CN1751157A - Prestressed scaffolding system - Google Patents

Prestressed scaffolding system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1751157A
CN1751157A CNA2004800047248A CN200480004724A CN1751157A CN 1751157 A CN1751157 A CN 1751157A CN A2004800047248 A CNA2004800047248 A CN A2004800047248A CN 200480004724 A CN200480004724 A CN 200480004724A CN 1751157 A CN1751157 A CN 1751157A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
steel tendon
anchoring unit
support
waist rail
vertical
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Granted
Application number
CNA2004800047248A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN100489198C (en
Inventor
韩万烨
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Shanghai Xinqiangjin Engineering Technology Co., Ltd.
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韩万烨
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Priority to KR1020030009442A priority Critical patent/KR100571102B1/en
Priority to KR1020030009442 priority
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Publication of CN1751157A publication Critical patent/CN1751157A/en
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/02Foundation pits
    • E02D17/04Bordering surfacing or stiffening the sides of foundation pits

Abstract

An innovative prestressed scaffolding system is disclosed to use triangular tendon supports and tendons in place of a plurality of struts for supporting the earth pressure applied during an excavation or an underground construction structure, thereby removing the obstacles of the construction, e.g., intermediate piles or struts, and contributing to an improvement of the constructional efficiency of the underground space and reduction of construction costs.

