CN1299223C - Providing a consistent hierarchical abstraction of relational data - Google Patents

Providing a consistent hierarchical abstraction of relational data Download PDF

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CN1299223C
CN1299223C CNB028191692A CN02819169A CN1299223C CN 1299223 C CN1299223 C CN 1299223C CN B028191692 A CNB028191692 A CN B028191692A CN 02819169 A CN02819169 A CN 02819169A CN 1299223 C CN1299223 C CN 1299223C
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CN1561497A (en
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尼普恩·阿加瓦尔
埃里克·塞德拉
拉维·默西
纳米特·贾殷
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甲骨文国际公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F16/00Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor
    • G06F16/80Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor of semi-structured data, e.g. markup language structured data such as SGML, XML or HTML
    • G06F16/84Mapping; Conversion
    • G06F16/86Mapping to a database
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F16/00Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor
    • G06F16/20Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor of structured data, e.g. relational data
    • G06F16/28Databases characterised by their database models, e.g. relational or object models
    • G06F16/284Relational databases
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S707/00Data processing: database and file management or data structures
    • Y10S707/99931Database or file accessing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S707/00Data processing: database and file management or data structures
    • Y10S707/99931Database or file accessing
    • Y10S707/99933Query processing, i.e. searching
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S707/00Data processing: database and file management or data structures
    • Y10S707/99941Database schema or data structure
    • Y10S707/99942Manipulating data structure, e.g. compression, compaction, compilation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S707/00Data processing: database and file management or data structures
    • Y10S707/99941Database schema or data structure
    • Y10S707/99943Generating database or data structure, e.g. via user interface
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S707/00Data processing: database and file management or data structures
    • Y10S707/99941Database schema or data structure
    • Y10S707/99944Object-oriented database structure
    • Y10S707/99945Object-oriented database structure processing

Abstract

本发明提供了数据的一致性层次抽象化。 The present invention provides a consistent level of data abstraction. 层次可以在层次结构之外维持的现有数据中明显或隐含地反映。 The existing data can be maintained outside the level of the hierarchy reflects explicit or implicit. 这样的层次称之为“先前存在的层次”。 This level is called "pre-existing level." 此处描述的技术用于在分层结构中捕捉先前存在的层次。 The techniques described herein for capturing previously existing hierarchy in the hierarchical structure. 在先前存在的层次已经被捕捉后,存在两组反映该层次的独立数据:外部层次定义和内部层次定义。 After the pre-existing level has been captured, there are two sets reflect the level of independent data: internal and external levels defined level definitions. 改变每个层次定义都会改变层次。 Change the definition of each level will change the level. 因此,为了维持层次的一致性反映,响应于对外部层次定义做出的改变,必须更改内部层次定义,响应于对内部层次定义做出的改变,必须更改外部层次定义。 Therefore, in order to maintain a level of consistency reflects, in response to a change in the definition of the external level to make the necessary changes to the definition of the internal level, in response to changes made to the definition of the internal level, we must change the external level definition. 所描述的各种技术用于维持两个层次定义之间的一致性。 Various techniques described consistency between the two levels is defined for maintaining.

Description

提供关系数据的一致性层次抽象化 Provide relational data consistency level abstraction

相关申请本发明要求以下美国临时专利申请的优先权,其全部内容结合于此作为参考:2001年9月28日由Eric Sedlar及Viswanathan Krishnamurthy提交的美国临时专利申请No.60/326,052,名称为:“设置有数据库系统的基于文件的访问(File Based Access Provided With a DatabaseSystem)”;2002年5月7日由Nipun Agarwal、Ravi Murthy、Eric Sedlar、Sivasankaran Chandrasekar、Fei Ge、Syam Pannala、Neema Jalali、以及Muralidhar Krishnaprasad提交的美国临时专利申请No.60/378,800,名称为:“对提供文件系统抽象化的数据的SQL访问(SQL Access to Data that Provides a File System Abstraction)”。 RELATED APPLICATIONS The present invention claims priority to US Provisional Patent Application, which is incorporated herein by reference: US Provisional Patent September 28, 2001 filed by Eric Sedlar and Viswanathan Krishnamurthy Application No.60 / 326,052, the name: "provided with a database system file-based access (file based access provided With a DatabaseSystem)"; 2002 May 7 by the Nipun Agarwal, Ravi Murthy, Eric Sedlar, Sivasankaran Chandrasekar, Fei Ge, Syam Pannala, Neema Jalali, and US provisional Patent Muralidhar Krishnaprasad filed No.60 / 378,800, the name: "SQL provides a file system abstraction for data access (SQL access to data that provides a file system abstraction)".

本发明还涉及以下美国专利申请,其全部内容也结合于此作为参考:同本申请同日由Nipun Agarwal、Ravi Murthy、Eric Sedlar、Sivasankaran Chandrasekar、以及Fei Ge提交的美国专利申请,序列号为:___________,名称为:“用于在关系系统中存取分层数据的操作器(OPERATORS FOR ACCESSINGHIERARCHICAL DATA IN A RELATIONAL SYSTEM)”(律师卷号:No.50277-1975); The present invention further relates to the following U.S. patent applications, the entire content is incorporated herein by reference: with the present application with the U.S. Patent Application of Nipun Agarwal, Ravi Murthy, Eric Sedlar, Sivasankaran Chandrasekar, and Fei Ge submission date, serial number: ___________ , entitled: "system for accessing relational operator hierarchical data (oPERATORS fOR ACCESSINGHIERARCHICAL dATA iN a rELATIONAL sYSTEM)" (attorney Docket No.: No.50277-1975);

同本申请同日由Ravi Murthy、Muralidhar Krishnaprasad、Sivasankaran Chandrasekar、Eric Sedlar、Vishu Krishnamurthy、以及Nipun Agarwal提交的美国专利申请,序列号为:_______,名称为:“用于将XML模式映射到对象关系数据库系统的机制(MECHANISM FOR MAPPING XML SCHEMAS TO OBJECT-RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEMS)”(律师卷号:50277-1977);同本申请同日由Nipun Agarwal、Eric Sedlar、以及Ravi Murthy提交的美国专利申请,序列号为:_________,名称为“用于高效管理数据库系统中的变型数据的索引(INDEXING TOEFFICIENTLY MANAGE VERSIONED DATA IN A DATABASESYSTEM)”(律师卷号为50277-1978);同本申请同日由Ravi Murthy、Eric Sedlar、Nipun Agarwal、以及Neema Jalali提交的美国专利申请,序列号为:________,名称为:“用于储存分层组织资源的内容和属性的机制(MECHANISMS FOR STORING CONTENT AND PROPERTIESOF HIERACHICALL With this application on the same day by the Ravi Murthy, Muralidhar Krishnaprasad, Sivasankaran Chandrasekar, Eric Sedlar, US Patent Application Vishu Krishnamurthy, and Nipun Agarwal submitted, serial number: _______, entitled: "used to map XML schema to the object-relational database system the mechanism (mECHANISM FOR MAPPING XML SCHEMAS tO OBJECT-RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEMS) "(attorney Docket No.: 50277-1977); with US patent applications filed the same day by Nipun Agarwal, Eric Sedlar, and Ravi Murthy, serial number: _________ entitled "efficient management database system for the index of modification of data (iNDEXING TOEFFICIENTLY mANAGE VERSIONED dATA iN a DATABASESYSTEM)" (attorney Docket No. 50277-1978); filed on even date by the same Ravi Murthy, Eric Sedlar, Nipun Agarwal, and US Patent application serial No. Neema Jalali submitted to: ________ entitled: "mechanism for storing hierarchical organizational resources and content attributes (mECHANISMS fOR sTORING cONTENT aND PROPERTIESOF HIERACHICALL Y ORGANIZED RESOURCES)”(律师卷号:50277-1979);同本申请同日由Ravi Murthy、Eric Sedlar、Nipun Agarwal、SamIdicula、以及Nicolas Montoya提交的美国专利申请,序列号为:________,名称为:“用于在数据库系统中统一存取控制的机制(MECHANISM UNIFORM ACCESS CONTROL IN ADATABASE SYSTEM)”(律师卷号:50277-1980);同本申请同日由Syam Pannala、Eric Sedlar、Bhushan Khaladkar、Ravi Murthy、Sivasankaran Chandrasekar、以及Nipun Agarwal提交的美国专利申请,序列号为:________,名称为:“用于XML文档的惰性显示的可装载装置(LOADABLE UNITS FORLAZY MANIFESTATION OF XML DOCUMENTS)”(律师卷号:50277-1981);同本申请同日由Neema Jalali、Eric Sedlar、Nipun Agarwal、以及Ravi Murthy申请的美国专利申请,序列号为:________,名称为:“在关系数据库系统中高效率地索引用于提供分层存取的结构化数据的机 Y ORGANIZED RESOURCES) "(Attorney Docket No.: 50277-1979); with this application with the US patent application filed by Ravi Murthy, Eric Sedlar, Nipun Agarwal, SamIdicula, and Nicolas Montoya, serial number: ________ entitled:" unified mechanism for controlling access to the database system (mECHANISM uNIFORM aCCESS cONTROL iN ADATABASE sYSTEM) "(attorney Docket No.: 50277-1980); filed on even date by the same Syam Pannala, Eric Sedlar, Bhushan Khaladkar, Ravi Murthy, Sivasankaran Chandrasekar, and U.S. Patent application serial No. filed Nipun Agarwal: ________ entitled: "loadable device (lOADABLE UNITS FORLAZY MANIFESTATION oF XML dOCUMENTS) for XML documents an inert display" (attorney Docket No.: 50277-1981 ); with the U.S. Patent application filed on the same date by the present Neema Jalali, Eric Sedlar, Nipun Agarwal, Ravi Murthy and application, serial No.: ______, entitled: "in a relational database system for providing efficient hierarchical access indexes the machine structured data (MECHANISM TO EFFICIENTLY INDEXSTRUCTURED DATA THAT PROVIDES HIERARCHICAL ACCESSIN A RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEM)”(律师卷号:50277-1982)。 (MECHANISM TO EFFICIENTLY INDEXSTRUCTURED DATA THAT PROVIDES HIERARCHICAL ACCESSIN A RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEM) "(Attorney Docket No.: 50277-1982).

