CN201241071Y - Single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combusting reactor - Google Patents

Single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combusting reactor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN201241071Y
CN201241071Y CNU2008200335240U CN200820033524U CN201241071Y CN 201241071 Y CN201241071 Y CN 201241071Y CN U2008200335240 U CNU2008200335240 U CN U2008200335240U CN 200820033524 U CN200820033524 U CN 200820033524U CN 201241071 Y CN201241071 Y CN 201241071Y
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China
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bed
reactor
gas
pyrolysis
product
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Expired - Fee Related
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CNU2008200335240U
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Chinese (zh)
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肖睿
张会岩
宋启磊
金保升
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Southeast University
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Southeast University
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Abstract

Disclosed is a Single-bed self-heating type pyrolysis and gasification combustion reactor which adopts a partition plate (6) to partition a reactor body into a lower combustion bed (2) and an upper pyrolysis bed (5); a guide tube (4) is arranged in the center of the reactor to be connected with the lower combustion bed (2) and the upper pyrolysis bed (5), an entrainment hole (1) is disposed at the lower part of the guide tube (4), the entrainment hole (1) is connected with a reactor bottom inlet (ii) and a pyrolyzed non-condensable gas inlet (iii) at the bottom part of the reactor, and biomass or coal serving as material is pneumatically conveyed into the guide tube (4) through the reactor bottom inlet (ii) and the pyrolyzed non-condensable gas inlet (iii); a gap between the partition plate (6) and the guide tube (4) forms a dipleg (3); and the upper part of the pyrolysis bed (5) is connected with a gaseous product outlet (v), the upper part of the combustion bed (2) is connected with a burning smoke outlet (vi), the middle part of the combustion bed (2) is connected with a smoke returning device (9), and the lower part of the combustion bed (2) is connected with a gaseous product returning device (10).

Description

Single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combustion reactor
Technical field
The utility model belongs to solid fuel pyrolysis and combustion field, relates to a kind of novel single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition/gasification/burn method and device.
Background technology
Solid fuel (coal, biomass etc.) is the world energy sources chief component, the carbonic acid gas that its burning generates is the main emission source of global greenhouse gases, therefore solid-fuelled high-efficiency cleaning utilization is the great technical task in current energy and environment field, is one of key factor that is related to national economy sustainable development.The solid fuel pyrolytic gasification can generate synthetic gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen), synthetic gas is an important chemical gas, can be by taking-hold in the palm synthetic system oil, by the methanation reaction preparing natural gas, particularly can remove carbonic acid gas and obtain highly purified hydrogen, reducing emission of carbon dioxide by the steam conversion reaction.Realization changes into inferior solid fuel the product such as the vehicle fuel oil and gas of high value cleanly and efficiently.
Pyrolysis and gasification reaction are strong endothermic reaction, need energy to keep the carrying out of reaction.Traditional pyrolysis oven and vapourizing furnace generally are to adopt to add oxygenant such as air or oxygen combustion parts solid combustion, and the heat that is generated by burning provides.Bring some problems like this: if utilize air oxidant, a large amount of N in the air 2Diluted product gas, it is lower to cause reacting in the gas of generation carbon monoxide and hydrogen content, and calorific value is also low, and the gas that can only act as a fuel uses, can not be as synthetic gas; If use pure oxygen, though do not have N in the product gas 2, but oxygen preparation energy consumption height and facility investment are huge, and economy is relatively poor.It is to conduct heat by wall that another heat provides method, because wall conduction heat transfer efficient is low, causes equipment huge, and efficiency of energy utilization is low, also is difficult to realize maximizing.
A kind of new technological line that occurs is to adopt two reactors at present, be pyrolysis/gasifying reactor and combustion reactor, adopt the heat transferred gasification/pyrolysis reactor of inert heat carrier with combustion reactor, to provide gasification/pyrolysis required heat, solved energy problem in gasification/pyrolytic reaction preferably.But this double bed form exists complex structure, and the thermal barrier internal circulating load is difficult to problems such as control.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem: the utility model proposes a kind of single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combustion reactor, purpose is in a reactor pyrolysis/gasification reaction to be separated with burning, utilizes the heat transferred pyrolysis/gasification district of the internal recycle of thermal barrier with the combustion zone.