Description

Prestressed scaffolding system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of connection system for guide rail, this system temporarily places underground to prevent to excavate collapsing of ground when underground structure is built up, more specifically, the present invention relates to use have plumb pile (as, H-beam) and leveling peg (as, waist rail) prestress steel tendon connection system for guide rail, the quantity that supports the pillar of plumb pile thus significantly reduces.
Background technology
As everyone knows, when building the basement of a subway or a mansion, excacation starts from according to technical drawing, excavates the hole of projected depth from the face of land, then plumb pile is installed in the hole of digging.After plumb pile installed, excacation was partly finished, and crossbeam and cover plate are installed then, and after cover plate was settled and finished, remaining work was the alternation that repeats excavation and mounting column.
Therefore, in order to design connection system for guide rail, therefore ground pressure and the load repeated calculation that is applied on the pillar at each tap layer can design and can bear the pillar that puts on the maximum load on the beam.So, need a large amount of pillars.In most of the cases, pillar is closely arranged, and for example, wherein at interval about 2-3m has hindered the transmission of working region constructional materials, the transportation of jumbo and the enforcement of building operation greatly.After agent structure was built up, pillar also can cause serious obstruction to molding or steelwork.For example, on agent structure, can not form a plurality of holes with avoiding, make the underground structure of finishing to be subjected to the infiltration of water.
In conventional connection system for guide rail, the steel H pile is used for plumb pile, is used as plumb pile and concrete is poured into the concrete pile (rather than using the steel H pile) that hollows out the hole.In addition, piling bar and concrete pile can be used simultaneously, also sheet pile can be used.But, support this basic principle of the load that excavates ground and above-mentioned work principle much at one with formation wall then by punching on the ground.Preflex beam also can be used as plumb pile, and H pile can be connected on the sheet pile to reinforce sheet pile.
The ground anchor system is used for the piling bar of support scaffolding system, in order to constructing underground structure with above-mentioned pillar in the system appropriate location.According to this system, ground in the stake back gets out angling hole, and steel tendon or high strength steel bar are inserted in the hole of being bored, and the end of inserting bar is by mechanical means or chemical method anchoring, for example epoxides or cementation strained bar and be fixed on the piling bar then.The advantage of this system is that the inner space of connection system for guide rail is very big, makes to implement digging and support works easily.On the other hand, the shortcoming of this system is that work must be positioned near the privately owned property when this system applies is in crowded city, and this can cause uptown a large amount of civil action.The expensive of construction then is another shortcoming.
Korean utility model registration No. 258949 discloses uses truss to remove the method for pillar, and it runs through the space that excavates in the connection system for guide rail.This method is intended to be used for the relative more shallow situation of the degree of depth of excavated earth.H-beam is lined up clathrate doubly in the place near ground.This H-beam is reinforced by vertical beam and inclined beams, makes the two-tier truss that is positioned at connection system for guide rail top support ground pressure.The proposition of this invention is for the excavation that a large amount of pillar brought that overcomes the connection system for guide rail that supports ground and the difficulty of construction structure.So this method has the broad structure for excavated earth bottom and the top has than the structure of narrow structure of great use.
Korean patent No. 188465, Korean utility model registration No. 247053 and Japan Patent 837994 disclose the method for using prestressing force to reinforce waist rail.In the method, the additional wale top that places existing waist rail is with tension steel tendon and enlarge distance between the pillar.This method can realize by the flange of additional wale or the existing H-beam of reinforcement.These two kinds of methods increase between the pillar apart from aspect can work.But because the steel tendon is a linear arrangement, so can generate fixing support moment of flexure, they are different with the parabolic moment distribution that ground pressure is created on the waist rail.Different moments and distribution thereof for load have retrained the length of reinforcing waist rail.
Summary of the invention
Embodiments of the invention provide a kind of safe and effective procedure that significantly reduces and remove pillar quantity, and this pillar influences constructions work, and have increased the cost of building, so the present invention can obtain the space of underground construction, and have reduced building costs.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, prestressed scaffolding system supports the excavated earth revetment by forming the polygon enclosed region, this prestressed scaffolding system be included in mid portion have a plurality of steel tendon tripods prestressed wale, be positioned at the steel tendon anchoring unit at waist rail two ends, and the support that is connected that connects support and steel tendon anchoring unit.Pillar is made of truss or a plurality of H-beam or H-beam with big cross section, and is reinforced to support steel tendon anchoring unit.
Steel tendon tripod is made of vertical member and dip member, or only by vertical member, or only constitute by dip member, to form triangle and to support waist rail.The brace summer of central pile and steel tendon support supports and is connected steel tendon tripod.
Steel tendon anchoring unit is the steel tendon fixedly, and connects waist rail exerting pressure, and also is connected with inclination or vertical member, to support the pressure of generation.
Description of drawings
In order to understand feature of the present invention and purpose better, please in conjunction with the accompanying drawings referring to following detailed description, wherein:
Fig. 1 is the vertical view that is applied to the connection system for guide rail of enclosed region according to embodiments of the invention;
Fig. 2 is the vertical view that is applied to the connection system for guide rail of another enclosed region according to embodiments of the invention;
Fig. 3 is diagram is applied to the connection system for guide rail of enclosed region according to embodiments of the invention a cross-sectional view;
Fig. 4 is the cross-sectional view of connection system for guide rail that is applied to a direction of cross section according to embodiments of the invention;