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及在关系数据库中储存根据一定层次进行组织的信息,尤其涉及管理用于捕捉该层次的元数据的技术。 The present invention relates to information stored in a relational database is organized according to a certain level, the level of technology in particular relates to metadata for managing capture.

背景技术 Background technique

人们倾向于按类别组织信息。 People tend to organize information by category. 在其中组织信息的类别是通常相对于彼此以某种形式的层次进行组织的类别本身。 Category in which information is generally organized in relation to one another category organized itself in some form of hierarchy. 例如,个体的动物属于种,种属于属,属属于科,科属于目,目属于纲。 For example, an individual animal belongs to the species, species belonging to the genus, the genus belongs to the families, families belong to the eyes, head belonging to the class.

随着计算机系统的出现,储存电子信息的技术已经得到发展,很大程度上反映了人们对分层组织的需求。 With the advent of the computer system, electronic information storage technology has been developed, largely reflecting the demand for hierarchically organized. 例如,通常采用基于分层组织原理实现传统计算机文件系统。 For example, commonly used to achieve a traditional computer file system based on the principle of hierarchical organization. 具体地,通常的文件系统具有按层次设置的目录以及储存在目录中的文档(document)。 Specifically, the usual file system with directories and documents (document) is stored in the directory hierarchically arranged. 理想地是,目录之间的层次关系反映了已经赋予目录的含义之间的某种直观关系。 Ideally, the relationship between the level of directories reflect a relationship between intuitive meanings already given directory. 同样,理想地是,每个文档基于在文档的内容和用来储存该文件的目录被赋予的含义之间的某种直观关系被储存在目录中。 Also, desirably, each document based on the contents of the document and for storing the relationship between some intuitive meaning is given directory of the file is stored in the directory.

图1示出了典型的文件系统的实例。 FIG 1 illustrates an example of a typical file system. 示出的文件系统包括按层次排列的多个目录。 The file system shown comprises a plurality of directories are arranged hierarchically. 在目录中储存有两个文档118和122。 There are two documents stored in the directory 118 and 122. 特别地,文档118和122的名称都是“Example.doc”,分别储存在目录116和124中,这两个目录的名称分别为“Word”和“App4”。 In particular, document name 118, and 122 are "Example.doc", are stored in the directory 116 and 124, the two directory names are "Word" and "App4".

在目录层次中,目录116是名称为“Windows”的目录114的子目录,目录114是目录110的子目录。 In the directory hierarchy, the directory 116 is the name for the "Windows" directory subdirectories 114, 114 directory is the directory subdirectory 110. 类似地,目录124是名称为“VMS”的目录126的子目录,目录126是目录110的子目录。 Similarly, the 124 is the name of the directory as "VMS" 126 subdirectories directories, subdirectories directory is 126 110. 目录110被称之为“根”目录,原因在于,该目录是所有其他目录起源的目录。 Directory 110 is called the "root" directory because the directory is the origin of all other directories. 在很多系统中,符号“/”用来指示根目录。 In many systems, the symbol "/" is used to indicate the root directory.

当按层次组织电子信息时,根据通过分层结构到包含该数据项的实体的“路径”可以查找信息的每一数据项。 When the electronic information organized hierarchically, according to the "path" through the hierarchy to an entity containing the data item can be found in each of the data items. 在一个分层文件系统中,到数据项的路径由根目录开始,沿着目录的层次结构向下进行,最终到达包含感兴趣的数据项的目录。 In a hierarchical file system, the path to the data item starting from the root directory, a directory down the hierarchy, the final directory data items of interest comprise arrival. 例如,到文档118的路径依次包括目录110、114、以及116。 For example, the path to the document 118 includes a directory 110, 114 in turn, and 116.

分层存储系统通常允许不同的数据项具有相同的名称。 Hierarchical storage systems typically allow different data items have the same name. 例如,在图1所示的文件系统中,文档118和122的名称都是“Example.doc”。 For example, in the file system shown in FIG. 1, the document name 118 and 122 are "Example.doc". 从而,为了明确地识别给定文档,除了文档名称之外还有其它要求。 Accordingly, in order to unambiguously identify a given document, in addition to the name of the document as well as other requirements.

一种用来识别和定位储存在分层存储系统中的信息的特定数据项的简便方法是通过使用“路径名称”。 Easy way to a particular data item is used to identify and locate information stored in a hierarchical storage system is using the "path name." 路径名称法是一种根据通过分层结构到数据项的路径来唯一识别数据项的简便方法。 Method path name is an easy way to uniquely identify the data item according to the path through the hierarchy of data items. 路径名称包括一序列名称。 Name sequence comprising a path name. 在文件系统的情况下,在该名称序列中的每个名称都是“文件名”。 In the case of the file system, each name in the name of the sequence are "file name." 术语“文件名”指的是目录名称和文档的名称,原因在于,目录和文档均被当作“文件”。 The term "file name" refers to the name of the directory and the name of the document, because, directories and documents are treated as "files."

在文件系统中,给定路径名中的文件名序列开始于根目录的名称,包括沿着从根目录到感兴趣的数据项的路径的所有目录的名称,结束于感兴趣的数据项的名称。 In the file system, the given file name in the series path name begins at the root of the name, the directory includes the names of all data items along the path from the root to the interest, the name of the data items of interest to the end of . 通常,要遍历的目录列表使用某种分隔符号(例如,“/”、“\”、或“;”)连接起来,以产生路径名称。 Typically, to traverse the list of directories to use some delimiter (e.g., "/", "\", or ";") connected to generate the path name. 因此,文档118的路径名称是:/Windows/Word/Example.doc,而文档122的路径名称是:/VMS/App4/Example.doc。 Accordingly, the document 118 is the path name: /Windows/Word/Example.doc, the document 122 is the path name: /VMS/App4/Example.doc.

目录(文件)及其所包含的内容之间的关系随着分层组织系统的类型的不同而显著变化。 The relationship between the directory (file) and its contents contain hierarchically organized with different types of systems vary significantly. 在多种实施方式(例如Windows和DOS文件系统)所采用的一种模式中,需要每个文件刚好具有一个父,形成树状结构。 In one embodiment, various modes (e.g., Windows and DOS file system) used, it is necessary for each file has exactly one parent, form a tree structure. 在更复杂的模式中(例如在使用硬连接的UNIX文件系统中),分层结构采用定向图的形式,文件能够具有多个父。 In a more complex pattern (e.g. in a UNIX file system hard-wired), the hierarchical structure in the form of a directed graph, a file can have multiple parent.

和用来组织电子信息的分层法相反,关系数据库将信息储存在由行和列组成的表中。 Hierarchical organization and method for electronic information of contrast, information is stored in a relational database table consists of rows and columns. 通过唯一的RowID来识别每行。 Each row is identified by a unique RowID. 每列代表了记录的属性,每行代表了特定的记录。 Each column represents an attribute record, each row represents a specific record. 通过向管理数据库的数据库管理系统(DBMS)提交查询,从数据库中获取数据。 Retrieve data from the database by submitting queries to the database management database management system (DBMS). 查询必须遵循数据库管理系统支持的数据库语言。 Queries must follow the database management system to support database language. 结构化查询语言(SQL)是很多现有数据库管理系统支持的数据库语言的例子。 Structured Query Language (SQL) database language is an example of the many existing database management system supports.

每种储存系统都有优点和缺点。 Each storage system has advantages and disadvantages. 分层组织的储存系统简单、直观、易于实现,是多数应用程序使用的标准模式。 Hierarchically organized storage system is simple, intuitive, easy to implement, is a standard model used in most applications. 不幸地是,简单的分层组织没有提供复杂数据检索操作所需要的支持。 Unfortunately, a simple hierarchical organization does not provide support for complex data retrieval operation required. 例如,必须检查每一目录的内容,从而检索某天创建的具有特定文件名的所有文档。 For example, you must check the contents of each directory, to retrieve all documents have a specific file name of the day to create. 由于必须搜索所有文件,分层组织不便于检索过程。 The need to search for all files, hierarchical organization is not easy retrieval process.

关系数据库系统非常适于储存大量的信息并以非常灵活的方式存取数据。 A relational database system is adapted to store a very large amount of information and access to data in a flexible manner. 相对于分层组织系统而言,即使符合复杂的搜索条件的数据也可容易并高效地从关系数据系统中检索到。 With respect to the hierarchical organization of the system, even if the data conform to complicated search criteria can be readily and efficiently retrieved from relational data to the system. 然而,定制并向数据库服务器提交查询的进程却没有仅遍历分层目录直观,并且超出了很多计算机用户所掌握的技术程度。 However, custom queries submitted to the database server process has not only intuitive hierarchical directory traversal, and beyond what many technical computer users disposal.

