CN116499882B - Building pressure measurement method and equipment - Google Patents

Building pressure measurement method and equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN116499882B
CN116499882B CN202310771588.XA CN202310771588A CN116499882B CN 116499882 B CN116499882 B CN 116499882B CN 202310771588 A CN202310771588 A CN 202310771588A CN 116499882 B CN116499882 B CN 116499882B
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building
pressure
test
strain
soil
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CN116499882A (en
Inventor
尹浩
李春燕
李科
李本伟
宋恒扬
徐洪彬
吴耀宗
刘少乾
施嘉
石伟
白帆
彭浪鸣
钟杰
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Sichuan Highway Planning Survey and Design Institute Ltd
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Sichuan Highway Planning Survey and Design Institute Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M99/00Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • G01M99/007Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass by applying a load, e.g. for resistance or wear testing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0016Tensile or compressive
    • G01N2203/0019Compressive

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of pressure measurement, in particular to a method and equipment for measuring the pressure of a building, wherein the method comprises the following steps: step 1, detecting the appearance of concrete of a building structure and the structural dimensions of each member; step 2, selecting a control section of strain and deformation according to detection and calculation results, and arranging a strain and deformation test sensor; step 3, determining test pressure and efficiency of the test pressure according to the road or bridge grade and the stress equivalence principle; step 4, applying static pressure to the building, and carrying out loading classification on the applied static pressure; step 5, performing a pressure test on the building by adopting a plurality of test modes, obtaining test data and analyzing the test data; and step 6, judging the pressure test according to the analysis result, wherein the test data can truly reflect the actual state of the structure, and can be applied to technical support of engineering acceptance, design transformation, bearing capacity assessment and quality verification.

Description

Building pressure measurement method and equipment
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of pressure measurement, in particular to a method and equipment for measuring the pressure of a building.
Background
Currently, there are only design theories when building designs, and there is no test method for related structure pressure measurement. This results in a series of problems such as inaccurate design and checking calculation, uncertain construction quality, no basis for checking and acceptance, no starting from reinforcement and transformation, etc. Therefore, developing a method and apparatus for measuring pressure of a building, which can effectively overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks of the related art, is a technical problem to be solved in the industry.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems existing in the prior art, the embodiment of the invention provides a pressure measurement method and pressure measurement equipment for a building.
In a first aspect, embodiments of the present invention provide a method of measuring pressure of a building, comprising: step 1, detecting the appearance of concrete of a building structure and the structural dimensions of each member; step 2, selecting a control section of strain and deformation according to detection and calculation results, and arranging a strain and deformation test sensor; step 3, determining test pressure and efficiency of the test pressure according to the road or bridge grade and the stress equivalence principle; step 4, applying static pressure to the building, and carrying out loading classification on the applied static pressure; step 5, performing a pressure test on the building by adopting a plurality of test modes, obtaining test data and analyzing the test data; and 6, judging the pressure test according to the analysis result.
Based on the content of the method embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided by the embodiment of the invention specifically includes the following steps: detecting the concrete external structure of the building structure, the connection condition of each component and the soil condition around the structure; the structural dimension detection is carried out by adopting a ruler measuring method, which comprises the following steps: detecting the length, width and thickness of the structure, and detecting at least three sections along the height direction of the structure; collecting base data, comprising: structural design drawing, structural concrete strength and elastic modulus detection results, construction machine account, physical and mechanical indexes of filling soil and related detection reports.
Based on the foregoing method embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, where the selecting the control section for strain and deformation includes: the strain control section selecting structure calculates the maximum stress section, and the deflection control section is distributed at the middle part and the top of the building according to the height of the structure.
Based on the foregoing method embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, wherein the testing the efficiency of the pressure includes:
wherein ,efficiency as test pressure; />Under the action of static load test pressure, the maximum calculated effect value of the internal force or displacement of the loading control section corresponding to a loading test item; />Calculating the most adverse effect of the force or displacement in the same loading control section generated for controlling the pressure; />For the impact coefficient values taken as normal.
Based on the foregoing method embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, where the loading classification of the applied static pressure includes: for a test item, static test pressures are divided into pre-loading, three-stage loading and one-stage unloading; the loading mode is that the maximum pressure is gradually added for a single time, and the zero-order pressure is discharged for a single time; when the loading classification is arranged, the maximum internal force to which the cross section is subjected is smaller than or equal to the maximum internal force under the control pressure.