Fig. 5 is the cross-sectional view that illustrates the connection system for guide rail of a direction that is applied to cross section according to embodiments of the invention;
Fig. 6 a is the detailed view that is used for the steel tendon support of scaffold according to embodiments of the invention to 6d;
Fig. 7 a is the detailed view that is used for the angle steel tendon-anchoring unit of connection system for guide rail according to embodiments of the invention to 7b;
Fig. 8 a is the detailed view that is used for the horizontal steel tendon-anchoring unit of connection system for guide rail according to embodiments of the invention to 8d; With
Fig. 9 is the detailed view that is used for the vertical tendon-anchoring unit of connection system for guide rail according to embodiments of the invention.
The specific embodiment
With reference now to accompanying drawing, describes the preferred embodiments of the present invention in detail.
Fig. 1 is the vertical view that the present invention is applied to the enclosed region of building site.According to exemplary embodiment of the present invention, prestressed wale 1 is positioned at four sides of enclosed region.The pillar 3 that truss constitutes places four jiaos and support waist rail.Conventional angle brace beam 5 is positioned at the pillar back.The prestressed wale 1 of each side comprises that three steel tendon tripods 12, triangle anchoring unit 13 are used for being connected steel tendon tripod 12 and support 10 with being connected of triangle anchoring unit 13 with one.Be provided with central pile 23 with support triangle steel tendon support 12, and the brace summer of steel tendon support 16 is for example by bolt or be weldingly fixed on the central pile 23.The brace summer of steel tendon support 16 is support triangle steel tendon support 12 in the process that connection system for guide rail is installed.Steel tendon tripod 12 is connected by U bolt with the brace summer of steel tendon support 16, and to prevent contingent vertical warpage when applying prestressing force, this is to carry out after the erection work of finishing connection system for guide rail.
The truss strut 3 at each angle between two triangle anchoring unit 13 with the pressure of transmission anchoring unit.For example, the truss strut of the embodiment of the invention can have big cross section i iron or a plurality of i iron etc. by one and substitute, as long as this structure can be born high pressure.The building method of the angle brace summer 5 after truss strut 3 is identical with the building method of conventional system, and shown in the drawings, to explain the present invention.Element numeral 60 is steel tendons.
Hour can use the structure of Fig. 2 when excavating the plane.Anchoring unit, angle 14 has substituted conventional angle brace beam 5 and the truss strut 3 among Fig. 1.T shape connects support 11 and is used for narrower place, gap between prestressed wale 1 and the anchoring unit, angle.Other diagram of implementing constructions work and method are identical with Fig. 1's.
Fig. 3 is the cross-sectional view of Fig. 1 and 2, and horizontal prestressed scaffolding system 2 and agent structure 7 according to the embodiment of the invention have been described.Different with conventional method, do not install the middle part of the system of influence, and waist rail 25 is arranged in level Four along the underground degree of depth that excavates.Soldier piles 22 are positioned at the exterior wall place of far-end in a usual manner, and waist rail 25 is mounted and supports soldier piles 22.Also show the brace summer and the intermediate studdle 23 of steel tendon support 16 in the accompanying drawing.
Fig. 4 is the cross-sectional view of subway connection system for guide rail, and it comprises agent structure 8, vertical prestressed scaffolding system 6 and horizontal prestressed scaffolding system 2.The profile of the horizontal prestressed scaffolding system 2 shown in the accompanying drawing top is identical with the embodiment of Fig. 2 with building method.Therefore omitted the explanation of this system.But after plate (slab) sclerosis, the vertical prestressed scaffolding system 6 shown in the accompanying drawing bottom supports at the ground panel 9 of one side by agent structure.The opposite side of system 6 is supported by traditional conventional pillar 26.
When agent structure is very long (for example subway), vertical prestressed scaffolding system of great use.In vertical prestressed scaffolding system, vertical H-beam 19 is inserted into behind the waist rail 25 of pre-installation, and short support 18 is connected to waist rail 25 opposition sides to support the stretching of steel tendon 60.The steel tendon places the two ends of H-beam 19 and is fixed on the independent steel tendon anchoring unit 20, and this anchoring unit is connected on the vertical H-beam in advance.Like this, when the anchoring unit of upper end was supported by conventional pillar 26, the hardened concrete plate 9 of agent structure supported the anchoring unit of vertical prestressed scaffolding system lower end.Element numeral 24 is to hold native plate (earth retainingplate).
Fig. 5 is the vertical view of Fig. 4, is used for the long situation of excavation surface, as the construction of subway or passage.Prestressed wale 1 is arranged along two sides, and truss strut 3 is positioned at each fixedly position of the steel tendon of prestressed wale.The structure of prestressed wale is identical with the waist rail of the enclosed region of Fig. 1, therefore omits further instruction.
The amplifier section of accompanying drawing has illustrated the relative position of H-beam 19 with respect to soldier piles 22, and wherein the H-beam 19 of vertical prestressed scaffolding system shown in Figure 4 is installed between the existing soldier piles 22.In vertical prestressed scaffolding system, hold native plate 24 and should be installed on the flange that has the plumb pile back now, to allow the H-beam that vertical prestressed scaffolding system is installed.If plumb pile is the sheet pile 21 that substitutes soldier piles 22, vertical h-beam 19 is inserted in the space between sheet pile 21 and the waist rail 25 so.
Fig. 6 a shows the different shape that is used for prestressed scaffolding system embodiment of the present invention and the steel tendon tripod of size to 6d.Steel tendon tripod is provided with vertical member 32 and dip member 33, and is set to reduce the quantity of the strong point 31 that contacts with the steel tendon.Steel tendon tripod also is set to be used for bearing length than long waist rail 30.When with the strong point 31 that the steel tendon contacts on when exerting pressure, pressure can support long waist rail 30 by vertical member 32 and dip member 33.
