CN1909400A - Beam forming and switching method based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly - Google Patents

Beam forming and switching method based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1909400A
CN1909400A CN 200610104481 CN200610104481A CN1909400A CN 1909400 A CN1909400 A CN 1909400A CN 200610104481 CN200610104481 CN 200610104481 CN 200610104481 A CN200610104481 A CN 200610104481A CN 1909400 A CN1909400 A CN 1909400A
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wave
antenna
frequency
switch
radio
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CN100592656C (en
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殷勤业
蒋延生
张莹
王毅
王慧明
孟玉吉
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for forming wave beam and switching wave beam, based on positive polyhedral intelligent antenna, which uses the annular antenna array formed by positive polyhedral, uses the logic control circuit to decode the instruction sent by superior machine, and sends the decoded signal to the driving circuit; the driving circuit based on said decoded signal generates relative driving signal, to drive the radio switch to connect or cutoff relative transmission feedback wire and connected antenna; the radio signal can reach connected micro antenna unit, to be interfered superposition, to form same-phase wave beam at normal direction of external round of positive polyhedral. The invention can avoid phase-shifter or delay line, while the array and circuit are symmetry.

Description

A kind of wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly forms and changing method
Technical field
The wave beam that the present invention relates to a kind of antenna system forms and changing method, and particularly a kind of wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly forms and changing method.
Background technology
In the radio antenna system, antenna system mainly is divided into four big classes: sectorised antenna system, switched-beam antenna system, wave beam form antenna system and diversity aerial system.Wherein, " intelligence " level of sectorised antenna system and switched-beam antenna system is lower, and is all limited to the raising ability of the increase ability of wireless communication system user capacity and communication quality, but the cost of these two kinds of systems is low, and is easy to realize." intelligence " level of wave beam formation antenna system and diversity aerial system is then relative higher, is the focus of intelligent antenna technology research field.A large amount of adaptive algorithms that is used for smart antenna has been proposed at present, but because the restriction of these algorithm complexes and hardware process speed, also be difficult to so far find a kind of can be effectively worked at rugged environment, can make the adaptive algorithm of the practicality that signal handled in real time again.Therefore, people have transferred to the realization that wave beam switches smart antenna gradually with attentiveness and have come up.
Switched-beam antenna system is to produce a plurality of different narrow beams that point in coverage, and each constantly only selects a beam coverage to communicate.Wherein, each wave beam can be produced by single oriented antenna element (as bell-mouth antenna), also can form antenna array by a plurality of antenna elements and produce." intelligent " that wave beam switches smart antenna is mainly reflected in the control that its wave beam switching will be subjected to beam selection method, particularly, in the wave beam switched system, beam selection method will determine at first which wave beam the user is in, then switch is switched to that wave beam with optimum reception performance.
If each wave beam of switched-beam antenna system is produced by aerial array, then can obtain the array gain that many bigger, thereby improve network coverage than omnidirectional antenna, reduce the power of the network equipment.In order to use limited antenna element to produce wave beam as much as possible, each antenna element can be used to produce different spatial beams, and this just need carry out switch control to different antenna elements, controls its phase place according to different beam directions.The switch of a plurality of antenna elements (PIN) has formed the switch arrays of wave beam switched system, its implementation procedure both can be finished at radio-frequency head, also can place intermediate frequency or base band to carry out, but generally, realize that at radio-frequency head the complexity and the cost of wave beam switching is lower.Topmost two performance index of radio-frequency (RF) switch are isolations and insert loss.Isolation is to weigh the index of switch by validity, it be meant switch the pass have no progeny the signal gross energy and the signal energy of being leaked between ratio.Insert loss and be switch because the loss that physical structure causes, under the general main consideration conducting state electric current by the time thermal losses.Except above-mentioned 2 points, also need to consider switch speed (general PIN diode can reach the ms level) and switch itself factors such as influence during switch arrays to signal phase in design.