Based on the foregoing method embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, where the pressure test is performed on the building using a plurality of test modes, includes: the strain test adopts a strain gauge, a strain gauge or an optical strain test sensor which is stuck on the test section, and the compensation of environmental and temperature factors is realized through different position compensation points; the strain is automatically collected and stored by adopting a static data collector, the strain of a measuring point of a loading control section is monitored in real time in the loading process, and an abnormal phenomenon is found; the deformation of the section is controlled under the test pressure of a dial gauge, a photoelectric displacement detector, an industrial total station or an inclinometer; measuring the surface temperature of a structure by adopting an infrared thermometer, and measuring the ambient temperature by adopting a hygrothermograph; and detecting the crack of the control section, and analyzing the development condition of the crack in the test process and after the test is completed.
Based on the foregoing method embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, where the method for obtaining test data and analyzing the test data includes: correcting the test data according to the influence of temperature change and instrument calibration results, and stopping correction when the influence is less than 1%; the temperature stability observation data carried out before the loading test is adopted, and a linear relation between the temperature change and the measured value change of the measuring point is established; calculating the displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the actual measurement stress of the measuring point; calculating the relative residual displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the check coefficient of the measuring point; the test data curves were collated and the crack development status was determined.
In a second aspect, embodiments of the present invention provide a pressure measurement apparatus for a building, comprising: the first main module is used for detecting the appearance of the concrete of the building structure and the structural dimensions of each member; the second main module is used for selecting a control section of strain and deformation according to detection and calculation results and arranging a strain and deformation test sensor; the third main module is used for determining test pressure and efficiency of the test pressure according to the road or bridge grade and the stress equivalence principle; the fourth main module is used for realizing the application of static pressure to the building and carrying out loading classification on the applied static pressure; a fifth main module for implementing a pressure test on the building by adopting a plurality of test modes, obtaining test data and analyzing the test data; and the sixth main module is used for judging the pressure test according to the analysis result.
In a third aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides an electronic device, including:
at least one processor; and at least one memory communicatively coupled to the processor, wherein:
the memory stores program instructions executable by the processor, the processor invoking the program instructions capable of performing a method of pressure measurement of a building provided by any of the various implementations of the first aspect.
In a fourth aspect, embodiments of the present invention provide a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium storing computer instructions that cause a computer to perform a method of pressure measurement of a building provided by any of the various implementations of the first aspect.
According to the pressure measurement method and the pressure measurement equipment for the building, provided by the embodiment of the invention, the broken prism filled with soil after the building is loaded by pressure to cause the lateral pressure change of the soil, the stress and the deformation of the building are measured to test the quality and evaluate the structural risk, the test method is visual, effective and reliable, the test data can truly reflect the actual state of the structure, and the pressure measurement method and the pressure measurement equipment can be applied to technical supports of engineering acceptance, design transformation, bearing capacity evaluation and quality verification.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, a brief description will be given below of the drawings required for the embodiments or the prior art descriptions, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and other drawings may be obtained according to these drawings without any inventive effort for a person skilled in the art.
FIG. 1 is a schematic flow chart of a method for measuring pressure of a building according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a pressure measurement device for a building according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of an entity structure of an electronic device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a principle of loading pressure by a vehicle according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of the parameter calculation principle according to the embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of a sensor layout effect according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
For the purpose of making the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention more apparent, the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the accompanying drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is apparent that the described embodiments are some embodiments of the present invention, but not all embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be made by those skilled in the art based on the embodiments of the invention without making any inventive effort, are intended to be within the scope of the invention. In addition, the technical features of each embodiment or the single embodiment provided by the invention can be combined with each other at will to form a feasible technical scheme, and the combination is not limited by the sequence of steps and/or the structural composition mode, but is necessarily based on the fact that a person of ordinary skill in the art can realize the combination, and when the technical scheme is contradictory or can not realize, the combination of the technical scheme is not considered to exist and is not within the protection scope of the invention claimed.
An embodiment of the present invention provides a method for measuring pressure of a building, referring to fig. 1, the method includes: step 1, detecting the appearance of concrete of a building structure and the structural dimensions of each member; step 2, selecting a control section of strain and deformation according to detection and calculation results, and arranging a strain and deformation test sensor; step 3, determining test pressure and efficiency of the test pressure according to the road or bridge grade and the stress equivalence principle; step 4, applying static pressure to the building, and carrying out loading classification on the applied static pressure; step 5, performing a pressure test on the building by adopting a plurality of test modes, obtaining test data and analyzing the test data; and 6, judging the pressure test according to the analysis result.