In Fig. 6 a, by welding or with the bolt (not shown) two dip members are connected, forming an isosceles triangle, and bearing length is than the waist rail 30 of lacking.Fig. 6 b is the second embodiment of the present invention, and it illustrates and a pair ofly stretches out with the interconnected dip member 33 of miter angle from vertical member 32 sides.For example, tilt and vertical member all by bolt or be solder-connected to waist rail 30.According to the 3rd embodiment that relates to longer waist rail 30, there are two pairs of dip members 33 to be connected respectively to the both sides of vertical member 32 among Fig. 6 c.In Fig. 6 d, used a plurality of vertical members and dip member to support long waist rail 30.The structure of steel tendon tripod is not limited to embodiments of the invention, therefore, can utilize vertical member and dip member to form triangle and support waist rail, also can only utilize vertical member, or only utilize dip member to realize.
Fig. 7 a and 7b are the detailed views of the anchoring unit, angle of Fig. 2, thereby it is designed to come by stiffener 36 the waist rail 35 firm steel tendons 60 at joint angle place.That is, when being used to construct the stiffener 36 of the steel tendon 60 of prestressed scaffolding system through the anchoring unit, the steel tendon is strained by hydraulic jack 70.The steel tendon of tension is fixed in the anchoring unit 71 of anchoring steel tendon then.Pulling force by the steel tendon is sent to adjacent waist rail (not shown) by length adjustment unit 72 (as precedent load jack or jackscrew) with pressure.As an alternative embodiment of the invention, the structure of Fig. 7 b is used to only come anchoring steel tendon by the stiffener 38 that does not have batten plate.The profile of the foregoing description can change in basic conception of the present invention and envelop of function.The inlet of Reference numeral 39 expression anchoring unit.
Fig. 8 a shows the various anchorings unit of horizontal prestressed wale to 8d.Fig. 8 a shows the solid unit of the grapnel that uses when applying little pressure.The steel tendon 60 that supports waist rail 41 is by support 43 or vertical support 44 supportings of tilting.The anchoring unit forms porose, and therefore tilt support 43 or vertical support 44 can be inserted into the anchoring unit by these holes as shown in the figure, perhaps can stretch out (not shown).Consider the flexible of steel tendon, the inlet 39 of anchoring unit can be preferably formed and be curved shape.The steel tendon is fixed on the opposite of inlet 39 by steel tendon anchoring unit 73.In addition, be provided with length adjustment unit 72 (for example, precedent load jack or jackscrew), to increase pressure at tension steel tendon back azimuth brace summer.
Fig. 8 b shows the anchoring unit that has additional wale 42, and it is used for elongated thereby be applied to and strengthen waist rail when pressure on the waist rail enlarges markedly at waist rail 41.Fig. 8 b is identical with Fig. 8 a in the following areas, and promptly the inlet 39 of curved shape is formed on the place of the steel tendon 60 insertion anchoring unit that support waist rail 42, and anchoring unit 73 is positioned at the opposite of inlet 39.Be that with the difference of Fig. 8 a the inclination support 43 of supporting the anchoring unit is dual settings, to bear increased pressure and earth pressure.In addition, when pressure was applied on the dual waist rail, applied pressure can be different on each waist rail, therefore should use the jackscrew 72 of high capacity that the pressure between two waist rails is on average adjusted.
Fig. 8 c shows and is used for the triangle anchoring unit 13 of anchoring steel tendon 60 among Fig. 1, and it supports waist rails 41 by steel tendon anchoring unit 73.Fig. 8 c also is used for the truss strut 3 of load transfer to support triangle anchoring unit 13.In triangle anchoring unit, the dip member 47 of i iron is set to form isosceles, to bear the load that is applied on the unit.The summit that these members contact with each other is strengthened by suitable batten plate 46.Jackscrew 74 is set regulating the pressure of two waist rails, and precedent load jack (precedent load jack) 72 is set to increase pressure to angle brace summer 5.Jackscrew 74 also is connected with the truss strut that supports whole anchoring unit.Be provided with hydraulic jack 75, between anchoring unit and truss strut, to increase a large amount of pressure.That is, behind hydraulic jack 70 tension steel tendons, hydraulic jack 75 is exerted pressure to truss strut 3.
Fig. 8 d shows the anchoring unit that is used for connection system for guide rail shown in Figure 4.The steel tendon 60 that supports waist rail 41 is by hydraulic jack 70 tensions, and is fixing by steel tendon anchoring unit 73 then.The steel tendon is designed to pass at the intake section of dip member 47.Truss strut 3 can be connected to the anchoring unit by jackscrew 74 and hydraulic jack 75, perhaps can directly not connect by means of these members.Suitable batten plate 46 is installed, and to bear higher pressure between vertical member and the horizontal member 48, this horizontal member connects the both sides of anchoring unit.Because member only is subjected to prestressing force, and pressure is less, therefore only shows single waist rail.But, can preferably use two waist rails according to actual conditions.
Fig. 9 is the detailed view of the anchoring unit 20 of vertical prestressed scaffolding system shown in Figure 4.To embodiment illustrated in fig. 4 similar, the flat board of existing structure and intermediate studdle are as support, and H-beam is inserted from the waist rail back of building up.Short support is connected to the front of waist rail, and steel tendon stent support is fixed to the steel tendon of the anchoring unit at H-beam two ends.This method is used for the vertical prestressed scaffolding system of support passage formula hollowed-out surface.Specifically, jackscrew that is connected with horizontal strut 26 or precedent load jack 72 are connected to anchoring unit 20.If anchoring unit 20 places the lower end of scaffold, anchoring unit 20 directly contacts existing dull and stereotyped (not shown), rather than pillar 26.Vertical h-beam is connected to the anchoring unit by being inserted in the upright opening 50.This contact or coupling part can for example firmly connect by welding or bolt, preferably connect by bolt, with member for convenience detach.Be inserted into the anchoring unit in case support the steel tendon 60 of vertical h-beam, the steel tendon is fixed on the opposite of anchoring unit by steel tendon anchoring unit 73.Therefore, this anchoring unit is used for vertical prestressed scaffolding system, and wherein waist rail or vertical beam support the movably form that is formed into.
Clearly can understand an advantage of prestressed scaffolding system of the present invention from above-mentioned Be that plumb pile or horizontal beam are all by using a plurality of supports, anchoring unit and steel tendon to apply Prestressing force. Significantly reduced the pillar that when implementing the routine building operation, causes serious hindrance and in Between the stake quantity.
Its another advantage is significantly to have improved excavation and connection system for guide rail, and building cost.
Also have, effectively eliminated and used conventional connection system for guide rail in structure, unavoidably to form The hole, reinforce operation and operations for forming thereby be conducive to steel, reduced the construction time, and greatly Improved the durability of watertightness and final structure.