The beam switching method of existing intelligent antenna equipment is a kind of three array antenna systems based on the equilateral triangle shape, referring to " electronic letters, vol " 2004 12 interim " intelligent antenna technology in the WLAN (wireless local area network) ".These three array antenna devices are made up of three faces, the even straight line microstrip antenna array that each face is made up of three antenna elements again, and every surface antenna battle array covers 90 degree at the angle of pitch, and the azimuth covers 120 degree.Every surface antenna battle array forms three switchable wave beams at azimuth sector, and each wave beam is wide to be 40 degree.Select the different delay line of length to realize different phase shifts respectively, and realize the switching of wave beam by the switches set battle array that PIN diode is formed, promptly adopt a PIN master switch, one tunnel input, three the tunnel export every collinear array to, every surface antenna battle array needs a power divider, needs 39 PIN diode altogether.
This " sector-wave beam " structure of three array antenna devices, exist forward wave beam and side direction wave beam, the forward wave beam is meant in each sector that perpendicular to that wave beam (cophase detector generation) of antenna array panel, the side direction wave beam is meant two wave beams of all the other except that the forward wave beam (non-cophase detector generation) in each sector.The side direction wave beam has strict requirement to the length of little band delay line, but because the influence of machining accuracy, make the delay line phase change show tangible inconsistency, the result has just caused the symmetry of side direction wave beam relatively poor, main lobe Sidelobe Suppression ratio has only about 7dB, and this will influence the interference rejection of wave beam; In addition, the radio-frequency switch array that is used for the switching delay line is also comparatively huge, needs to use many elements, brings bigger insertion loss thus, causes the antenna array overall performance to reduce.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to existing three array beams switches antenna array that smart antenna existing " sector-wave beam " two-layer configurations are caused and need use defectives such as phase shifter (being the different delay line of length), complicated PIN switch arrays and each wave beam be inconsistent, provide a kind of based on centrosymmetric regular polygon, particularly the wave beam of positive polygon prism smart antenna forms and changing method.The CDAA circularly disposed antenna array that the positive multi-prismatic surface of this method utilization forms has solved the inconsistency of wave beam, has reduced the complexity of antenna system and has improved the overall performance of system.
For realizing above purpose, the present invention takes following technical scheme to be achieved.
A kind of wave beam based on centrosymmetric regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly forms and changing method, comprises following control procedure:
A) with the input port feed-in of radiofrequency signal from power division/synthesizer, positional information according to receiver, host computer sends the gating instruction, by logic control circuit and drive circuit, by three feeder lines that connect three antenna elements corresponding receiver direction, adjacent in nine microband antenna units of radio-frequency (RF) switch gating, emission of radio frequency signals is gone out by three adjacent microband antenna units of gating; Simultaneously, radio-frequency (RF) switch is turn-offed and all the other six feeder lines that microband antenna unit is connected; Three adjacent microband antenna units by gating are formed an annular array, and form the wave beam of a beacon receiver;
B) when receiver location changes, host computer is reselected adjacent three microband antenna units that need gating according to the detected current channel condition information of periodicity, sends switching command to the logic control circuit plate;
C) after the logic control circuit plate is received switching command, CPLD module by logic control circuit is deciphered this instruction, and decoded signal is sent to the drive circuit of drive circuit board, drive circuit produces the corresponding driving signal according to decoded signal, and drive signal is sent to radio-frequency (RF) switch, another organizes three adjacent microband antenna units to radio-frequency (RF) switch by the transmission feeder gating, and turn-offs all the other antenna elements, thereby the intelligence that realizes wave beam is switched.