In another embodiment, referring to fig. 4, the loading vehicle employs a three-axle heavy vehicle (i.e., the loading is a truck-loaded loading), the test is preceded by weighing, and each axle weight of each vehicle is recorded. The wheel pressure needs to be uniformly arranged in the middle of a building during loading, so that the accurate wheel position should be marked on the road surface first. The soil side pressure caused by the vehicle pressure can be converted into equal-generation uniform soil layer thickness according to the following formula:
wherein: gamma is the soil weight; h is building height; Σg is arranged at b×l 0 Total weight of the wheel within the area; l (L) 0 The length of the broken prism for filling soil after the building; b is the calculated length of the transverse full width of the building or the soil blocking wall;is the internal friction angle of the soil; h is a calculated value, and the vehicle pressure is calculated to be equivalent to the earth covering pressure with the thickness h and the gravity gamma.
In another embodiment, the calculated length B of the building may be calculated as follows, but should not exceed the building segment length:
wherein: h is building height. When the building segment length is less than 13m, B takes the segment length and should place the wheel weights in the length at an adverse condition. The building active soil pressure coefficient comprises the following formula:
wherein: q is the uniform pressure on the earth surface, and the pressure intensity on the unit horizontal projection surface is calculated; beta is a longitudinal slope of a building or a transverse slope of a roadbed; alpha is the inclination angle of the back of the building wall; θ represents a fracture angle between the fracture surface of the fracture prism and the horizontal line; delta is the friction angle of soil to the back of the building wall; c is the cohesion of the soil. The side soil pressure resulting from the vehicle pressure is calculated as:
the point of action is shown in figure 5. The maximum stress of the front wall of the building is calculated as follows:
wherein :σmax Is the maximum stress of the building; h is building height; w (W) x Is the modulus of elasticity in cross section of the building floor (x-x cross section). The deformation displacement of the upper part of the building is as follows:
wherein :wA 、w B The deformation displacement of the points A and B of the building is shown; l (L) A 、l B The distance from the point A and the point B to the bottom surface (x-x section) of the building; e is the elastic modulus of the building; i is the cross-sectional moment of inertia of the building.
The stress of the bottom surface of the building and the deformation displacement of the upper part of the building can be tested by using strain gauges and displacement sensors, and the sensor arrangement is shown in fig. 6. The strain measuring points are preferably arranged at the bottom edge of the building, unidirectional strain gauges are adopted, and the number of the strain measuring points is determined according to the structure width and is not less than 5. The displacement measuring points are preferably arranged at the middle part and the top part along the height direction of the building and are perpendicular to the surface of the structure, and the number of the displacement measuring points is determined according to the width of the structure, and is not less than 5.
The section A and the section B are uniformly provided with displacement sensors along the central line of the building, and the displacement sensors can use electromechanical dial indicators, LVDT (variable valve differential support) or the like according to the calculated deformation. The building bottom is provided with strain gauges which can be resistance strain gauges, bow strain gauges and the like. The data of the displacement sensor and the strain gauge are collected by using a data collector.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the method embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of a building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, step 1 specifically includes: detecting the concrete external structure of the building structure, the connection condition of each component and the soil condition around the structure; the structural dimension detection is carried out by adopting a ruler measuring method, which comprises the following steps: detecting the length, width and thickness of the structure, and detecting at least three sections along the height direction of the structure; collecting base data, comprising: structural design drawing, structural concrete strength and elastic modulus detection results, construction machine account, physical and mechanical indexes of filling soil and related detection reports.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the method embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, the selecting a deformation control section includes: the deformation control section selecting structure calculates the maximum stress section, and the deflection control section is distributed at the middle part and the top of the building according to the height of the structure.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the method embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, the testing the efficiency of the pressure includes:
wherein ,efficiency as test pressure; />Under the action of static load test pressure, the maximum calculated effect value of the internal force or displacement of the loading control section corresponding to a loading test item; />Calculating the most adverse effect of the force or displacement in the same loading control section generated for controlling the pressure; />For the impact coefficient values taken as normal. Specifically, the test pressure efficiency is preferably between 0.85 and 1.05 (e.g., 1.0), and for the verification pressure, the test efficiency is preferably between 0.95 and 1.05 (e.g., 1.0).
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the method embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, the loading classification of the applied static pressure includes: for a test item, static test pressures are divided into pre-loading, three-stage loading and one-stage unloading; the loading mode is that the maximum pressure is gradually added for a single time, and the zero-order pressure is discharged for a single time; when the loading classification is arranged, the maximum internal force to which the cross section is subjected is smaller than or equal to the maximum internal force under the control pressure.