Technical scheme: for realizing that the technical scheme that above-mentioned utility model purpose adopts is such: utilize division plate, guide pipe that main reactor is separated into bottom burning bed and top pyrolysis bed.Rely on inert heat carrier to carry out the heat transmission between two beds, the flue gas that product gas that the pyrolytic gasification process produces and burning produce is discharged from outlet separately, thereby obtains high-quality synthetic gas.
Single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition of the present utility model/gasification/burn device is to be made of burning bed, pyrolysis bed, centre pilot pipe and 2 groups of cyclonic separators and corresponding material returning device.Solid fuel (biomass or coal) from the bottom by the air conveying centre pilot pipe that enters of pyrolysis non-condensable gas, material is generated fuel gas and semicoke by scorching hot inert bed material heating pyrolytic gasification in guide pipe, the dipleg of reactor enters the bottom burning bed to semicoke by connecting up and down with inert bed material, semicoke is in the burning bed internal combustion, the heat that discharges is used for the heated inert carrier, inert bed material entrainments the hole through the guide pipe bottom and reenters the centre pilot pipe, forms stable internal recycle.
In conjunction with the accompanying drawings 1, single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combustion reactor adopts division plate that reactor body is divided into the burning bed of bottom and the pyrolysis bed on top; Guide pipe is arranged on reactor center and connects bottom burning bed (2) and top pyrolysis bed, the hole is entrainmented in setting in the guide pipe bottom, this entrainments, and the hole enters the mouth with the reactor bottom of reactor bottom, being entered the mouth by the pyrolysis non-condensable gas is connected, and is air conveying to guide pipe by the pyrolysis non-condensable gas by the reactor bottom inlet as the biomass or the coal of material; Dipleg is formed in space between division plate and the guide pipe; The top of pyrolysis bed connects the outlet of product gas, and the top of burning bed connects the combustion product gases outlet, and the middle part of burning bed connects the flue gas material returning device, and the bottom of burning bed connects product gas material returning device; Be provided with bed material/catalyst inlet at the middle part of reactor, also be provided with gas inlet at reactor bottom, combustion air enters burning bed by the gas inlet of bottom; The bottom of product cyclconic wind separator connects product gas material returning device, and the top of product cyclconic wind separator is the outlet of product gas, and the side of product cyclconic wind separator connects the pyrolysis bed; The bottom of flue gas cyclonic separator connects the flue gas material returning device, and the top of flue gas cyclonic separator is exhanst gas outlet, and the side of flue gas cyclonic separator connects the top of burning bed.Described reactor adopts dual granule sealed device with the gas partitions in burning bed and the pyrolysis bed: a resealing is that the guide pipe that is connected pyrolysis bed and burning bed is set in reactor, and guide pipe inserts in the burning bed, forms the annular space dipleg with guide pipe; Another resealing is that pyrolysis bed outlet is provided with product cyclconic wind separator, and it will form granule sealedly when moving with standpipe between the product gas material returning device, prevent that burning gas and pyrolysis gas from scurrying mutually.
Beneficial effect: compared with prior art, the utlity model has following characteristics: current employing inert heat carrier heat transfer technology all is the double bed structure, i.e. two reactors independently, utilize the particle outer circulation to realize the inert bed material heat exchange then, as Chinese patent 03152977.1 and 200510057215.8.Structurally obviously than single bed structure complexity, cost is higher for this double bed technology; In addition; adopt the particle outer circulation to realize the method for inert bed material heat exchange; will more single difficulty in the control of particle internal circulating load; particle internal circulating load deficiency appears through regular meeting; cause pyrolytic gasification reaction heat supplied not enough; temperature of reaction is low, and the heat of combustion reactor generation simultaneously can not be taken away, and occurs the phenomenon of overtemperature again.The present invention adopts single internal recycle technology can overcome the defective of double bed, and is not only structurally more compact, most importantly carries the flow of gas and fluidized gas just can control the particle internal circulating load by control, and easier maximization, has favorable industrial application prospect.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combustion reactor structural representation.