In the such scheme, the radiofrequency signal of described input port feed-in from power division/synthesizer arrives the microband antenna unit of each gating simultaneously, through coherent superposition, forms the homophase wave beam in regular polygon circumscribed circle normal orientation; The adjacent microband antenna unit of reusable in the wave beam handoff procedure; Described three adjacent microband antenna units by gating form an annular array, and its array factor formula is:
f a ( θ ) = | e - j 2 π r cos ( θ - 50 ) c + e - j 2 π r cos ( θ - 90 ) c + e - j 2 π r cos ( θ - 130 ) c | ,
C is a light propagation velocity in a vacuum in the formula, and θ is a horizontal azimuth, and r is the circumradius of positive nonagon.The value of r will guarantee that the half-power angle of single wave beam is not less than 40 °.
The radio-frequency (RF) switch of described feeder line satisfies 1/4 medium medium wavelength to power division/synthesizer apart from x, and the radio-frequency (RF) switch of feeder line satisfies the odd-multiple of 1/4 medium medium wavelength to the distance y+z of microband antenna unit.
Described drive circuit produces the corresponding driving signal according to decoded signal, and its process is, when logic level was input as 0V, drive circuit output offset voltage was 3.3V, and when logic level was input as 3.3V, output offset voltage was-3.3V; Described radio-frequency (RF) switch gating and turn-off corresponding transmission feeder and the process of coupled antenna element is, when the bias voltage of radio-frequency (RF) switch is 3.3V, the switching diode conducting, little band transmission feeder is in the short circuit of switching diode place, make power division/synthesizer and antenna element two places open a way, thereby this antenna element is not worked; When bias voltage be-during 3.3V, switching diode ends, little band transmission feeder is at switching diode place open circuit, makes power division/synthesizer and antenna element two places short circuit, corresponding antenna element work.
Described radio-frequency switch circuit adopts the external compensation method, comprises that compensating inductance and capacitance constitute series resonant tank, offsets the parasitic capacitance that switching diode forms at high frequency, and loss is inserted in compensation; Building-out capacitor and through-flow inductance constitute the shunt-resonant circuit, offset switching diode in the stray inductance that high frequency forms, and are used to compensate isolation.
Compare with the beam switching method of existing three array antenna systems, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
(1) symmetry of array structure has guaranteed the symmetry and the consistency of wave beam.The present invention is from the power splitter direct feed at regular polygon end face center, the feeder line that every road RF signal all passes through identical length arrives antenna element, become wave beam by adjacent antenna units group formation, like this with regard to the side direction excitation wave beam that do not have non-homophase and all be the cophase detector wave beam, obviously improved the main lobe Sidelobe Suppression ratio of wave beam, improve system and suppressed interference capability, guaranteed the consistency of each wave beam simultaneously.In specific implementation process, the bay number of working simultaneously must not be changed once determining.
(2) in the wave beam switched system,, often need feeder line to the different antennae group to carry out gating or end in order to produce the different beam direction of a plurality of sensings.Any feeder line is controlled, all need switching circuit be set simultaneously, just can block radiofrequency signal effectively at these transmission line two ends.Cause a large amount of PIN diode circuit of switched-beam antenna system needs like this, make system complexity improve, totally insert loss and increase, also increased the wiring difficulty.As three array antennas in the background technology owing to adopt " sector-wave beam " two-layer configuration, make the switching system more complicated, need 39 PIN diode and corresponding electric capacity and inductance altogether, and because the imperfection of switch, there is and insert loss and limited isolation, will cause the standing-wave ratio of antenna array to improve, efficient reduces.The inventive method has been simplified whole switching system fully, each antenna element only needs a switch to control its break-make, whole system only needs the PIN diode of N (N is the face number of positive polygon prism) altogether, not only greatly reduce the cost of system, alleviated of the influence of switch imperfection simultaneously, improved the consistency of wave beam wave beam.
(3) all wave beams of antenna array of the present invention do not need phase shifter (being the different delay line of length), the wave beam high conformity all by multiplexing adjacent cells, produced by cophase detector; No longer need huge radio-frequency switch array to select delay line, simplified circuit design, reduced number of elements, reduced the insertion loss, further reduced cost.