Specifically, in order to obtain a continuous curve of the structure test pressure versus deflection and to prevent accidental damage to the structure, the static test pressure is divided into pre-load and 3-stage load, one stage unload, for a test item. The loading mode is that the maximum pressure is gradually added in a single step, and the zero-order pressure is discharged at one time. In the arrangement of the loading stages, attention should be paid to the cross-sectional stress during loading so that the maximum internal force does not exceed the maximum internal force under the control pressure.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the method embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, the performing a pressure test on the building using a plurality of test modes includes: the strain test adopts a strain gauge, a strain gauge or an optical strain test sensor which is stuck on the test section, and the compensation of environmental and temperature factors is realized through different position compensation points; the strain is automatically collected and stored by adopting a static data collector, the strain of a measuring point of a loading control section is monitored in real time in the loading process, and an abnormal phenomenon is found; the deformation of the section is controlled under the test pressure of a dial gauge, a photoelectric displacement detector, an industrial total station or an inclinometer; measuring the surface temperature of a structure by adopting an infrared thermometer, and measuring the ambient temperature by adopting a hygrothermograph; and detecting the crack of the control section, and analyzing the development condition of the crack in the test process and after the test is completed.
Specifically, 1) a strain testing method, wherein a strain gauge/optical strain testing sensor is stuck to a test section in the strain test, and compensation of factors such as environment, temperature and the like is realized through different position compensation points; the strain is automatically collected and stored by adopting a static data collector, the strain of a measuring point of a loading control section is monitored in real time in the loading process, and an abnormal phenomenon is found in time. 2) The deformation test method adopts a dial indicator/photoelectric displacement detector/industrial total station/inclinometer and the like to control the deformation of the section under the action of test pressure. 3) And measuring the temperature, namely measuring the surface temperature of the structure by adopting an infrared thermometer, and measuring the ambient temperature by adopting a hygrothermograph. 4) And (3) observing the crack, observing the crack of the control section by adopting a visual inspection method before, during and after the test, and analyzing the development condition of the crack in the test process and after the test is completed.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the method embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the method for measuring the pressure of the building provided in the embodiment of the present invention, where the obtaining test data and analyzing the test data includes: correcting the test data according to the influence of temperature change and instrument calibration results, and stopping correction when the influence is less than 1%; the temperature stability observation data carried out before the loading test is adopted, and a linear relation between the temperature change and the measured value change of the measuring point is established; calculating the displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the actual measurement stress of the measuring point; calculating the relative residual displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the check coefficient of the measuring point; the test data curves were collated and the crack development status was determined.
Specifically, (1) correction of measured values, and correction of test data according to temperature change and influence of calibration results of instruments and meters during analysis of test data. When the influence is less than 1%, correction may not be performed. (2) Temperature influence correction, because the influence of temperature on the test is complex, methods of shortening the loading time length, selecting the time length with better temperature stability for test and the like are generally adopted, and the influence of temperature on the test precision is reduced as much as possible. When needed, the temperature influence correction can be generally performed by adopting a comprehensive analysis method, namely, temperature stability observation data performed before a loading test is adopted, a linear relation between temperature change (the surface temperature or the air temperature of a component at a measuring point) and measuring point measured value (strain and deformation) change is established, and temperature correction calculation is performed according to the following formula:
wherein: delta St is the temperature corrected measuring point loading measured value change; delta S is the load measurement value change of the measuring point before temperature correction; Δt is the temperature change (. Degree. C.) in the period of time corresponding to the observation of DeltaS. The surface temperature of the component is adopted for strain, and the air temperature is adopted for deflection; k (K) t The measured value change amount of the measuring point when the temperature rises by 1 ℃ at no load. If the relation between the measured value change and the temperature change is obvious, an average value of multiple observations can be adopted., wherein :/>The measured value variation of the measuring point in a time-long section when no load exists; />Is corresponding to->The amount of temperature change in the same time period section. (3) the site displacement or strain can be calculated as follows:
wherein :the total displacement (or total strain) value of the structure measured under the action of the test pressure; />The elastic displacement (or strain) value of the structure measured under the action of the test pressure; />The structural residual displacement (or strain) value measured under the test load; />Is a measurement before loading; />A measured value when the load reaches stability; />To reach a steady measurement after unloading. (4) And (3) calculating the measured stress of the measuring point, wherein under the unidirectional stress state, the stress of the measuring point can be calculated according to the following formula:
wherein: sigma is the stress of the measuring point; e is the elastic modulus of the component material; epsilon is the measured strain value of the measuring point. (5) The relative residual displacement (or strain) of the measurement points can be calculated as follows:
wherein :is opposite toResidual displacement (strain). (6) calculating the checking coefficient of the measuring point comprises the following steps:
wherein :is a check coefficient; />Under the action of static load test pressure, the maximum calculated effect value of the internal force, stress or deflection of the loading control section corresponding to a loading test item; />Is the value of the elastic displacement (or strain) of the structure measured under the test pressure.