Fig. 2 implements single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification burning process schema for adopting reactor of the present invention.
Have among the above figure: entrainment hole 1, burning bed 2, dipleg 3, guide pipe 4, pyrolysis bed 5, division plate 6, product cyclconic wind separator 7, flue gas cyclonic separator 8, flue gas material returning device 9, product gas material returning device 10, condenser system 11, the first variable valve 12, second variable valve 13, air preheater 14, fly-ash separator 15, induced draft fan 16, chimney 17, air filter 18, gas blower 19, booster fan 20, screw feeder 21, air compartment 22; Inert bed material/catalyst inlet i, solid fuel import ii, the noncondensing gas import of pyrolysis iii, air intlet iv, product gas outlet v, combustion product gases outlet vi.
Embodiment
Single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combustion reactor adopts division plate 6 that reactor body is divided into the burning bed 2 of bottom and the pyrolysis bed 5 on top; Guide pipe 4 is arranged on reactor center and connects bottom burning bed 2 and top pyrolysis bed 5, hole 1 is entrainmented in setting in guide pipe 4 bottoms, this entrainment hole 1 and reactor bottom reactor bottom inlet ii, be connected by pyrolysis non-condensable gas inlet iii, air conveying to guide pipe 4 by pyrolysis non-condensable gas iii as the biomass or the coal of material by reactor bottom inlet ii; Dipleg 3 is formed in space between division plate 6 and the guide pipe 4; The top of pyrolysis bed 5 connects product gas outlet v, and the top of burning bed 2 connects combustion product gases outlet vi, and the middle part of burning bed 2 connects flue gas material returning device 9, and the bottom of burning bed 2 connects product gas material returning device 10; Be provided with bed material/catalyst inlet i at the middle part of reactor, also be provided with gas inlet iv at reactor bottom, combustion air enters burning bed by the gas inlet iv of bottom; The bottom of product cyclconic wind separator 7 connects product gas material returning device 10, and the top of product cyclconic wind separator 7 is product gas outlet v, and the side of product cyclconic wind separator 7 connects pyrolysis bed 5; The bottom of flue gas cyclonic separator 8 connects flue gas material returning device 9, and the top of flue gas cyclonic separator 8 is exhanst gas outlet vi, and the side of flue gas cyclonic separator 8 connects the top of burning bed 2.
Described single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combustion reactor adopts particle dual seal method to seal, and scurries mutually with the gas that prevents burning bed and pyrolysis bed.The particle dual seal is meant that built-in dipleg of reactor and external cyclone water-separator dipleg carry out granule sealed.
Described inert heat carrier is a quartz sand, inert solid particles such as lime-ash.
By the pyrolysis/gasification system that the utility model proposes as shown in Figure 2.This system is by the single-bed self-heating type reactor, feeder, product device condenser system, air flue gas heat exchange device, compositions such as pyrolysis gas recirculation system.System proposed by the invention both can be used as gasification installation, also can be used as pyrolysis installation, was used for producing oil fuel and synthetic gas.