过去,分层组织系统和关系组织系统以不同的相不兼容的方式实现。 In the past, hierarchical organization system and the relationship between organizational systems implemented in different phases incompatible ways. 然而,通过一些额外程序,关系组织系统能够模拟分层组织系统。 However, through a number of additional procedures, organizational relations system can simulate hierarchical organization system. 当需要关系系统的储存能力和灵活性,同时又需要分层系统的直观性和普遍性时,尤其需要这种模拟。 When the required storage capacity and flexibility of relational systems, but also need intuitive and universal hierarchical system, in particular, we need this simulation.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

通过实例说明本发明,并非用于限制本发明,在附图中,相同的标号代表相同的部件,其中:图1示出分层文件系统的框图;图2示出和源相关联的节点层次的框图;图3是根据本发明的实施例的能够被用来捕捉图2中示出的层次的关系表的框图;图4示出根据本发明的实施例的分层结构和内容结构的框图;图5是关系表的框图,其中通过储存在相应于叶节点的行中的值示出信息层次的非叶结点;图6是储存在图5的表中的数据隐含的层次的框图;以及图7是可以实施本发明的实施例的系统的框图。 The invention is illustrated by way of example and not intended to limit the present invention, in the drawings, like reference numerals represent like parts, in which: Figure 1 shows a block diagram of a hierarchical file system; FIG. 2 illustrates the node hierarchy associated with the source and a block diagram; FIG. 3 is an embodiment of the present invention can be used to block diagram in FIG 2 shows a hierarchical relation table captures; block diagram showing a configuration of a hierarchical structure and content of FIG. 4 shows an embodiment of the present invention. ; FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a relational table, stored in the line through which the leaf node corresponding to the information showing the level value of non-leaf node; FIG. 6 is stored in the data table of FIG. 5 a block diagram of implicit hierarchy ; and FIG. 7 is a block diagram of an embodiment of the system embodiment of the present invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

本发明描述了用于在关系数据库系统的结构中储存属于信息层次的源的方法和系统。 The present invention describes a method and system for storing information pertaining to the source level in the structure of the relational database system. 在以下的描述中,出于说明目的,为了提供对本发明的透彻理解而阐明了许多具体细节。 In the following description, for illustrative purposes, in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention, numerous specific details are set forth. 然而,很显然,即使没有这些特定细节,本发明也能实施。 However, it is clear that without these specific details, the present invention can also be implemented. 在其它实例中,为了避免对本发明不必要的模糊,以方框图示出已知结构和装置。 In other instances, in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the present invention, in a block diagram of a known structures and devices.

功能概述本发明提供了多种便于在关系数据库系统中管理分层数据的技术。 Functional Overview The present invention provides a variety of easy to manage hierarchical data in a relational database system in the art. 根据一个实施例,将用来储存属于层次的源的存储结构(“内容结构(content structure)”)与用来储存捕捉关于层次的数据的存储结构(“分层结构(hierarchy structure)”)分开。 According to one embodiment, the storage structure for storing the source belongs level ( "content structure (content structure)") and trapping memory for storing data on the structure hierarchy ( "hierarchy (hierarchy structure)") are separated .

在一些情况下,在分层结构之外维持的现有数据中已经明确地和隐含地反映了层次。 In some cases, existing data maintained outside of the hierarchy has been explicitly and implicitly reflects the level. 这样的层次被称作“先有层次”。 This level is called the "first level." 在这些情况下,需要在分层结构中捕捉先有层次,以便分层结构可以被用作到源的可选访问路径。 In these cases, it is necessary to capture the hierarchy level prior to the hierarchical structure may be used as an alternative source of the access path. 例如,根据路径信息,可用分层结构访问源。 For example, according to the path information, the hierarchical structure can be used to access the source. 而且,即使当通过直接向内容结构发出查询来访问源时,访问操作也能获得所有特征的益处,并访问和分层结构相关的结构,例如,任何安全机制和任何索引,安全机制内建在分层结构中,索引被建立以增强根据源在层次中的位置来访问源的操作性能。 Moreover, even when the query is issued directly to the content structure to access source, access operations can reap the benefits of all the features of, and access to the hierarchical structure and related structures, for example, any security mechanisms and any index, built-in security mechanisms hierarchical structure, the index was established to enhance the operating performance according to the source position in the hierarchy to access the source.

每个先有层次都与以下数据关联,(1)存在于分层结构之外的数据,以及(2)反映了先有层次的数据。 Each level is associated with prior data the following, (1) the data is present outside the hierarchy, and (2) reflect the prior level data. 这里将这样的数据称作“外部层次定义”。 Such data will be referred to herein, "the definition of the external level." 为了在分层结构中捕捉先有层次,必须根据外部层次定义将数据(此处指的是“内部层次定义”)添加到分层结构中。 In order to capture the prior level hierarchy, the data (referred to herein as "internal hierarchical definition") must be added to the hierarchy level of an external definition.

已经捕捉先有层次后,还存在两组反映层次的独立数据:外部层次定义和内部层次定义。 There has been captured after the first level, there are two sets of data reflect the level of independence: internal and external levels defined level definitions. 改变任一种定义都改变了层次。 Change any of the definitions have changed levels. 由此,为了维持层次的一致性反映,响应于对外部层次定义做出的改变,必须改变内部层次定义。 Thus, in order to maintain a level of consistency reflects, in response to a change in the definition of the external level to make, it is necessary to change the internal level definition. 此处描述了用于维持两种层次定义之间的一致性的多项技术。 It described herein for maintaining consistency between the two levels defined by a number of techniques.

在关系数据库系统中储存分层数据图2示出实例中使用的层次200的框图,此处给出的实例是为了便于理解对本发明实施例。 Hierarchical data storing FIG 2 shows a block diagram of the example hierarchy 200 used in a relational database system, examples are given here to facilitate understanding of the embodiments of the present invention. 层次200包括八个节点。 Level 200 includes eight nodes. 在该层次中最高等级的节点被称作“根”节点。 In the highest level of the hierarchy node it is called the "root" node. 每个分支的末端的节点是“叶”节点。 End node of each branch of the "leaf" nodes. 根节点和叶结点之间的节点是“中间”节点。 Between the root node and the leaf nodes are "intermediate" node. 在示意性层次中,节点1、2、以及3是中间节点,节点4、5、6、以及7是叶节点。 In the illustrative hierarchy, nodes 1, 2, and 3 is an intermediate node, the nodes 4,5,6, and 7 is a leaf node.

在信息层次中,节点对应于信息。 In the hierarchy of information, information corresponding to the node. 通常,和每个节点相关联的信息项将有某种形式的名称和某种类型的内容。 Typically, items and information associated with each node will have some form of the name and some type of content. 例如,在相应于分层文件系统的层次中,节点通常相应于文件(这里,“文件夹”或“目录”是文件的一种类型)。 For example, the level corresponding to a hierarchical file system, the node generally corresponds to the file (here, "folder" or "directory" is a type of file). 每个这样的文件将具有名称、以及某种形式的内容。 Each such file will have the name, as well as some form of content.

在很多情况下,在层次中和节点相关的名称不必是唯一的。 In many cases, the node in the hierarchy and associated names need not be unique. 在图2示出的实例中,节点1和节点7都具有名称“a”。 In the example shown in FIG. 2, nodes 1 and 7 have the name "a". 尽管它们的名称相同,但它们却是分别的不同的节点,在层次中占有不同的位置,与完全不同的内容相关联。 Although they have the same name, but they are of different nodes respectively, occupy different positions in the hierarchy, associated with completely different content.

一种规格适用全部(ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL)图3是可用来代表关系数据库系统中的层次200的两张表(源表302和链接表350)的框图。 A specification suitable for all (ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL) FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a relational database system, two-level table 200 (source link table 302 and table 350) is used to represent. 源表302包括用于层次中的每个节点的行。 Source table 302 includes a row for each node in the hierarchy. 用于给定结点的行包括与给定节点关联的名称以及和给定节点关联的数据。 Line for a given node includes a name associated with a given node and the given node and the associated data. 例如,行304相应于节点1,包含和节点1关联的名称“a”和数据306。 For example, the row 304 corresponding to the node 1, and comprises a name associated with a node "a" and the data 306. 源表302是一种规格适用全部的方法的实例,其中,在层次中用于所有数据源的数据被储存在相同的结构中,而不考虑这些源的数据类型。 Source table 302 is an example of a specification suitable for all methods, wherein in the hierarchy for all the data sources are stored in the same structure, regardless of the type of data sources. 在源表302的实例中,用来储存源数据内容的数据结构是单列308。 In the example of source table 302, the data structure used to store content data source 308 is separate. 用于该列的数据可以是例如LOB(Large Object,大对象)型的,诸如二进制LOB(BLOB)或字符LOB(CLOB)。 The data for the column may be, for example, LOB (Large Object, large object) type, such as binary LOB (BLOB) or character LOB (CLOB).

链接表350包括用于层次200中的每对父-子关系的一行。 Link table 350 includes 200 levels for each of the parent - child relationship in a row. 父列378持有表示父-子关系的父的值,子列380持有表示父-子关系的子的值。 378 held by the parent column represents the parent - child relationship of the value of the parent, the child holding the column 380 represents the parent - child relationship of the value of the child. 例如,行352表示根节点是节点1的父。 For example, line 352 represents the parent node is the root of 1. 同样,行354和行356分别表示节点1是节点2和节点3的父。 Similarly, row 354 and row 356 respectively indicate nodes 1 and 2 is the parent node of the node 3.