Claims (11)

1. connection system for guide rail, it is by forming the revetment that polygonal enclosed region supports excavated earth, and it comprises:
Prestressed wale, it comprises a plurality of steel tendon tripods that are positioned at mid portion, is positioned at the steel tendon anchoring unit at described waist rail two ends, with the support that is connected that is used to be connected described support and described steel tendon anchoring unit; With
Pillar, it is made of truss or a plurality of H-beam or H-beam with big cross section, and is reinforced to support described steel tendon anchoring unit.
2. the system as claimed in claim 1, wherein said steel tendon tripod is made of vertical member and dip member, or only is made of vertical member, or only is made of dip member, to form triangle and to support described waist rail.
3. the system as claimed in claim 1, wherein said steel tendon tripod is supported by the brace summer of a central pile and described steel tendon support and is connected.
4. the system as claimed in claim 1, wherein said steel tendon anchoring unit is the steel tendon fixedly, and is connected with described waist rail, is used for exerting pressure, and is connected with described dip member or vertical member, is used for supporting the pressure of generation.
5. system as claimed in claim 4, wherein said steel tendon anchoring unit by using frame material forms an isosceles triangle, the angle of described isosceles triangle is reinforced by reinforcement, wherein said steel tendon is fixed on a jiao of described isosceles triangle, and in the face of a member at described angle is directly connected to truss strut, or be connected to truss strut by hydraulic jack or jackscrew, and the part that connects described waist rail has the length adjustment function.
6. system as claimed in claim 4, wherein said steel tendon anchoring unit by using frame material forms trapezoidal, described trapezoidal angle is strengthened by reinforcement members, described steel tendon is fixed on two jiaos, and described mid portion is directly connected to described truss strut, or is connected to described truss strut by hydraulic jack or jackscrew.
7. system as claimed in claim 4, wherein said steel tendon anchoring unit can be provided with or plumb post, the steel tendon that enters from a side of described steel tendon anchoring unit is fixed on the opposite, can be by the described single waist rail of steel tendon anchoring unit supports or two waist rails, and described steel tendon anchoring unit is equipped with jackscrew or the precedent load jack with length adjustment function.
8. connection system for guide rail that only forms the polygon enclosed region with prestressed wale, it comprises a plurality of steel tendon tripods that are positioned at mid portion, is positioned at the steel tendon anchoring unit at described waist rail two ends and connects described support and the support that is connected of described steel tendon anchoring unit.
9. system as claimed in claim 8, wherein said steel tendon anchoring unit is anchoring unit, angle, and it is designed to be connected with described waist rail, and in both sides fixing steel tendon.
10. one kind is used for the vertical prestressed scaffolding system that the support passage formula is excavated the surface, wherein the flat board of structure and intermediate studdle are used as support, H-beam is inserted behind the waist rail that builds up, short support is connected to described waist rail front and is supported by the steel tendon, and wherein said steel tendon is fixed on the anchoring unit at described waist rail two ends.
11. system as claimed in claim 10, wherein said steel tendon anchoring unit is used for a kind of vertical prestressed scaffolding system, is made removedly at waist rail described in this vertical prestressed scaffolding system or vertical beam.
CNB2004800047248A 2003-02-14 2004-02-13 Prestressed scaffolding system Ceased CN100489198C (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
KR1020030009442A KR100571102B1 (en) 2003-02-14 2003-02-14 Device of Innovative Prestressed Scaffolding System for Improving Workability
KR1020030009442 2003-02-14