Solid fuel such as biomass, coal or waste-derived fuel (RDF) join the spouted pipe in bottom by screw feeder 21, air conveying in reactor guide pipe 4 by pyrolytic gasification medium (recirculation pyrolysis gas or steam), solid adopts the particle of 0-5mm scope, is beneficial to air conveying and the interior pyrolytic gasification reaction of stove.Solid fuel particle enters and is entrainmented the high temperature inert bed material of coming in hole 1 rapidly from the guide pipe bottom behind the guide pipe and be heated to temperature of reaction, temperature of reaction is different different because of technology, pyrolysis oil preparation technology is 450-550 ℃, and the gasifying process temperature is higher, about 850-950 ℃; Owing to high turbulent flow, high heating rate, the reaction of the pyrolytic gasification of material is violent in the guide pipe, generates product gas and semicoke ejection guide pipe and form fountain in pyrolysis bed 5, gas-solid subsequently separates, product gas continues to rise, and heavier bed material and semicoke decline fall into taper division plate 6, again by connecting
The annular dipleg 3 that connects pyrolysis bed and burning bed enters in the bottom burning bed 2.Burning bed adopts the air blast fluidisation, semicoke is in this bed burning, the heat that discharges is used for heated inert bed material, therefore the characteristics of heat transfer of this technology mainly is to be that thermal barrier is indirectly with the heat transferred pyrolytic gasification district of combustion reactions, to satisfy the heat demand of pyrolytic gasification by inert bed material and internal recycle thereof.Burning bed top is provided with inert bed material/catalyzer and adds inlet, to replenish the needs that the bed material that flies out after levigate and part technology such as catalytic pyrolysis gasification need add catalyzer.At burning bed and pyrolysis bed pneumatic outlet is set respectively, adopts two granule sealed methods simultaneously, i.e. the outer whirlwind separator 7 material envelope of annular dipleg 3 and device in the reactor is to guarantee with product gas and combustion product gases separately.The product gas of pyrolysis bed and burning bed flue gas product cyclconic wind separator 7 and flue gas cyclonic separator 8 and product gas material returning device 10 and the flue gas material returning device 9 through being provided with separately all returns the burning bed recycling after the particle of carrying secretly (thin bed material and semicoke) is separated.Pyrolytic gasification product gas after the dedusting cools off lightweight oil and heavy tar through condenser 11, noncondensing product gas is divided into two-way, one the tunnel discharges through first regulated valve 12 and to do the unstripped gas utilization, and another route second regulated valve 13 enters booster fan 20 pressurization backs as carrying gas to enter in the reactor again.The combustion product gases aspect, the combustion product gases behind the separating particles, through the energy in the interchanger 14 recovery flue gases, cooled smoke is discharged through chimney 17 by induced draft fan 16 after the dedusting through fly-ash separator 15 again earlier.Combustion air after air filter 18 filters, is entered in the burning bed by burning air compartment 22 after air preheater 14 heating by gas blower 19 earlier.
Solid fuel is carried by pyrolysis gas and enters in the guide pipe, pyrolysis gas forms high-speed jet when entering guide pipe, this high-speed jet mainly contains two effects: the first is entrainmented the high temperature inert bed material in the burning bed, and entrainment the hole by the bottom and enter guide pipe, it two is mixing and heat transfers of strengthening high temperature inert bed material, solid fuel and gas, make the solid fuel rapid heating be warming up to pyrolytic gasification temperature required (450-950 ℃), the solid fuel pyrolytic gasification generates the product gas that contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen, discharges through the outlet of pyrolysis bed; Remaining semicoke and inert bed material inertial separation in the pyrolysis bed drop down onto the annular space that enters guide pipe behind the taper division plate and separate standpipe, enter in the burning bed again.Burning bed adopts the fluidized-bed operation scheme, as the fluidized gas semicoke that burns, be used for heated inert bed material with air, combustion product gases is discharged by independent outlet, the race of considering inert bed material decreases or some technology will be used catalyzer, is provided with a bed material/catalyzer at burning bed and adds inlet.The product gas of discharging main reactor separates thin bed material and the semicoke that flies out with pyrolysis gas by the external placed type cyclonic separator, is sent back to again in the burning bed by material returning device and utilizes.