将分层结构与内容结构分开表302和350以关系格式捕捉层次200的所有信息。 The hierarchical structure and content structure separate table all the information 302 and 350 in a relational format capture level 200. 但是,如果与层次200关联的源数据的内容使用由源表302代表的一种规格适用全部的方法储存,则不可能完全利用关系数据库系统的能力。 However, if the source data is associated with all of the hierarchy 200 using the standard method is applied from a source table representative storage 302, it is impossible to fully utilize the capabilities of the relational database system. 特别地,源表302包括用于将和节点关联的资源内容储存在层次200中的单列。 In particular, table 302 includes a source and a single resource content associated with the node 200 in the storage hierarchy. 当和节点关联的源数据是简单的数据类型(例如,字符串或整型)时,这样的储存格式是足够用的。 When the source node associated with the data and is simple data types (e.g., string or integer), the format of such storage is adequate. 但是,在很多情况下,在层次中和节点关联的源数据是复杂的数据类型,例如,复杂记录或XML文档。 However, in many cases, in the hierarchy of the source data and the node is associated with complex data types, such as records or complex XML documents. 在这样的情况下,源数据在单列中储存制约了用户对内容进行复杂搜索的能力。 In this case, the source data is stored in a single row to restrict the user's ability to search the contents of complex. 即使当该数据库系统提供了对在单列中搜索复杂的源数据分量的支持时,这样的搜索性能也会受到损害。 Even when the database search system provides support for complex data sources in a single component, such a search performance will suffer.

根据本发明的一个实施例,通过将和节点相关联的源内容和捕捉分层信息的表分开储存,克服了与储存和搜索属于信息层次的复杂源数据相关的问题。 According to one embodiment of the present invention, by separately storing the contents and the source associated with the node table and hierarchical information capture, overcomes the problems with complex data source and storing information pertaining to hierarchical search related.

例如,图4示出了与源表302类似的源表402。 For example, FIG. 4 shows a similar source of source table 302 table 402. 然而,源表402和源表302的不同之处在于源表402不再在每个源数据的行中储存该源数据的内容。 However, different from the source tables 402 and 302 of source table 402 in the source table of contents of the source data is no longer stored in each row of the source data. 当然,源表302中的DATA列被源表402中的DATA TYPE列以及DATA REF列这两列代替。 Of course, DATA columns in the source table 302 is 402 DATA TYPE columns and two rows instead of columns of the source table DATA REF.

对于源表402中的每行,DATA TYPE列储存指示和在行中识别的节点相关联的源类型的数据。 The source table 402 in each row, DATA TYPE column type storage source node and the associated data indicating the identified row. 例如,行404相应于层次200的节点1。 For example, row 404 corresponds to a node of a hierarchy 200. 行404的DATA TYPE列示出和节点1关联的源的类型为T1。 DATA TYPE row type 404 are listed as an associated node and a source of T1. 同样,行406相应于节点3,且行406的DATA TYPE列指示和节点3相关联的源的类型为T5。 Similarly, line 406 corresponding to the node 3, and the line DATA TYPE column indicates the type of node 406 and the source 3 is associated T5.

对于源表402的每行,DATA REF列储存着和在行中识别的节点相关联的源的参考信息。 For each row of source table 402, DATA REF to the reference information storing column and row sources associated with nodes identified. 如此处使用的,术语“参考”通常指在数据系统中用来定位其他数据的任何数据。 As used herein, the term "reference" generally refers to any data system is used to locate the other data. 例如,DATA REF列能够储存指针、或更复杂的信息,诸如Oracle数据库系统支持的“ref”数据类型。 For example, DATA REF columns capable of storing the pointer, or more complex information, such as the "ref" data type supported by the Oracle database system. 本发明并不限于用于定位和层次中的节点相关联的源的任何特定类型的数据。 The present invention is not limited to any particular type of source for the positioning and the node hierarchy associated with the data.

与分层结构分开储存源内容有很多益处,分层结构用来捕捉并反映源数据之间的层次关系。 Storage hierarchy separate source content and has many benefits, hierarchy used to capture and reflect the hierarchical relationship between the source data. 例如,由于源数据与源表402分开储存,所以可以根据源数据的属性定义其中储存有源数据的内容结构。 For example, since the source data in the source table 402 stored separately, it is possible to store the contents according to the attribute data structure of the active source data defined therein. 例如,和节点1关联的源数据是雇员记录,该源数据被储存在具有用于每一雇员记录字段的列的表450中。 For example, source data and an associated node employee records, the source data is stored in a column having a field for each record in the employee table 450. 另一方面,和节点3关联的源数据是公司记录,该源数据被储存在具有用于每一公司记录字段的列的表456中。 On the other hand, the source node 3 and the associated data record company, the source data is stored in a column having a field for each record company table 456.

另外,因为分层结构(例如,表402和350)和内容结构(例如,表450和456)分开,所以可以为现有的关系数据建立分层体系,对数据容量的影响很小,并且不需要改变用于访问该数据的现有询问。 Further, since the layered structure (e.g., table 402, and 350), and the content structure (e.g., tables 450 and 456) are separated, it is possible to establish a hierarchy of existing relational data, impact on data capacity is small, and does not need to change the existing asked for access to the data. 例如,员工表450可以在决定将信息安排进层次200很早之前就已经存在。 For example, employees table 450 may have existed long before the decision to arrange information into the 200 level. 同样,在决定之前,可以已经为访问表450已经定义了很多询问和视图。 Also, before you decide, you can already access the table 450 already defines a number of inquiries and views. 因为能够创建表350和402而不影响表450的现有结构,可以建立用于层次200的含有储存在表450中的资源的分层结构,而不需要访问表450或用于改变表450现存查询和视图。 Because it can create tables 350 and 402 without affecting the existing structure of the table 450 may be established hierarchy level 200 for containing the resources stored in a table 450, without the need for changing the access list 450 or table 450 existing queries and views.

根据一个实施例,可以以使用用于一些资源的一种规格适用全部的方法来实现资源表402,资源表402还包括对其他资源内容的参考。 According to one embodiment, it is possible to use one size for all of the resources of some suitable methods to achieve resource table 402, resource table 402 also includes a reference to other resource content. 例如,虽然和节点1关联的资源内容可以被储存在表450中,但是,和节点2关联的资源内容可以继续储存在表402的单个的LOB列中。 For example, although the resource content associated with a node and may be stored in table 450, however, the resources associated with the node 2, and the content may continue to be stored in a single table 402 LOB column. 资源的数据类型,如在DATA TYPE列中示出的,可以被数据库服务器用作确定是否在资源表402的LOB列或一个或多个分离的表中储存资源内容的一个因素。 The data type of the resource, as shown in the column DATA TYPE, the database server may be used as a factor in determining LOB column or one or more separate table whether the resource table 402 stored in the resource content.

先前存在的层次表450最初就可以完全孤立于分层结构存在,诸如资源表402和链接表350。 Pre-existing level table 450 initially can be completely isolated from the existence of a hierarchical structure, such as resource table 402 and the link table 350. 因此,分层结构最初没有捕捉关于表450中的数据可以属于的任何数据结构的任何信息。 Thus, the initial layered structure without any capture any information on the data structure of the table 450 may belong. 然而,储存在这样的分层结构外部的信息可以明确地或隐含地在表450的各行之间建立层次。 However, such information is stored in an external hierarchical structure or may be explicitly established hierarchy between the rows of table 450 implicitly.

在表450的情况下,通过包含在EMD_ID和MANAGER列中的信息隐含地建立这样的层次。 In the case of table 450, to establish such a level implicitly by the information contained in the EMD_ID and MANAGER columns. 特别地,表450的EMD_ID和MANAGER列中的数据建立一隐含的“管理层次”,其中:和emp_id1关联的员工直接在和emp_id 3关联的员工之下;和emp_id 2关联的员工直接在和emp_id 1关联的员工之下;以及和emp_id 3关联的员工没有任何管理者(从而是管理层次的根节点)。 In particular, data EMD_ID MANAGER list 450 and in an implicit establishment "management level", wherein: emp_id1 and directly under the associated staff and staff associated emp_id. 3; and two employees associated directly and emp_id under 1 associated emp_id staff; and emp_id 3 and associated personnel do not have any managers (and thus the management level of the root node).

在现在的实例中,管理层次是先前存在的层次且储存在EMD_ID和MANAGER列中的数据包括外部层次定义。 In the present example, the management level is the previously existing data stored in the hierarchy and EMD_ID MANAGER column and includes an outer level definition. 根据管理层次,使用分层结构访问表450中的数据,必须在分层表中捕捉关于管理层次的信息。 According to management level, hierarchy access table data using 450, you must capture information on management level in a hierarchical table. 用于捕捉关于先前存在的数据结构的信息的多种技术将在此后作详细描述。 Various techniques for capturing information about a data structure of preexisting will hereinafter be described in detail.

捕捉先前存在的层次根据一个实施例,捕捉先前存在的层次信息涉及:(1)在源表中储存一列用于先前存在的层次中的每个节点,以及(2)在分层结构(例如,分层索引)中储存捕捉先前存在的层次的节点之间的父-子关系的信息。 Capture preexisting level according to one embodiment embodiment, preexisting level captured information relates to: (1) for storing a pre-existing level of each node, and (2) in the hierarchy (e.g., in the source table, layered index) is stored in the capture of previously existing between the parent-level node - child relationship information. 另外,如果先前存在的层次被嫁接进已经在分层结构中反映的较大的层次中,那么,必须将元数据增加到分层结构中,以将先前存在的层次的根节点建立为较大数据结构中的节点的子。 In addition, if the pre-existing level grafted into a larger level has been reflected in the hierarchy, then, it must be added to the metadata hierarchy in order to pre-existing levels of root build larger child node data structure.