(4) switching diode (PIN Diode) circuit mainly contains string data hilted broadsword list interposed structure, shunting hilted broadsword list interposed structure, composite structure etc.Though these switching circuit structures respectively have quality in emulation, under high frequency environment, be difficult to work ideally, it is poor mainly to show isolation and insert drain performance.This be since diode operation in radio frequency, stray inductance that it is inner and parasitic capacitance can not be ignored.The present invention has compensated the stray reactance of diode inside under the high frequency environment effectively by structure external resonant circuit, makes switching circuit have isolation and insertion drain performance preferably.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is that of the present invention a kind of positive nine prismatic wave beams switch the smart antenna structural representation.Wherein Fig. 1 (a) is an external structure; Fig. 1 (b) is internal structure.
Fig. 2 is the circuit theory diagrams of the radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 among Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the drive circuit schematic diagram of the drive circuit board 5 among Fig. 1 (b).
Fig. 4 is the logic control block diagram of the logic control circuit plate 6 among Fig. 1 (b).
Fig. 5 forms and the switching state schematic diagram for the wave beam that installs among Fig. 1.Wherein Fig. 5 a is three forward wave beams that adjacent microband antenna unit coherent superposition forms; Fig. 5 b is the next forward wave beam that switches left in order; Fig. 5 c is the forward wave beam that any direction switches; Fig. 5 d when not needing usertracking, the isotropic wave beam that forms by three microband antenna units of space.
Fig. 6 switches the beam pattern of smart antenna for Fig. 1 wave beam.Wherein Fig. 6 (a) is simulation result figure; Fig. 6 (b) is measured result figure.
Fig. 7 is the working frequency range test result of Fig. 1 wave beam switching smart antenna, and wherein Fig. 7 (a) is the test result of 2.400GHz~2.483GHz, and Fig. 7 (b) is the test result of 2.0GHz~3.0GHz.
Direction Pattern Simulation result when Fig. 8 is adjacent three the antenna element group battle arrays of positive nine prismatic surfaces of Fig. 1.
Fig. 9 is the insertion loss and the isolation simulation result of Fig. 2 radio-frequency (RF) switch 3.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and instantiation.
As shown in Figure 1, the specific embodiment that regular polygon wave beam of the present invention switches intelligent antenna equipment is that positive nine prismatic wave beams switch intelligent antenna equipment, comprises a power division/synthesizer 2, radio-frequency (RF) switch 3, microband antenna unit 10 and feeder line 4, drive circuit and logic control circuit; This antenna assembly profile is positive nine prisms, described microband antenna unit 10 is arranged on each cylinder 1 of positive nine prisms, described power division/synthesizer 2 is arranged at positive nonagon end face 8 centers of vertical positive nine prismatic surfaces 10, described radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 is uniformly distributed in positive nonagon end face 8 central peripheries, and be connected with microband antenna unit 10 with power division/synthesizer 2 respectively by feeder line 4, radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 is nine with the quantity of microband antenna unit 10; Described drive circuit, logic control circuit are separately positioned on shape and positive nonagon the end face 8 identical drive circuit board 5 and logic control circuit plate 6, and are assemblied in the inner chamber top of positive nine prisms successively.The profile of regular polygon antenna assembly of the present invention is not limited to positive nine prisms, also can be positive polygonal pyramid or many ribs bucking ladder just.
Positive nine prismatic surfaces 1 can adopt as the two media material in the table 1, and the center distance of each antenna element 10 is no more than half of working band highest frequency electric wave wavelength.Each wave beam is produced by three adjacent antenna element 10 cophase detectors, and its directional diagram as shown in Figure 7.The input/output end port of power division/synthesizer 2 adopts 50 ohm of sub-miniature A connectors, and adjacent three antenna elements 10 are carried out power division/synthetic, simultaneously is metallic reflection face 7 with respect to the inside of the antenna assembly of positive nine prismatic surfaces 1.
