch end; Power is divided into multichannel (the utility model exemplarily shows two-way) through planetary pinion 401 and is delivered to the element that is connected with multicolumn body power distribution device 2; For example in the exemplary embodiment of the utility model, this element is such as the power plant 4 and air compressor 7 that are generator.So, power is realized multichannel output from bent axle 56 outputs of motor through multicolumn body power distribution device 2.Compare conventional engines gearbox advantageously, adopt the planetary transmission of Pyatyi to carry out the power reallocation, promptly realized the laborsaving torque vibration that has reduced again in transmitting.
This specification at length discloses the utility model, comprises optimal mode, and also can make related domain anyone put into practice the utility model, comprise the method for making and using any equipment or system and carry out any introducing.The protection domain of the utility model is limited accessory claim, and can be included in various modification, remodeling and the equivalents of doing to the utility model under the situation that does not break away from the utility model protection domain and spirit.