执行以下任务的操作是相当直接的:(1)在资源表中储存用于先前存在的层次中的每个节点的行,以及(2)将用于嫁接先前存在的层次的节点的元数据增加给较大的层次。 The following operations are performed tasks fairly straightforward: the metadata node level (1) for each node storing a pre-existing hierarchy row in the resource table, and (2) for grafting to increase preexisting to a larger level. 另一方面,根据外部层次定义的属性,可以改变用于捕捉先前存在的层次的节点之间的父-子关系的技术。 On the other hand, according to the external level defined attributes can be changed for the captured between the parent hierarchy node preexisting - child relationship in the art. 例如,如果SQL关系定义父-子关系,那么,采用使用合适的connect-by子句的SQL命令可以捕捉父-子信息。 For example, if the SQL definition of the relationship between parent - child relationship, then, using the appropriate use of connect-by clause SQL commands can capture a parent - child information. 作为选择,如果根据层次相关的字段,父-子关系是隐含的,那么,采用列举法可以捕捉父-子信息。 Alternatively, if the field level according to the relevant parent - child relationship is implied, then, using the enumeration method can capture a parent - child information. 将在下面详细描述connect-by和列举法。 Connect-by will be described in detail below and exemplified method.

先前存在的层次的自动捕捉根据一个实施例,数据库被配置,以响应于接收关于先前存在的层次的某种信息,自动执行先前存在层次捕捉操作。 Preexisting levels of automatic capture, according to one embodiment, the database is configured, in response to receiving certain information about the pre-existing level, automatically performing a pre-existing hierarchy capture. 具体而言,根据一个实施例,数据库被配置,以响应于接收(1)用于识别和先前存在的层次关联的内容结构的信息和(2)用于指示在特定内容结构中包含的资源之间建立父-子关系的标准的连接标准,自动地执行先前存在的层次捕捉操作。 Specifically, according to one embodiment, the database is configured, in response to receiving (1) for identifying the content and structure of the hierarchy information associated with the preexisting and (2) for indicating the resources included in the specific content of the structure established between the parent - child relationships standard connectivity standard, automatically performs pre-existing levels of capture operation.

出于说明目的,假定希望捕捉和表450关联的管理层次。 For purposes of illustration, suppose you want to capture and management levels tables 450 associated with it. 在这种情况下,响应于接收(1)识别表450的数据和(2)指示表450的给定行是EMD_ID等同于在给定行中规定的MANAGER的行的子,能够执行自动捕捉操作。 In this case, in response to the received data (1) recognition table 450 and (2) table 450 indicates a given row is equal to the sub-row EMD_ID MANAGER specified in the given row, the operation can be performed automatically captures . 可以根据这一信息用来自动捕捉先前存在的层次的技术将在下面描述。 Automatically capture technique previously existing level will be described below according to this information.

使用CONNET BY捕捉父-子关系如前边所提到的,一些先前存在的层次的父-子关系由SQL关系示出。 Capture using CONNET BY parent - child relationship as mentioned front, some of the pre-existing parent level - child relationship is illustrated by the SQL relational. 例如,通过包含在表450的MANAGER列中的数据建立表450中的记录的管理层次。 For example, establishing a table record 450 in the data management hierarchy MANAGER list 450 contains. 在这种情况下,先前存在的层次的父-子关系可以通过使用采用合适的CONNECT BY子句的数据库命令来捕捉。 In this case, the level of pre-existing parent - child relationship can be captured by using the CONNECT BY clause, using the appropriate database commands.

例如,管理层次的自动捕捉操作通过以下动作执行:(1)在资源表402中创建行,以代表对应于表450中的行的节点;以及(2)通过执行包括CONNECT BY子句的SQL语句产生关于那些节点之间的分层关系的元数据。 For example, management, automatic capture operation performed by the following: (1) in the resource table 402 to create rows, corresponding to the table 450 to represent a node in a row; and (2) comprises a CONNECT BY clause is executed by the SQL statement generate metadata about the hierarchical relationships between those nodes. 资源表402中代表用于表450的特定行的节点的每行都具有对该特定行的参考。 Each row in the resource table 402 represents a node of a particular row of the table 450 has a reference to the particular row. 例如,资源表402的行404代表用于表450的行420的节点,从而包括对行420的参考。 For example, resource table 402 row 404 represents a row of the table 450 of node 420 to include a reference to the line 420.

关于生成和先前存在的层次相关联的路径信息,假设表450被命名为'EMP'并被定义以包括下述列:(emp_id integer,first_namevarchar2(80),last_name varchar2(80),age integer,manager integer )。 Generating path information about the presence and levels previously associated, assume table 450 is named 'EMP' and is defined to include the following columns: (emp_id integer, first_namevarchar2 (80), last_name varchar2 (80), age integer, manager integer). 在这些情况下,使用CONNECT BY关系(例如,'START WITHmanager IS NULL CONNECT BY PRIOR manager=emp_id')生成条目树(根据数据,可变深度)。 In these cases, use CONNECT BY relationship (e.g., 'START WITHmanager IS NULL CONNECT BY PRIOR manager = emp_id') generating entry in the tree (based on the data, variable depth). 在这种情况下,用户通常也能够指定列值以用作路径元素的名称(即'first_name')。 In this case, the user typically can be used to specify the name of the column value path element (i.e., 'first_name').

使用列举法捕捉先前存在的层次在一些情况下,可以通过相互具有层次关系的字段隐含定义先前存在的层次。 Enumeration method used to capture the pre-existing hierarchy in some cases, may be implicitly defined by a preexisting level field having a hierarchical relationship to each other. 例如,考虑包含一个许诺销售的产品列表的关系表。 For example, consider the relationship table contains a list of products offered for sale. 例如,这样的关系表可以如下定义:CREATE TABLE PRODUCT_INFO(manufacturer VARCHAR2(128)product_type VARCHAR2(48)product_name VARCHAR2(80)sku NUMBER);这样的表可被填充,例如,如图5中的表500所示出的。 For example, such a table can be defined as follows: CREATE TABLE PRODUCT_INFO (manufacturer VARCHAR2 (128) product_type VARCHAR2 (48) product_name VARCHAR2 (80) sku NUMBER); such a table may be filled, e.g., as shown in Table 500 It is shown. 在该实例中,层次被隐含在MANUFACTURER、PRODUCT_TYPE、PRODUCT_NAME、以及SKU字段之间的分层关系中。 In this example, the hierarchy is implicit in the hierarchical relationship between MANUFACTURER, PRODUCT_TYPE, PRODUCT_NAME, and SKU field. 特别地,每个SKU值是和特定的PRODUCT_NAME值关联的很多潜在的SKU值中的一个。 In particular, the value of each SKU SKU number of potential values ​​and specific values ​​associated PRODUCT_NAME one. 每个PRODUCT_NAME值是和特定的PRODUCT_TYPE值关联的很多潜在的PRODUCT_NAME值中的一个。 Each PRODUCT_NAME value is a lot of potential PRODUCT_NAME value and values ​​associated with a particular PRODUCT_TYPE one. 每个PRODUCT_TYPE值是和特定的MANUFACTURER值关联的很多潜在的PRODUCT_TYPE值中的一个。 Each value is the number of potential PRODUCT_TYPE PRODUCT_TYPE MANUFACTURER value and values ​​associated with a particular one.

在表500包含的值中隐含的“产品目录层次”由图6说明。 Implicit in the value contained in table 500 "catalog level" is illustrated by Figure 6. 参看图6,表500的四个分层相关字段中的每个都对应于分层等级,其中,MANUFACTURER字段是最高等级(仅在根节点之下),SKU字段是最低等级(代表“叶”节点)。 Referring to Figure 6, four hierarchically-related fields in the table 500 corresponds to each hierarchical level, wherein, MANUFACTURER from field is the highest level (just below the root node), the lowest level field SKUs (representing "leaf" node).

当以这种方式定义先前存在的层次时,可以使用列举法来捕捉父-子关系。 When the level of pre-existing defined in this way may be used include a method to capture a parent - child relationship. 特别地,包含卷入层次中的列举值的一列或多列被用来生成“资源集节点(collection node)”。 In particular, the hierarchy comprising recited values ​​involved in the one or more columns are used to generate a "resource node set (collection node)". 每列的每个值都是在层次的某一深度的新“资源集”,每列都被用于层次的新等级。 Each value for each column in the hierarchy of a new "resource sets" the depth of each column is used for the new grade level. 最后给出的列被当作文件,而非资源集。 Finally, the column is treated as a file, rather than a set of resources.