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN1751157A true CN1751157A (en) 2006-03-22
CN100489198C CN100489198C (en) 2009-05-20

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US (1) US20060070803A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1595031A4 (en)
JP (1) JP4094043B2 (en)
KR (1) KR100571102B1 (en)
CN (1) CN100489198C (en)
WO (1) WO2004072386A1 (en)

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US7377725B2 (en) * 2005-01-12 2008-05-27 Cammack Charles H Arched soil nail wall
CN101310079B (en) * 2005-11-16 2011-02-02 斯博泰科有限公司 Temporary soil sheathing apparatus
WO2010092562A1 (en) * 2009-02-09 2010-08-19 Bahat Ben Ibrahim S Erection method by simple tower instrument devices of building upper bridge construction

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CN102286980A (en) * 2011-07-11 2011-12-21 福建工大建筑设计院 Steel truss foundation pit supporting structure
CN102286980B (en) * 2011-07-11 2013-04-17 福建工大建筑设计院 Steel truss foundation pit supporting structure
CN102839677A (en) * 2012-09-26 2012-12-26 上海新强劲工程技术有限公司 Multifunctional rectangular connecting piece for internal support of foundation pit
CN102839677B (en) * 2012-09-26 2015-03-04 上海新强劲工程技术有限公司 Multifunctional rectangular connecting piece for internal support of foundation pit
CN103306288A (en) * 2013-07-08 2013-09-18 上海新强劲工程技术有限公司 Tool type connector for steel shotcrete and enclosure wall in foundation pit support
CN105133623A (en) * 2015-09-25 2015-12-09 江苏东合南岩土科技股份有限公司 Prestressed steel sheet pile supporting structure and construction method thereof
CN105256809A (en) * 2015-09-25 2016-01-20 江苏东合南岩土科技股份有限公司 Prestressed H-type steel supporting structure and construction method thereof
CN105133623B (en) * 2015-09-25 2017-06-30 江苏东合南岩土科技股份有限公司 A kind of construction method that supporting is carried out using prestress steel sheet pile supporting construction

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CN100489198C (en) 2009-05-20
US20060070803A1 (en) 2006-04-06
JP2006517628A (en) 2006-07-27
WO2004072386A1 (en) 2004-08-26
JP4094043B2 (en) 2008-06-04
EP1595031A1 (en) 2005-11-16
KR20030019937A (en) 2003-03-07
KR100571102B1 (en) 2006-04-13

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