(7) Arrangement of test data curves
1) And (3) listing a comparison table of the measured displacement (or strain) of the measuring point under each loading working condition and the corresponding theoretical calculated value, and drawing a relation curve.
2) And drawing a relation curve of displacement (or strain and the like) of the control point and pressure or pressure efficiency under each loading working condition.
3) Drawing a control section displacement (or strain) distribution diagram, a deformation diagram along the structural direction, a section strain along height (width) distribution diagram and the like under each loading working condition.
(8) Crack development
If a crack exists, the test should be performed, and when the tensile stress of the test section is large, the test should be performed.
1) When the number of the cracks is small, the crack condition can be described according to the observation conditions before and after the test and the crack observation table.
2) When the crack is more developed, a representative part of the structure is selected to draw a crack development diagram, and the development of the crack length and width of each loading program is noted on the diagram.
Finally, it can be determined from the foregoing test results: coefficient of verificationThe strain (or stress) check coefficient and the deformation check coefficient are smaller than 1; control the relative residual deformation (or strain) of the measuring point>The smaller the description structure, the closer the elastic operating condition. />It is not preferable to be more than 20%. When->When the weight of the elastic material is more than 20%, the elastic state of the bridge structure is not good, the reason is analyzed, and if necessary, a load test is carried out again to determine the elastic state; the structural occurrence of cracks should be analyzed for crack cause.
According to the pressure measurement method for the building, provided by the embodiment of the invention, the broken prism filled with soil after the building is loaded by pressure to cause the lateral pressure change of the soil, the stress and deformation of the building are measured to test the quality and evaluate the structural risk, the test method is visual, effective and reliable, the test data can truly reflect the actual state of the structure, and the pressure measurement method can be applied to technical supports of engineering acceptance, design transformation, bearing capacity evaluation and quality verification.
The implementation basis of the embodiments of the present invention is realized by a device with a processor function to perform programmed processing. Therefore, in engineering practice, the technical solutions and the functions of the embodiments of the present invention can be packaged into various modules. Based on this reality, on the basis of the above embodiments, an embodiment of the present invention provides a pressure measuring apparatus of a building for performing the pressure measuring method of the building in the above method embodiment. Referring to fig. 2, the apparatus includes: the first main module is used for detecting the appearance of the concrete of the building structure and the structural dimensions of each member; the second main module is used for selecting a control section of strain and deformation according to detection and calculation results and arranging a strain and deformation test sensor; the third main module is used for determining test pressure and efficiency of the test pressure according to the road or bridge grade and the stress equivalence principle; the fourth main module is used for realizing the application of static pressure to the building and carrying out loading classification on the applied static pressure; a fifth main module for implementing a pressure test on the building by adopting a plurality of test modes, obtaining test data and analyzing the test data; and the sixth main module is used for judging the pressure test according to the analysis result.
The pressure measuring device for the building provided by the embodiment of the invention adopts a plurality of modules in fig. 2, loads the broken prism filled with soil behind the building through pressure to cause the lateral pressure change of the soil, measures the stress and deformation of the building to test the quality and evaluate the structural risk, has visual, effective and reliable test method, can truly reflect the actual state of the structure by test data, and can be applied to technical supports of engineering acceptance, design transformation, bearing capacity evaluation and quality verification.
It should be noted that, the device in the device embodiment provided by the present invention may be used to implement the method in the above method embodiment, and may also be used to implement the method in other method embodiments provided by the present invention, where the difference is merely that the corresponding functional module is provided, and the principle is basically the same as that of the above device embodiment provided by the present invention, so long as a person skilled in the art refers to a specific technical solution in the above device embodiment based on the above device embodiment, and obtains a corresponding technical means by combining technical features, and a technical solution formed by these technical means, and on the premise that the technical solution is ensured to have practicability, the device in the above device embodiment may be modified, so as to obtain a corresponding device embodiment, and be used to implement the method in other method embodiment. For example:
based on the foregoing disclosure of the device embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the pressure measurement device for a building provided in the embodiment of the present invention further includes: the first sub-module is configured to implement step 1 specifically including: detecting the concrete external structure of the building structure, the connection condition of each component and the soil condition around the structure; the structural dimension detection is carried out by adopting a ruler measuring method, which comprises the following steps: detecting the length, width and thickness of the structure, and detecting at least three sections along the height direction of the structure; collecting base data, comprising: structural design drawing, structural concrete strength and elastic modulus detection results, construction machine account, physical and mechanical indexes of filling soil and related detection reports.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the device embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the pressure measurement device for a building provided in the embodiment of the present invention further includes: a second sub-module for implementing the selected strain and deformed control section, comprising: the strain control section selecting structure calculates the maximum stress section, and the deformation control section is distributed at the middle part and the top of the building according to the structure height.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the device embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the pressure measurement device for a building provided in the embodiment of the present invention further includes: a third sub-module for achieving the efficiency of the test pressure, comprising:
wherein ,efficiency as test pressure; />Under the action of static load test pressure, the maximum calculated effect value of the internal force or displacement of the loading control section corresponding to a loading test item; />Calculating the most adverse effect of the force or displacement in the same loading control section generated for controlling the pressure; />For the impact coefficient values taken as normal.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the device embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the pressure measurement device for a building provided in the embodiment of the present invention further includes: a fourth sub-module for implementing the load classification of the applied static pressure, including: for a test item, static test pressures are divided into pre-loading, three-stage loading and one-stage unloading; the loading mode is that the maximum pressure is gradually added for a single time, and the zero-order pressure is discharged for a single time; when the loading classification is arranged, the maximum internal force to which the cross section is subjected is smaller than or equal to the maximum internal force under the control pressure.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the device embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the pressure measurement device for a building provided in the embodiment of the present invention further includes: and a fifth sub-module for implementing the pressure test on the building using a plurality of test modes, including: the strain test adopts a strain gauge, a strain gauge or an optical strain test sensor which is stuck on the test section, and the compensation of environmental and temperature factors is realized through different position compensation points; the strain is automatically collected and stored by adopting a static data collector, the strain of a measuring point of a loading control section is monitored in real time in the loading process, and an abnormal phenomenon is found; the deformation of the section is controlled under the test pressure of a dial gauge, a photoelectric displacement detector, an industrial total station or an inclinometer; measuring the surface temperature of a structure by adopting an infrared thermometer, and measuring the ambient temperature by adopting a hygrothermograph; and detecting the crack of the control section, and analyzing the development condition of the crack in the test process and after the test is completed.
Based on the foregoing disclosure of the device embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the pressure measurement device for a building provided in the embodiment of the present invention further includes: and a sixth sub-module, configured to obtain the test data and analyze the test data, including: correcting the test data according to the influence of temperature change and instrument calibration results, and stopping correction when the influence is less than 1%; the temperature stability observation data carried out before the loading test is adopted, and a linear relation between the temperature change and the measured value change of the measuring point is established; calculating the displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the actual measurement stress of the measuring point; calculating the relative residual displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the check coefficient of the measuring point; the test data curves were collated and the crack development status was determined.
The method of the embodiment of the invention is realized by the electronic equipment, so that the related electronic equipment is necessary to be introduced. To this end, an embodiment of the present invention provides an electronic device, as shown in fig. 3, including: at least one processor (processor), a communication interface (Communications Interface), at least one memory (memory) and a communication bus, wherein the at least one processor, the communication interface, and the at least one memory communicate with each other via the communication bus. The at least one processor may invoke logic instructions in the at least one memory to perform all or part of the steps of the methods provided by the various method embodiments described above.
Further, the logic instructions in at least one of the memories described above may be implemented in the form of a software functional unit and may be stored in a computer-readable storage medium when sold or used as a stand-alone product. Based on this understanding, the technical solution of the present invention may be embodied essentially or in a part contributing to the prior art or in a part of the technical solution, in the form of a software product stored in a storage medium, comprising several instructions for causing a computer device (which may be a personal computer, a server, a network device, etc.) to perform all or part of the steps of the method according to the embodiments of the present invention. And the aforementioned storage medium includes: a U-disk, a removable hard disk, a Read-Only Memory (ROM), a random access Memory (RAM, random Access Memory), a magnetic disk, or an optical disk, or other various media capable of storing program codes.
The apparatus embodiments described above are merely illustrative, wherein the elements illustrated as separate elements may or may not be physically separate, and the elements shown as elements may or may not be physical elements, may be located in one place, or may be distributed over a plurality of network elements. Some or all of the modules may be selected according to actual needs to achieve the purpose of the solution of this embodiment. Those of ordinary skill in the art will understand and implement the present invention without undue burden.
From the above description of the embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the embodiments may be implemented by means of software plus necessary general hardware platforms, or may be implemented by hardware. Based on this understanding, the foregoing technical solution may be embodied essentially or in a part contributing to the prior art in the form of a software product, which may be stored in a computer readable storage medium, such as ROM/RAM, a magnetic disk, an optical disk, etc., including several instructions for causing a computer device (which may be a personal computer, a server, or a network device, etc.) to execute the method described in the respective embodiments or some parts of the embodiments.
The flowcharts and block diagrams in the figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present invention. Based on this knowledge, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of code, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). It should also be noted that in some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems which perform the specified functions or acts, or combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.