特别地,通过对包含在MANUFACTURER列中的值执行DISTINCT操作,可以建立层次的第一等级中的节点。 In particular, by performing operation on the values ​​contained in the DISTINCT MANUFACTURER column, the first level may be established in the node hierarchy. 通过连接用于所有行的MANUFACTURER和PRODUCT_TYPE值,并对连接后的产生的值执行DISTINCT操作,可以建立层次的第二等级中的节点。 And by connecting a MANUFACTURER PRODUCT_TYPE values ​​for all the rows, and performs operations DISTINCT value generated by the connection can be established in the second level hierarchy nodes. 同样,通过连接用于所有行的MANUFACTURER、PRODUCT_TYPE、以及PRODUCT_NAME值,并对连接后的产生的值执行DISTINCT操作,可以建立层次的第三等级中的节点。 Also, by connecting a MANUFACTURER, PRODUCT_TYPE, PRODUCT_NAME and the values ​​of all rows, and the generated value after the connection operation performed DISTINCT can be established in the third hierarchy level node. 最后,通过连接用于所有行的MANUFACTURER、PRODUCT_TYPE、PRODUCT_NAME、以及SKU值,并对连接后的产生的值执行DISTINCT操作,可以建立层次的叶等级。 Finally, the connection is used MANUFACTURER, PRODUCT_TYPE, PRODUCT_NAME, and SKU values ​​for all rows, and performs DISTINCT operation value generated by the connection can be established hierarchy of the leaf level.

假设给定等级的节点的名称并不是唯一的,执行上述的连接操作。 Assuming that a given level of the node name is not unique, executes the connecting operation. 例如,假设PRODUCT_TYPE值PD1的产品能够具有和PRODUCT_TYPE值PD2的产品相同的名称。 For example, assume PRODUCT_TYPE product can have a value of PD1 and PD2 PRODUCT_TYPE values ​​of the same product name. 然而,如果PRODUCT_NAME列的名称被要求是唯一的,那么,可以通过对PRODUCT_NAME列的值简单地执行DISTINCT操作,获得在层次的PRODUCT_NAME级的节点。 However, if the name of the PRODUCT_NAME column is required to be unique, then you can simply execute DISTINCT operation by the value of the PRODUCT_NAME column, get PRODUCT_NAME level node in the hierarchy.

应当注意,通过储存在容纳用于节点的资源的关系表行中的值代表每个叶节点的相关路径名称。 It should be noted that by storing values ​​in the resource table rows for receiving representative node associated path name of each leaf node. 例如,行502(图5)容纳用于节点602(图6)的资源和对应于相关路径/MF1/PD2/PN3/SKU3的行502的列中的值。 For example, line 502 (FIG. 5) resource node 602 (FIG. 6) for receiving and path correlation value corresponding to the column / MF1 / PD2 / PN3 / SKU3 in line 502. 因此,当寻找特定节点(例如MF1/FD2)的子时,用于该节点的列被隐含地用来选择子(因此,用来寻找MF1/PD2的子的SQL将是'SELECT FROM PRODUCT_INFO WHEREmanufacture='MF1'and'product_type'='PD2”)。 Thus, when looking for a particular node (e.g. MF1 / FD2) of neutrons, a column for the node is used to select sub implicitly (and therefore, to look for the Sub MF1 / PD2 will be a SQL 'SELECT FROM PRODUCT_INFO WHEREmanufacture = 'MF1'and'product_type' = 'PD2 ").

维持一致性如上所述,在先前存在的层次已经被捕捉后,存在反映该层次的两组独立数据:外部层次定义和内部层次定义。 Maintain consistency As mentioned above, after the pre-existing level has been captured, there is reflection of the level of two separate sets of data: internal and external levels defined level definitions. 为了维持层次的一致性反映,响应于对外部层次做出的改变,必须修改内部层次定义。 In order to maintain a level of consistency reflects, in response to changes made to the external level, you must modify the internal level definition.

例如,一旦捕捉,和表450关联的管理层次反映在(1)储存在分层结构的数据和(2)表450的EMP_ID列中的数据和表450的MANAGER列中的数据之间的关系中。 For example, once captured, and associated management table 450 is reflected in the levels of (1) the relationship between the data stored in a hierarchical data structure and (2) in Table EMP_ID column 450 and MANAGER list 450 in . 因此,对管理层次的改变可以通过以下方式完成:(1)改变表450的EMP_ID或MANAGER列中的值或(2)改变分层结构中的值。 Thus, changes to the levels of management may be completed in the following ways: (1) changing the table values ​​or EMP_ID MANAGER values ​​in the column 450 or (2) changes in the hierarchy. 为了维持分层结构中的数据和EMP_ID或MANAGER列中的数据的一致性,需要建立机制,使得对一组数据的改变会自动引起对另一组数据的相应修改。 In order to maintain consistency of data in the data hierarchy and EMP_ID or MANAGER column, mechanisms are needed, so that changes to a set of data is automatically causes a corresponding modification of another set of data.

根据一个实施例,改变表450,以做出作为对资源表402的巡视的一部分的某些检查(例如,安全性检查),也可以做出这些检查用于遍历表450。 According to one embodiment, changing table 450, in order to make some of the checks as to inspect a portion of the resource table 402 (e.g., security checks), these checks can be made to traverse the table 450. 在表450上创建数据操纵语言(Data ManipulationLanguage,DML)触发器,以便对表450进行的插入、更新、或删除操作在分层结构的数据中反映。 Table 450 created on the data manipulation language (Data ManipulationLanguage, DML) triggers, in order to insert a table 450, update, or delete operation reflected in the data hierarchical structure. 例如,如果需要删除表450中的行,则检查确保将被删除的行不会引起任何“悬空行(danglingrows)”。 For example, if you need to remove the table 450 in a row, then check to make sure the deleted rows will not cause any "dangling lines (danglingrows)". 例如,在管理层次中,和行420关联的节点是和行422关联的节点的父。 For example, in the management hierarchy, and the row is the node 420 and the node associated with row 422 associated with the parent. 因此,删除行420将使行422和管理层次分开,从而造成行422“悬空”。 Therefore, delete rows 422 and 420 will separate line management levels, resulting in line 422 "vacant." 因为悬空的行不再是层次的一部分,删除行422将导致从分层结构中删除和行420及行422相关的数据。 Because the floating line is no longer part of the hierarchy, delete rows and rows 422 will result in the deletion lines 420 and 422 related to data from the hierarchy.

同样,当将行插入表450时,分层结构的信息将被更新从而为创建的新路径增加一个条目。 Likewise, when the row into the table 450, the information hierarchy is updated to add an entry for the newly created path. 注意,当插入新行时,则可能允许访问此前不能访问的子树。 Note that when inserting new rows, you might allow access to previously sub-tree can not be accessed. 例如,假设删除行420后,再次插入行420。 For example, suppose you delete the line 420, line 420 is inserted again. 通过插入行420,行422被隐含地嫁接回管理层次。 By inserting the line 420, line 422 is implicitly grafted back to the management level. 因此,行420的插入导致分层结构中的数据被更新,以包含用于行420和行422的节点和路径。 Thus, the data line 420 leads to insertion of the hierarchy is updated to include the node 420 and a path for the rows and row 422.

为维持内部层次定义和外部层次定义之间的一致性,需要执行精确的操作,这些精确的操作随多种因素而变化。 In order to maintain consistency between the internal and external levels defined level definitions, we need to perform precise operation, these precise operation with a variety of factors. 必须做出什么行动的影响以维持一致性的一种因素是外部层次定义的属性。 What actions must make decisions that affect one factor to maintain the consistency of the external level defined attributes. 例如,根据SQL关系对表450应用管理层次,而根据列举对表500应用管理层次。 For example, SQL relational table 450 in accordance with the application management levels, according to the table 500 include application management level. 当删除和管理层次中的叶节点关联的行时,通常,相应于该节点的资源表中的行也将被删除。 When the leaf node delete rows and associated management hierarchy, usually corresponding to the node in the resource table rows will be deleted. 然而,如果删除和产品目录层次的叶节点关联的行,则(1)删除资源表中相应于该节点的行,以及(2)确定被删除的叶节点的父是否有任何剩余的子。 However, if the associated leaf node delete the directory hierarchy and product line, then (1) Delete if the resource table corresponding to the node of the line, and (2) determine the leaf nodes are removed any remaining parent of the child. 如果被删除的叶节点的父没有任何剩余的子。 If the parent leaf nodes are removed without any remaining child. 则删除资源表中相应于该节点的行。 Corresponding to the node line resource table is deleted. 如果删除相应于父节点的行,则确定该父节点的父是否有任何剩余的子。 If the row corresponding to the deleted parent node, the parent node is determined whether there are any remaining parent's child. 如果该父节点的父没有任何剩余的子,则同样删除资源表的和父节点的父相关联的行。 Father does not have any remaining child if the parent node, the same delete rows and parent resource table associated with the parent node. 重复这一过程,删除所有无子非叶节点。 Repeat this process to remove all non-leaf nodes without children.

同样,对于涉及删除表中的所有行的丢弃和截尾操作,执行类似于上述用于删除操作的用于维持一致性的操作。 Also, for operations involving discarded and truncated to delete all the rows in the table, similar to that described above for performing operations for deleting maintain consistency of operation.

在上述实例中,DML触发器根据在内容结构上执行的插入、更新、以及删除操作执行对分层结构中的数据的更改。 In the above example, the DML triggers based on the content execution inserted configuration, update, and delete operations performed on the data changes to the hierarchy. 可以实现例如“INSTEAD OF”触发器的DML触发器。 Can be achieved, for example, DML triggers "INSTEAD OF" triggers. 然而,为了保证一致性,同样必须创建触发器以保证对层次中的数据进行的插入、更新、以及删除操作导致对内容结构中的数据进行相应的操作。 However, in order to ensure consistency, the same trigger must be created to ensure that the insertion of the data hierarchy, updates, and deletes lead to data content structure corresponding operation.