As shown in Figure 2, the circuit of radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 adopts improved Shunt SPST structure (shunting single-pole single-throw switch (SPST)), comprise a diode PIN DIODE, its positive pole connects altogether with compensating inductance L1, input, 4 of output coupling capacitor C1, C2, and the bias input end BIAS of compensating inductance L1 is connected with capacitance C3; The negative pole of diode PIN DIODE is connected with an inductance L 2 and a building-out capacitor C4, and radio frequency input RF IN, output RF OUT are connected with microband antenna unit 10 with power division/synthesizer 2 respectively by feeder line 4.The insertion loss of this circuit and isolation characteristic are as shown in Figure 8.Inductance L 1 is used for compensation and inserts loss, and capacitor C 4 is used to compensate isolation, and inductance L 2 is used to provide DC channel.
As shown in Figure 3, the drive circuit on the drive circuit board 5 comprises triode T1, triode T2.The base stage of triode T1 is connected with logic control circuit output LOGIC by current-limiting resistance R1, the collector electrode of triode T1 is connected with the base stage of triode T2 by coupling resistance R3, the base stage of triode T2 is to forward between the emitter and be connected to a diode D1, the negative pole of this diode D1 is imported BIAS by the biasing that inductance L 1 connects radio-frequency (RF) switch 3, and triode T1, T2 all can adopt the positive-negative-positive triode.The effect of drive circuit is the logical signal that provides according to logic control circuit, for the diode PIN DIODE of radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 provides suitable bias voltage and electric current, logic level is 0V and 3.3V, and bias voltage is ± 3.3V, to close and the corresponding radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 of gating.
As shown in Figure 4, logic control circuit adopts CPLD (complex programmable logic controller) design, this CPLD adopts the control logic module of ALTERA EPM3032A model, its input is connected with host computer by the host computer interface on the logic control circuit plate 6, and the instruction from host computer is deciphered.The output of CPLD is connected with drive circuit on the drive circuit board 5 by drive interface, and produces corresponding logical signal and come control Driver Circuit, produces the corresponding driving signal by drive circuit again and drives radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 and carry out wave beam and switch.
Fig. 5 forms and the switching state schematic diagram for the top view wave beam that installs among Fig. 1.Article three, black thick line limit represents that 10 ', three adjacent microband antenna units 10 ' of microband antenna unit of gating work simultaneously, and coherent superposition forms the forward wave beam I of goose egg type, and (Fig. 5 a).Wave beam after the switching can be sequenced next wave beam II (Fig. 5 b), also can be the wave beam III (Fig. 5 c) of any direction.Concrete which wave beam that switches depends on the residing position of receiver, and the process that wave beam switches guarantees that exactly wave beam aims at receiver as much as possible.When not needing to carry out usertracking or wave beam and switch, can by apart from one another by three microband antenna units 10 ' work simultaneously, form the wave beam IV of three symmetrical configuration, can be used as isotropic antenna (Fig. 5 d) after these three wave beams stacks.
The wave beam formation and the changing method that the present invention is based on above-mentioned positive nine prismatic intelligent antenna equipments are as follows:
Control flow: according to the positional information of receiver, send instruction by host computer, by logic control circuit and drive circuit, by three antenna elements 10 ' corresponding receiver direction, adjacent in nine microband antenna units 10 of radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 gatings, and turn-off remaining six microband antenna unit 10.These three microband antenna units 10 ' by gating are formed an annular array, thereby form the wave beam I of a beacon receiver.Because receiver has certain mobility, when its position changes, corresponding channel condition information also can change thereupon.Host computer is reselected the microband antenna unit 10 ' of needs gating according to current state information of channel, and sends switching command.Detailed process is, host computer links to each other with the logic control circuit of logic control plate 6 by the host computer interface that is positioned on the logic control plate 6, and host computer can periodically detect the signal strength signal intensity of each different directions and send instruction thus and carry out wave beam and switch; After logic control circuit is received switching command, by control logic CPLD this instruction is deciphered, and decoded signal sent on the drive circuit board 5 by drive interface, drive circuit on the drive circuit board 5 produces the corresponding driving signal according to decoded signal, and it is sent to radio-frequency (RF) switch 3, radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 is by three adjacent microband antenna units 10 ' of another group of feeder line 4 gatings, and turn-off remaining microband antenna unit 10, thereby realize wave beam I intelligence is switched to wave beam II or III.Switch to the adjacent microband antenna unit 10 ' of reusable in the process of wave beam II at wave beam I, produce, therefore do not need phase shifter or delay line because the wave beam after switching is cophase detector.
Radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 gatings and turn-off corresponding transmission feeder 4 and the process of coupled antenna element 10 is, when the bias voltage of radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) is 3.3V, diode PIN DIODE conducting, little band transmission feeder 4 is in diode PIN DIODE place's short circuit, make power division/synthesizer 2 and microband antenna unit locate open circuit for 10 liang, thereby this microband antenna unit 10 is not worked; When bias voltage be-during 3.3V, diode PIN DIODE ends, little band transmission feeder 4 makes power division/synthesizer 2 and microband antenna unit locate short circuit for 10 liang at diode PIN DIODE place open circuit, corresponding microband antenna unit 10 work.
Signal flow: radiofrequency signal is from the input port feed-in of power division/synthesizer 2, through three feeder lines 4, by being launched by three adjacent microband antenna units 10 ' of gating.In order to guarantee impedance matching, the characteristic impedance of input port is 50 ohm, and the characteristic impedance of three feeder lines is 150 ohm.Symmetrical structure has guaranteed that the length of every feeder line 4 is identical, and radiofrequency signal can arrive the microband antenna unit 10 ' of each gating simultaneously, through coherent superposition, thereby forms the homophase wave beam in positive nine prismatic circumscribed circle normal orientation.
Array design: can cover level orientation θ 360 ° scope in order to make positive nine prismatic nine wave beams that produce, the horizontal half-power angle  of single wave beam can not be less than 40 °.By changing the number of positive nine prismatic circumradius r or adjacent microband antenna unit 10 ', can change the size of .Ordinary circumstance, radius r is more little, and the value of half-power angle  is big more, but the mutual coupling between microband antenna unit 10 ' also can increase; The number of microband antenna unit 10 ' is few more, and the value of half-power angle  is big more, but array gain can reduce.Therefore, when array of designs, need take all factors into consideration a plurality of factors such as the number of the size of positive nine prisms, the adjacent microband antenna unit 10 ' of working simultaneously and array gain.
Three adjacent microband antenna units 10 ' by gating form an annular array, and its array factor can be expressed as:
Wherein c is a light propagation velocity in a vacuum, and θ is a horizontal azimuth, thereby draws the theory orientation figure among Fig. 6 (a).For positive nine prisms of this example, determine that circumradius r is 70.1mm, the microband antenna unit 10 ' number of gating is three simultaneously.
The feeder line size: each root feeder line 4 only needs 3 controls of a radio-frequency (RF) switch.Radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 to the feeder line of power division/synthesizer 2 apart from the satisfied 1/4 medium medium wavelength of x.Radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 is got 3 times, also desirable 5 or 7 times to the odd-multiple that the feeder line distance y+z of microband antenna unit 10 satisfies 1/4 medium medium wavelength in this example.The radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 that is arranged so that like this can be turn-offed the two ends of feeder line 4 simultaneously.
Medium medium wavelength λ gValue with the DIELECTRIC CONSTANT of operating frequency f, medium r, dielectric-slab thickness d and radiating element characteristic impedance relevant.Table 1 is the medium medium wavelength λ of two kinds of sheet materials gSelection (operating frequency f=2.441GHz).