It should be noted that the terms "comprises," "comprising," or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus. Without further limitation, an element defined by the phrase "comprising … …" does not exclude the presence of other like elements in a process, method, article or apparatus that comprises the element.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above embodiments are only for illustrating the technical solution of the present invention, and are not limiting; although the invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical scheme described in the foregoing embodiments can be modified or some technical features thereof can be replaced by equivalents; such modifications and substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. A method of measuring pressure in a building, comprising: step 1, detecting a building
The appearance of the structural concrete and the structural dimensions of each component; step 2, selecting a control section of strain and deformation according to detection and calculation results, and arranging a strain and deformation test sensor; step 3, determining test pressure and efficiency of the test pressure according to the building grade and the stress equivalence principle; step 4, applying static pressure to the building, and carrying out loading classification on the applied static pressure; step 5, performing a pressure test on the building by adopting a plurality of test modes, obtaining test data and analyzing the test data; step 6, judging the pressure test according to the analysis result; the determining the efficiency of the test pressure comprises:
wherein ,efficiency as test pressure; />Under the action of static load test pressure, the maximum calculated effect value of the internal force or displacement of the loading control section corresponding to a loading test item; />Calculating the most adverse effect of the force or displacement in the same loading control section generated for controlling the pressure; />Impact coefficient values for use as specified;
the adoption multiple test mode carries out pressure test to the building, includes: the strain test adopts a strain gauge, a strain gauge or an optical strain test sensor which is stuck on the test section, and the compensation of environmental and temperature factors is realized through different position compensation points; the strain is automatically collected and stored by adopting a static data collector, the strain of a measuring point of a loading control section is monitored in real time in the loading process, and an abnormal phenomenon is found; the deformation of the section is controlled under the test pressure of a dial gauge, a photoelectric displacement detector, an industrial total station or an inclinometer; measuring the surface temperature of a structure by adopting an infrared thermometer, and measuring the ambient temperature by adopting a hygrothermograph; detecting the crack of the control section, and analyzing the development condition of the crack in the test process and after the test is completed;
the step of judging the pressure test according to the analysis result comprises the following steps: judging the building structure according to the relative residual displacement;
the soil side pressure caused by the vehicle pressure is converted into equal-generation uniform soil layer thickness:
wherein: gamma is the soil weight;is arranged at +.>Total weight of the wheel within the area; />The length of the broken prism for filling soil after the building; b is the calculated length of the transverse full width of the building or the soil blocking wall; />Is the internal friction angle of the soil; h is a calculated value, namely the vehicle pressure is calculated to be equivalent to the earthing pressure with the thickness of h and the gravity of gamma;
the calculated length B of the building can be calculated as follows, but does not exceed the building segment length:
wherein: h is the building height, when the building segmentation length is less than 13 meters, B takes the segmentation length, and arranges the wheel weight according to unfavorable conditions in the length, and the building active soil pressure coefficient comprises the following formula:
wherein: q is the uniform pressure on the earth surface, and the pressure intensity on the unit horizontal projection surface is calculated; beta is a longitudinal slope of a building or a transverse slope of a roadbed; alpha is the inclination angle of the back of the building wall; delta is the friction angle of soil to the back of the building wall; c is the cohesive force of the soil; the side soil pressure resulting from the vehicle pressure is calculated as:
the maximum stress of the front wall of the building is calculated as follows:
wherein :σmax Is the maximum stress of the building; h is the calculated height of the building; w (W) x The modulus of the elastic section of the bottom surface of the building is that the deformation displacement of the upper part of the building is as follows:
wherein :wA 、w B The deformation displacement of the points A and B of the building is shown; l (L) A 、l B The distance between the point A and the point B and the bottom surface of the building; e is the elastic modulus of the building; i is the cross-sectional moment of inertia of the building.
2. The method for measuring the pressure of a building according to claim 1, wherein the step 1 specifically comprises: detecting the concrete external structure of the building structure, the connection condition of each component and the soil condition around the structure; the structural dimension detection is carried out by adopting a ruler measuring method, which comprises the following steps: detecting the length, width and thickness of the structure, and detecting at least three sections along the height direction of the structure; collecting base data, comprising: structural design drawing, structural concrete strength and elastic modulus detection results, construction machine account, physical and mechanical indexes of filling soil and related detection reports.
3. The method of pressure measurement of a building according to claim 2, wherein said selecting a control section for strain and deformation comprises: the strain control section selecting structure calculates the maximum stress section, and the deformation control section is distributed at the middle part and the top of the building according to the structure height.