硬件概述图7是一个描述了实现本发明的具体实施例的计算机系统700的框图。 HARDWARE OVERVIEW FIG. 7 is a block diagram depicting a particular embodiment of the present invention is to realize a computer system 700. 计算机系统700包括总线702或其它用于传送信息的通信装置,以及与总线702连接用于处理信息的处理器704。 Computer system 700 includes a bus 702 or other communication means for communicating information, and a bus 702 connected to a processor 704 for processing information. 计算机系统700还包括一个主存储器706,例如随机存取存储器(RAM)或其它动态存储设备,与总线702连接,用于储存信息和将被处理器704执行的指令。 Computer system 700 also includes a main memory 706, such as random access memory (RAM) or other dynamic storage device, coupled to bus 702 for storing information and instructions to be executed by processor 704. 主存储器706也可以被用来储存临时变量或在处理器704执行指令的过程中产生的中间变量。 Main memory 706 may also be used to store temporary variables or intermediate variables generated during execution of instructions in the processor 704. 计算机系统700还包括和总线702相连的只读存储器(ROM)708或者其它静态存储设备,用于储存静态信息和用于处理器704的指令。 Computer system 700 further includes a read only memory (ROM) 708 and coupled to bus 702 or other static storage device for storing static information and instructions for processor 704. 提供了存储设备710,例如磁盘或光盘,连接至总线702,用于储存信息和指令。 A storage device 710, such as a magnetic disk or optical disk, coupled to bus 702 for storing information and instructions.

计算机系统700可以通过总线702连接至显示器712(例如阴极射线管(CRT)),用于显示信息给计算机用户。 The computer system 700 may be coupled to a display 712 (e.g., a cathode ray tube (the CRT)) via bus 702 for displaying information to a computer user. 一包括字母和数字以及其它键的输入装置714,连接至总线702,用于将信息和指令选择传送给处理器704。 Comprising a letter and number keys, and other input device 714, coupled to bus 702 for communicating information and command selections to processor 704. 另一种类型的用户输入装置是光标控制器716,例如鼠标、轨迹球、或者光标方向键,用于传送方向信息和命令选择给处理器704,并用于控制光标在显示器712上的移动。 Another type of user input device is cursor control 716, such as a mouse, a trackball, or cursor direction keys, for communicating direction information and command selections to processor 704 and for controlling cursor movement on display 712. 输入装置通常具有两个轴的两个自由度,一个是第一轴(例如x),一个是第二轴(例如y),这就允许该装置在平面上确定位置。 The input device typically has two degrees of freedom in two axes, a first axis (e.g. X), a second axis (e.g., Y), which allows the device to determine the position on a plane.

本发明涉及计算机系统700的应用,用于实施此处所描述的技术。 The present invention relates to the use of computer system 700 for implementing the techniques described herein. 根据本发明的一个实施例,响应于执行包含在主存储器706中的一个或多个序列的一个或多个指令的处理器704,可以通过计算机系统700实现这些技术。 The processor according to one embodiment of the present invention, in response to one or more sequences of one or more instructions contained in main memory to execute 706 704, 700 may be implemented by a computer system techniques. 这些指令可以从另一计算机可读介质(例如存储装置710)读到主存储器706中。 These instructions may be read (e.g. storage device 710) to read the main memory 706 from another computer. 执行包含在主存储器706中的指令序列,使处理器704执行此处描述的处理步骤。 Execute the sequences of instructions contained in main memory 706, the processor 704 to perform the process steps described herein. 在可选实施例中,硬件连接电路可以被用来代替或与软件指令结合来实现该发明。 In an alternative embodiment, hardware circuitry may be used in place of connection to implement the invention or in combination with software instructions. 因此,本发明的实施例不被限制在任何特定的硬件电路与软件的结合中。 Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention is not limited to any specific combination of hardware circuitry and software.

在这里用到的术语“计算机可读介质”指的是参与提供指令给处理器704用于执行的任何介质。 The term used herein "computer readable medium" refers participates in providing instructions to processor 704 for execution any medium. 这样的介质可能有多种形式,包括但不限于:非易失性介质、易失性介质、传输介质等。 Such a medium may take many forms, including but not limited to: non-volatile media, volatile media, transmission media and the like. 非易失性介质举例来说包括光盘或磁盘,如存储设备710。 Non-volatile media include for example optical or magnetic disks, such as storage device 710. 易失性介质举例来说包括动态存储器,例如主存储器706。 For example Volatile media includes dynamic memory, such as main memory 706. 传输介质包括同轴电缆、铜线、或光纤,也包括构成总线702的布线。 Transmission media includes coaxial cables, copper wire, or fiber optics, including the wiring configuration of the bus 702. 传输介质也可以采用声波或光波的形式,例如无线电波中产生的声波和红外数据通信中的光波。 Transmission media can also take the form of acoustic or light waves, such as acoustic radio wave and infrared data communications generated in the optical wave.

计算机可读介质的通常形式举例来说包括:软盘、软磁盘、硬盘、磁带、或其它任何磁性介质、CD-ROM、其它任何光学介质、穿孔卡片、纸带、其它任何具有孔图案的物理介质、只读存储器(RAM)、可编程只读存储器(PROM)、以及可擦写可编程只读存储器(EPROM)、闪存(FLASH-EPROM)、任何其它记忆芯片或卡式磁带、下文所述的载波信号、或者其它任何计算机可以读取的介质。 Common forms of computer-readable media include for example: a floppy disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, or any other magnetic medium, CD-ROM, any other optical medium, punch cards, paper tape, any other physical medium with patterns of holes, read-only memory (RAM), programmable read only memory (PROM), and erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), a flash memory (FLASH-EPROM), any other memory chip or cartridge, a carrier wave below signal, or any other computer-readable media.

各种形式的计算机可读介质都可以被用来将一个或多个序列的一个或多个指令传送给处理器704用于执行。 Various forms of computer-readable media may be used to transmit one or more sequences of one or more instructions to processor 704 for execution. 例如,指令首先装载到远端计算机的磁盘上。 For example, the instruction is first loaded onto the disk of a remote computer. 这台远端计算机可能把这些指令加载到其动态存储器中,通过调制解调器在电话线上传送指令。 This may be a remote computer loads the instructions into its dynamic memory transfer instructions over a telephone line through a modem. 计算机系统700本地的调制解调器能够通过电话线接收数据,并使用红外发射器把数据转换成红外信号。 A modem local to computer system 700 can receive the data through the telephone line and use an infrared transmitter to convert the data to an infrared signal. 红外探测器可以接收红外信号中携带的数据,合适的电路可以把数据传到总线702上去。 Infrared detector can receive the data carried in the infrared signal and appropriate circuitry can transmit the data to the bus 702 up. 总线702把数据加载到主存储器706中,处理器704再从主存储器中取回数据并执行指令。 The data bus 702 loaded into main memory 706, processor 704 then retrieves data from the main memory and executes the instructions. 主存储器706接收到的指令可以在处理器704执行前或执行后有选择地储存在存储设备710上。 The instructions received by main memory 706 may optionally be stored on storage device 710 before or after execution by processor 704.

计算机系统700还包括一个与总线702相连的通信接口718。 Computer system 700 also includes a communication interface connected to a bus 702,718. 通信接口718提供了一种与连接到局域网络722的网络链路720的双向数据通信。 The communication interface 718 provides a two-way data communication with one kind of network link connected to a local network 720 722. 例如,通信接口718可以是综合服务数字网(ISDN)卡,或者是调制解调器,向相应类型的电话线提供数据通信连接。 For example, communication interface 718 may be an integrated services digital network (ISDN) card or a modem to provide a data communication connection to a corresponding type of telephone line. 作为另一实例,通信接口718可以是局域网(LAN)卡,提供到兼容的局域网的数据通信连接。 As another example, communication interface 718 may be a local area network (LAN) card to provide a data communication connection to a compatible LAN. 也可以实现无线连接。 You can also achieve a wireless connection. 在任何实现方式中,通信接口718都能够发送和接收电信号,电磁信号、或光信号,这些信号承载着代表各种信息的数字数据流。 In any implementation, the communication interface 718 can send and receive electrical, electromagnetic, or optical signals that carry various types of information representative of the digital data streams.

网络链路720一般通过一个或多个网络向其它数据设备提供数据通信。 Network link 720 typically provides data communication to the other data devices via one or more networks. 例如,网络链路720可以提供通过局域网722至主机724或由互联网服务提供商(ISP)726操作的数据装置的连接。 For example, network link 720 may provide a connection through local network 722 to data device 724 or host computer by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) 726 operation. ISP 726反过来又通过万维分组数据通信网络,现在通常称为“互联网”728,提供数据通信服务。 ISP 726 in turn through the World Wide packet data communication network, now commonly referred to as the "Internet" 728, provides data communication services. 局域网722和互联网728都使用承载数字数据流的电信号、电磁信号、或光学信号。 LAN 722 and the Internet 728 both carry digital data using electrical, electromagnetic, or optical signal flow. 经过各种网络的信号、网络链路720上的信号、以及经过通信接口718的信号,承载着送到和来自计算机系统700的数字数据,是传输信息的载波的示范形式。 Through the various networks and the signals, the signals on network link 720 and through communication interface 718, and carrying the digital data sent from the computer system 700, are exemplary forms of carrier waves transporting the information.

计算机系统700可以通过网络、网络链路720、以及通信接口718发送消息和接收数据,包括程序代码。 The computer system 700 may link 720, as well as send messages and receive data via the network communication interface 718, a network, comprising program code. 在互联网实例中,服务器730可以通过互联网728、ISP 726、局域网722、和通信接口718传送被请求的应用程序代码。 In the Internet example, server 730 via the Internet 728, ISP 726, local area network 722, and communication interface 718 transmits the requested application code.