Table 1
The sheet material title ε r d 150 ohm 86.6 ohm 50 ohm
1/4λ g(mm) 1/4λ g(mm) 1/4λ g(mm)
Arloncuclod 2.17 1.5mm 23.576 22.954 22.325
F4B-2 2.65 3mm 21.796 21.048 20.314
The choosing method of this distance has been simplified the design of PIN Diode greatly, reduces the quantity of the required diverter switch of whole system, has reduced insertion loss and power consumption, has improved the performance of system, has reduced cost.
The compensating circuit of radio-frequency (RF) switch 3: owing to the stray reactance of radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 inside under the radio frequency environment and the distributed constant characteristic of little band medium itself, will cause radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 isolations not enough, and influence systematic function greatly thereby insert loss.The present invention has adopted special circuit that it is compensated.Find that by emulation the parasitic capacitance in the radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 is bigger to the insertion loss influence of switch; Isolation is then relatively responsive to stray inductance.The method of compensation is a structure external resonant circuit, sees Fig. 2 for details.Inductance L 1 and capacitor C 3 constitute series resonant tank, offset the parasitic capacitance that switching diode forms at high frequency, and loss is inserted in compensation; Capacitor C 4 and inductance L 2 constitute the shunt-resonant circuit, offset switching diode in the stray inductance that high frequency forms, and are used to compensate isolation.In operating frequency is under the 2.441GHz, and the value of L1, L2, C3, C4 is chosen as 6.8nH, 33nH, 1.2pF, 10pF respectively.
Fig. 6 compares based on the simulation result of the wave beam switching direction figure of positive polygon prism smart antenna and measured result.With positive nine prisms is example, and as seen from the figure, simulation result and measured result are quite approaching, and each wave beam of actual measurement has good consistency.
Fig. 7 is the working frequency range test result of application example of the present invention.Applied environment is the WLAN (wireless local area network) based on IEEE802.11b/g, and its working frequency range is ISM (industrial science medical treatment) frequency range, but the present invention is not limited to this frequency range, but is applicable to any microwave band.Can find out that from Fig. 7 test result (a) standing-wave ratio of centre frequency is lower than 1.3,2.400GHz~2.475GHz frequency range standing internal wave is no more than 2 than all, illustrates that the radiation efficiency of antenna is higher.Have only a resonance point in 2.0GHz~3.0GHz frequency range as can be seen from Fig. 6 test result (b), so antenna do not have out-of-band radiation, efficient is higher, and can not cause interference to other frequency ranges.
The performance of tlv triple battle array when Fig. 8 is 50 millimeters for the length of side d of positive nonagon end face 8.The 3dB main lobe width can reach 40 degree as can be seen from Figure 7, and the main lobe Sidelobe Suppression is than surpassing 14dB.Can satisfy requirement, can suppress effectively simultaneously to disturb spatial coverage.
Fig. 9 is the insertion loss of radio-frequency (RF) switch 3 and the Microwave Office simulation result of isolation, the curve from Fig. 9 as seen, it is 0.128dB that the centre frequency place inserts loss Insert loss, isolation Isolation is 29.2dB.Clearly, the circuit among the present invention has all carried out effective compensation to parasitic capacitance and the stray inductance of PIN DIODE, has well eliminated its influence to switching circuit.
The inventive method is the multiaerial system of regular polygon applicable to structure, comprises positive polygon prism, positive polygonal pyramid or many ribs bucking ladder etc. just.Be fit to be applied in the wave beam switched systems such as adaptive antenna array that radio frequency realizes, smart antenna, phased array radar.