4. A method of pressure measurement of a building according to claim 3, wherein said load grading applied static pressure comprises: for a test item, static test pressures are divided into pre-loading, three-stage loading and one-stage unloading; the loading mode is that the maximum pressure is gradually added for a single time, and the zero-order pressure is discharged for a single time; when the loading classification is arranged, the maximum internal force to which the cross section is subjected is smaller than or equal to the maximum internal force under the control pressure.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the acquiring and analyzing test data comprises: correcting the test data according to the influence of temperature change and instrument calibration results, and stopping correction when the influence is less than 1%; the temperature stability observation data carried out before the loading test is adopted, and a linear relation between the temperature change and the measured value change of the measuring point is established; calculating the displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the actual measurement stress of the measuring point; calculating the relative residual displacement or strain of the measuring point; calculating the check coefficient of the measuring point; the test data curves were collated and the crack development status was determined.
6. A pressure measurement device for a building, comprising: the first main module is used for detecting the appearance of the concrete of the building structure and the structural dimensions of each member; the second main module is used for selecting a control section of strain and deformation according to detection and calculation results and arranging a strain and deformation test sensor; the third main module is used for determining test pressure and efficiency of the test pressure according to the road or bridge grade and the stress equivalence principle; the fourth main module is used for realizing the application of static pressure to the building and carrying out loading classification on the applied static pressure; a fifth main module for implementing a pressure test on the building by adopting a plurality of test modes, obtaining test data and analyzing the test data; a sixth main module for implementing determination of the pressure test according to the analysis result; the determining the efficiency of the test pressure comprises:
wherein ,efficiency as test pressure; />Is staticUnder the action of the load test pressure, the maximum calculated effect value of the internal force or displacement of the load control section corresponding to a load test item; />Calculating the most adverse effect of the force or displacement in the same loading control section generated for controlling the pressure; />Impact coefficient values for use as specified;
the adoption multiple test mode carries out pressure test to the building, includes: the strain test adopts a strain gauge, a strain gauge or an optical strain test sensor which is stuck on the test section, and the compensation of environmental and temperature factors is realized through different position compensation points; the strain is automatically collected and stored by adopting a static data collector, the strain of a measuring point of a loading control section is monitored in real time in the loading process, and an abnormal phenomenon is found; the deformation of the section is controlled under the test pressure of a dial gauge, a photoelectric displacement detector, an industrial total station or an inclinometer; measuring the surface temperature of a structure by adopting an infrared thermometer, and measuring the ambient temperature by adopting a hygrothermograph; detecting the crack of the control section, and analyzing the development condition of the crack in the test process and after the test is completed;
the step of judging the pressure test according to the analysis result comprises the following steps: judging the building structure according to the relative residual displacement;
the soil side pressure caused by the vehicle pressure is converted into equal-generation uniform soil layer thickness:
wherein: gamma is the soil weight;is arranged at +.>Vehicle in areaTotal weight of the wheel; l (L) 0 The length of the broken prism for filling soil after the building; b is the calculated length of the transverse full width of the building or the soil blocking wall; />Is the internal friction angle of the soil; h is a calculated value, namely the vehicle pressure is calculated to be equivalent to the earthing pressure with the thickness of h and the gravity of gamma;
the calculated length B of the building can be calculated as follows, but should not exceed the building segment length:
wherein: h is the building height, when the building segmentation length is less than 13 meters, B takes the segmentation length, and arranges the wheel weight according to unfavorable conditions in the length, and the building active soil pressure coefficient comprises the following formula:
wherein: q is the uniform pressure on the earth surface, and the pressure intensity on the unit horizontal projection surface is calculated; beta is a longitudinal slope of a building or a transverse slope of a roadbed; alpha is the inclination angle of the back of the building wall; delta is the friction angle of soil to the back of the building wall; c is the cohesive force of the soil; the side soil pressure resulting from the vehicle pressure is calculated as:
the maximum stress of the front wall of the building is calculated as follows:
wherein :σmax Is the maximum stress of the building; h is the calculated height of the building; w (W) x For floors of buildingsModulus of elastic section, deformation displacement of the upper part of the building is:
wherein :wA 、w B The deformation displacement of the points A and B of the building is shown; l (L) A 、l B The distance between the point A and the point B and the bottom surface of the building; e is the elastic modulus of the building; i is the cross-sectional moment of inertia of the building.
7. An electronic device, comprising:
at least one processor, at least one memory, and a communication interface; wherein,
the processor, the memory and the communication interface are communicated with each other;
the memory stores program instructions executable by the processor, the processor invoking the program instructions to perform the method of any of claims 1-5.
8. A non-transitory computer readable storage medium storing computer instructions that cause the computer to perform the method of any one of claims 1 to 5.
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