当接收到代码后,接收到的代码可以由处理器704执行,或储存在存储装置710或其他非易失性存储器中用于随后执行。 When the code is received, the received code may be executed by processor 704, or stored for later execution in a storage device 710, or other non-volatile memory. 以这种方式,计算机系统700可以获得载波形式的应用代码。 In this manner, computer system 700 may obtain application code in the form of a carrier wave.

在上述说明书中,已经参考具体实施例说明了本发明。 In the foregoing specification, embodiments have been described with reference to specific embodiments of the present invention. 然而,显然可以对其做出各种变化和改变,而不背离本发明宽广的精神和范围。 However, it will be apparent that various changes and modifications thereof without departing from the broader spirit and scope of the present invention. 因此,说明书和附图仅用来说明而非限定本发明。 Accordingly, the specification and drawings are merely to illustrate and not limit the invention.

Claims (14)

1.一种用于管理数据库系统中的数据的方法,包括以下步骤:在数据库服务器处接收:(a)数据,所述数据用于将一个或多个关系表识别为用来储存与资源内容相关联的数据的表,所述资源内容属于信息层次;以及(b)连接标准,所述连接标准用于指示什么构成信息层次中的关系;其中,所述一个或多个关系表包括至少一个表,所述表用于储存与所述资源内容相关联的数据以及起到外部层次定义的作用的某种数据,所述外部层次定义用于在所述资源之间建立层次关系;使用用于标识所述一个或多个关系表的所述数据及所述连接标准,通过执行以下步骤,捕捉所述层次中的层次关系:执行相对于所述一个或多个关系表的一个或多个查询,以检索所述某种数据;以及根据所述某种数据以及所述连接标准,在从所述一个或多个关系表中分离出来的一个或多个 1. A data management method for a database system, comprising the steps of: receiving, at a database server at: (a) data, the data for one or more relational tables for storage and identified as the resource content associated with table data, information pertaining to the content of the resource hierarchy; and (b) a standard connector, the connector is used to indicate what criteria a relation hierarchy of information; wherein the one or more relational tables comprise at least a some data table, said table for storing content associated with the resource data, and external functions defined at the level of the external hierarchy for establishing a defined hierarchical relationships between the resource; for use identifying the one or more of the data table and the connection standard, by performing the following steps, to capture the hierarchical relationship hierarchy: execution with respect to one or more of the one or more relational tables in the query , to retrieve some of the data; and according to some of the standard data and the connection, in one or more separate from the one or more relational tables 次结构中储存作为内部层次定义的用于捕捉所述信息层次的信息;以及使用所述一个或多个层次结构和路径信息以访问所述资源。 Secondary structure as an internal storage hierarchy defined for capturing the information level information; and using the one or more hierarchies and path information to access the resource.
2.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中,所述储存用于捕捉所述信息层次的信息的步骤包括在资源表中储存用于所述信息层次中的每个节点的行。 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said step of storing information for capturing the hierarchical information include a row for each node of the storage hierarchy information in the resource table.
3.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中,所述储存用于捕捉所述信息层次的信息的步骤包括在一个或多个层次结构中储存表示所述资源之间的父-子关系的信息。 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of capturing the information stored for the hierarchical information included in one or more of the storage hierarchy between the resource represented by a parent - child relationship information .
4.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中所述信息层次中的资源相应于关系表中的行;以及用储存在所述关系表的两个或更多个列中的值表示所述资源之间的父-子关系。 And the resource represented by the value stored in two or more columns in the table; 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the hierarchy of information resources in the corresponding row in table between the parent - child relationship.
5.根据权利要求4所述的方法,其中,所述执行一个或多个查询的步骤包括执行用于指定所述两个或更多个列之间的CONNECT BY关系的查询。 5. The method of claim 4, wherein said step of performing one or more queries comprises performing a CONNECT BY relationship between two or more of the specified columns of the query.
6.根据权利要求5所述的方法,其中:所述两个或更多个列包括含有用于表示关系中的子的数据的第一列和含有用于表示所述关系中的父的数据的第二列;以及所述执行查询的步骤包括执行包含如下表述形式的查询:START WITH x IS NULL CONNECT BY PRIOR x=y;其中,x代表所述第二列,y代表所述第一列。 6. The method as claimed in claim 5, wherein: the two or more sub-columns include those containing for representing relationships of the data in the first column containing data for indicating the parent relationship second column; and the step of performing comprises performing a query comprising a query expressed in the following form: START WITH x iS NULL CONNECT BY PRIOR x = y; where x represents the second column, the first row y represents .
7.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中:和所述信息层次中的叶节点关联的资源相应于关系表的行;以及将在所述信息层次中与位于给定叶节点之上的非叶节点相关联的值储存在相应于所述给定叶节点的行中。 The method according to claim 1, wherein: the associated leaf node and the hierarchy of information resources corresponding to the lines of the table; and in the information on non-level with leaf nodes at a given leaf node associated value stored in the row corresponding to the given leaf node.
8.根据权利要求7所述的方法,其中:将所述和非叶节点关联的值储存在所述关系表的一个或多个列中;以及所述储存用于捕捉所述信息层次的信息的步骤包括:在资源表中将来自相应于所述信息层次的叶节点的行的用于每个不同值的行储存到所述一个或多个列中。 8. The method according to claim 7, wherein: said values ​​associated with the non-leaf nodes and stored in a relational table or said plurality of columns; for capturing and storing the information of the level information It comprises: a table in the resource information from the line to the leaf node level corresponding row for each of the different values ​​stored in one or more columns.
9.根据权利要求1所述的方法,还包括以下步骤:建立触发器,以响应于对构成所述外部层次定义的数据做出的改变,更新构成所述内部层次定义的数据。 9. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the steps of: establishing a trigger, in response to a change in the external configuration of the data defined at the level of the make, the update data constituting said internal hierarchical definition.
10.根据权利要求1所述的方法,还包括以下步骤:建立触发器,以响应于对构成所述内部层次定义的数据做出的改变,更新构成所述外部层次定义的数据。 10. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the steps of: establishing a trigger, in response to a change in configuration data defined at the level of the internal made, update data constituting the outer level definition.
11.根据权利要求1所述的方法,还包括自动维持所述外部层次定义和所述内部层次定义之间的一致性的步骤。 11. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of consistency level defined between the outer and the inner automatically maintaining the level defined.
12.根据权利要求11所述的方法,其中所述自动维持一致性的步骤包括以下步骤:检测对所述一个或多个表的操作何时删除和所述信息层次中的节点关联的资源;响应于检测所述操作,自动执行以下步骤:在资源表中删除相应于所述节点的行;确定从所述信息层次中除去所述节点是否导致一个或多个其他节点悬空;以及如果从所述信息层次中除去所述节点导致一个或多个其他节点悬空,那么,在所述资源表中删除相应于所述一个或多个其他节点的行。 12. The method according to claim 11, wherein said step of automatically maintaining consistency comprising the steps of: detecting when the one or more operating table and deleting the association information of nodes in the hierarchy of resources; response to detecting the operation automatically perform the following steps: deleting the node corresponding to the row in the resource table; determining information is removed from the hierarchy of the node is causing one or more other nodes dangling; and if from the removing said information in the node hierarchy results in one or more other nodes vacant, then, in the resource table to delete one or more rows of the other nodes.
13.根据权利要求11所述的方法,其中所述自动维持一致性的步骤包括以下步骤:检测对所述一个或多个表的操作何时删除和所述信息层次中的叶节点关联的资源;响应于检测所述操作,自动执行以下步骤:在资源表中删除相应于所述节点的行;确定从所述信息层次中除去所述叶节点是否使所述叶节点的父节点没有剩余的子节点;以及如果从所述信息层次中除去所述叶节点使所述叶节点的父节点没有剩余的子节点,那么,在所述资源表中删除相应于所述父节点的行。 13. The method according to claim 11, wherein said step of automatically maintaining consistency comprising the steps of: detecting when the operation of the one or more tables associated with the leaf node and deleting said information resource hierarchy ; in response to detecting said operation automatically perform the following steps: deleting rows corresponding to the node in the resource table; to remove the leaf node determining whether or not the parent node of the leaf node is not remaining in the hierarchy from the information child node; and, if the child node is removed so that the leaf node of the leaf node from the parent node hierarchy information does not remain, then the deleted resource table row corresponding to the parent node.
14.根据权利要求11所述的方法,其中所述自动维持一致性的步骤包括以下步骤:检测对所述一个或多个表的操作何时插入与所述信息层次中的节点关联的资源;响应于检测所述操作,自动执行以下步骤:在资源表中插入相应于所述节点的行;确定来自所述信息层次的所述节点的增加是否导致将所述节点的一个或多个子节点增加给所述信息层次;以及如果来自所述信息层次的所述节点的增加导致将所述节点的一个或多个子节点增加给所述信息层次,那么在所述资源表中插入相应于所述一个或多个子节点的行。 14. The method according to claim 11, wherein said step of automatically maintaining consistency comprising the steps of: detecting when the operation of inserting one or more tables associated with the resource information of nodes in the hierarchy; response to detecting the operation automatically perform the following steps: inserting rows corresponding to the node in the resource table; adding the node determining from the information whether the result in increased levels of one or more child node of the node to the hierarchical information; and if the increase from the node information results in increased levels of one or more child nodes of the node to the hierarchical information, then inserted into the resource table corresponding to said one rows or child nodes.
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