Claims (1)

1. a single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combustion reactor is characterized in that adopting division plate (6) that reactor body is divided into the burning bed (2) of bottom and the pyrolysis bed (5) on top; Guide pipe (4) is arranged on reactor center and connects bottom burning bed (2) and top pyrolysis bed (5), hole (1) is entrainmented in setting in guide pipe (4) bottom, this entrainments, and hole (1) enters the mouth (ii) with the reactor bottom of reactor bottom, being entered the mouth by the pyrolysis non-condensable gas (iii) is connected, and is (ii) (iii) air conveying to guide pipe (4) by the pyrolysis non-condensable gas by the reactor bottom inlet as the biomass or the coal of material; Dipleg (3) is formed in space between division plate (6) and the guide pipe (4); The top of pyrolysis bed (5) connects the outlet of product gas, and (v), (vi), the middle part of burning bed (2) connects flue gas material returning device (9) to the outlet of the top of burning bed (2) connection combustion product gases, and the bottom of burning bed (2) connects product gas material returning device (10); Be provided with bed material/catalyst inlet (i) at the middle part of reactor, also be provided with gas inlet (iv) at reactor bottom, combustion air (iv) enters burning bed by the gas inlet of bottom; The bottom of product cyclconic wind separator (7) connects product gas material returning device (10), and (v), the side of product cyclconic wind separator (7) connects pyrolysis bed (5) for the outlet of product gas on the top of product cyclconic wind separator (7); The bottom of flue gas cyclonic separator (8) connects flue gas material returning device (9), and the top of flue gas cyclonic separator (8) is that (vi), the side of flue gas cyclonic separator (8) connects the top of burning bed (2) to exhanst gas outlet.
CNU2008200335240U 2008-03-25 2008-03-25 Single-bed self-heating type thermal decomposition gasification combusting reactor Expired - Fee Related CN201241071Y (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101818071A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-09-01 青岛华世洁环保科技有限公司 Coal pyrolysis reactor
CN102010755A (en) * 2010-11-25 2011-04-13 广州迪森热能技术股份有限公司 Biomass vaporizing burner adopting cyclone dust-removing method
CN102435060A (en) * 2011-09-15 2012-05-02 攀钢集团攀枝花钢铁研究院有限公司 Device and process for drying/decomposing solid materials
CN103045275A (en) * 2011-10-17 2013-04-17 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 Self-heating pyrolysis method
CN104197319A (en) * 2014-09-25 2014-12-10 山东大学 Low-emission coal combustion method and device
CN104212495A (en) * 2014-04-02 2014-12-17 刘国海 Integrated device and method for preparing oil product and synthetic gas from fine coal
CN108148609A (en) * 2017-12-28 2018-06-12 胜帮科技股份有限公司 A kind of integration pulverized coal pyrolysis reaction unit and its processing method

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101818071A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-09-01 青岛华世洁环保科技有限公司 Coal pyrolysis reactor
CN101818071B (en) * 2010-03-16 2013-03-13 青岛华世洁环保科技有限公司 Coal pyrolysis reactor
CN102010755A (en) * 2010-11-25 2011-04-13 广州迪森热能技术股份有限公司 Biomass vaporizing burner adopting cyclone dust-removing method
CN102010755B (en) * 2010-11-25 2013-06-05 广州迪森热能技术股份有限公司 Biomass vaporizing burner adopting cyclone dust-removing method
CN102435060A (en) * 2011-09-15 2012-05-02 攀钢集团攀枝花钢铁研究院有限公司 Device and process for drying/decomposing solid materials
CN103045275A (en) * 2011-10-17 2013-04-17 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 Self-heating pyrolysis method
CN103045275B (en) * 2011-10-17 2015-08-12 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 A kind of self-heated pyrolysis method
CN104212495A (en) * 2014-04-02 2014-12-17 刘国海 Integrated device and method for preparing oil product and synthetic gas from fine coal
CN104197319A (en) * 2014-09-25 2014-12-10 山东大学 Low-emission coal combustion method and device
CN104197319B (en) * 2014-09-25 2016-06-29 山东大学 A kind of coal combustion method of low emission and device
CN108148609A (en) * 2017-12-28 2018-06-12 胜帮科技股份有限公司 A kind of integration pulverized coal pyrolysis reaction unit and its processing method

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