Claims (8)

1. the wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly forms and changing method, it is characterized in that, comprises following control procedure:
A) with the input port feed-in of radiofrequency signal from power division/synthesizer (2), positional information according to receiver, host computer sends the gating instruction, by logic control circuit and drive circuit, by three feeder lines (4) that connect three antenna elements (10 ') corresponding receiver direction, adjacent in radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) nine microband antenna units of gating (10), emission of radio frequency signals is gone out by adjacent three microband antenna units (10 ') of gating; Simultaneously, radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) is turn-offed the feeder line (4) that is connected with all the other six microband antenna units (10); Adjacent three microband antenna units (10 ') by gating are formed an annular array, and form the wave beam (I) of a beacon receiver;
B) when receiver location changes, host computer is reselected adjacent three microband antenna units (10 ') that need gating according to the detected current channel condition information of periodicity, sends switching command to logic control circuit plate (6);
C) after logic control circuit plate (6) is received switching command, CPLD module by logic control circuit is deciphered this instruction, and decoded signal is sent to the drive circuit of drive circuit board (5), drive circuit produces the corresponding driving signal according to decoded signal, and drive signal is sent to radio-frequency (RF) switch (3), radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) is by another adjacent three microband antenna units (10 ') of group of feeder line (4) gating and turn-off all the other antenna elements (10), thereby wave beam (I) is switched to wave beam (II) or (III).
2. the wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly according to claim 1 forms and changing method, it is characterized in that, the radiofrequency signal of described input port feed-in from power division/synthesizer (2) arrives three adjacent microband antenna units (10 ') of gating simultaneously, through coherent superposition, form the homophase wave beam in regular polygon circumscribed circle normal orientation.
3. the wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly according to claim 1 forms and changing method, it is characterized in that, described adjacent three microband antenna units (10 ') by gating are formed an annular array, and its array factor formula is:
C is a light propagation velocity in a vacuum in the formula, and θ is the azimuth, and r is the circumradius of positive nonagon, and the value of r will guarantee that the half-power angle of single wave beam is not less than 40 °.
4. the wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly according to claim 1 forms and changing method, it is characterized in that, radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) on the described feeder line (4) is 1/4 medium medium wavelength to power division/synthesizer (2) apart from x, the radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) on the feeder line (4) to the distance y+z of microband antenna unit (10) be the odd-multiple of 1/4 medium medium wavelength.
5. the wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly according to claim 1 forms and changing method, it is characterized in that, described drive circuit produces the corresponding driving signal according to decoded signal, its process is, when logic level is input as 0V, drive circuit output offset voltage is 3.3V, and when logic level was input as 3.3V, output offset voltage was-3.3V;
6. form and changing method based on the wave beam of regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly according to claim 1 or 5, it is characterized in that, described radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) gating and turn-off corresponding transmission feeder (4) and the process of coupled antenna element (10) is, when the bias voltage of radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) is 3.3V, switching diode PIN DIODE conducting, little band transmission feeder (4) is in the short circuit of switching diode place, make power division/synthesizer (2) and antenna element (10) two places open a way, thereby this antenna element (10) is not worked; When bias voltage be-during 3.3V, switching diode PIN DIODE ends, little band transmission feeder (4) is at switching diode place open circuit, makes power division/synthesizer (2) and antenna element (10) two place's short circuits, corresponding antenna element (10) work.
7. the wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly according to claim 1 forms and changing method, it is characterized in that, described radio-frequency (RF) switch (3) adopts the method for external circuit compensation, constitute series resonant tank with inductance (L1) and electric capacity (C3), offset the parasitic capacitance that switching diode forms at high frequency, loss is inserted in compensation; Constitute the shunt-resonant circuit with electric capacity (C4) and inductance (L2), offset switching diode, be used to compensate isolation in the stray inductance that high frequency forms.
8. the wave beam based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly according to claim 1 forms and changing method, it is characterized in that switch in the process of wave beam II at wave beam I, adjacent microband antenna unit (10 ') can be re-used.
CN200610104481A 2006-08-07 2006-08-07 Beam forming and switching method based on regular polyhedron intelligent antenna assembly Expired - Fee Related CN100592656C (en)

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