CN116032499A - Distributed cloud file storage method and system, user terminal and cloud device thereof - Google Patents

Distributed cloud file storage method and system, user terminal and cloud device thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN116032499A
CN116032499A CN202111241957.1A CN202111241957A CN116032499A CN 116032499 A CN116032499 A CN 116032499A CN 202111241957 A CN202111241957 A CN 202111241957A CN 116032499 A CN116032499 A CN 116032499A
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file
cloud
storage
quantum
encryption
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Inventor
赵勇
黄强
武宏宇
马春利
李亚麟
赵梅生
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Quantumctek Co Ltd
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Quantumctek Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a distributed cloud file storage method and system capable of providing quantum security and fault tolerance, and a user side and cloud equipment for the distributed cloud file storage system. The quantum key is utilized to provide overall process protection in a mode of being independent in each stage by combining the quantum key with the erasure code technology, random deployment is provided for storage positions on the file dicing cloud, and a plurality of cloud storage service providers are provided for the random deployment, so that quantum security can be provided for data while the utilization rate of storage space resources is improved, and the integrity, usability and fault tolerance of the data can be ensured.

Description

Distributed cloud file storage method and system, user terminal and cloud device thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of distributed cloud storage, in particular to a distributed cloud file storage method and system capable of providing quantum security and fault tolerance, and a user side and cloud equipment for the distributed cloud file storage system.
Background
In the distributed cloud storage scheme, the safety mechanism is more difficult to construct than the traditional IT system naturally, so that the overall data safety cannot be ensured, and the complete confidentiality, integrity and usability guarantee are lacked.
For example, existing distributed cloud storage schemes typically use traditional encryption techniques to achieve enhanced confidentiality, with encryption algorithms that are not quantum attack resistant, do not have long-term security (such as the RSA1024 algorithm), and keys generated by means of pseudo-random software algorithms being commonly used.
In some existing cloud security technology products (e.g., encrypted CASB cloud security agents), although the cloud security agents can encrypt before cloud on a file, the cloud security agents only work on the user side, and the integrity and usability of storage on the user data cloud are not guaranteed.
Although many transmission security enhancement schemes realized by quantum keys exist in the prior art, the existing quantum key distribution system is mainly used for guaranteeing the security of data transmission from point to point, and the main research direction is to extend from point to multiple points through spatial extension, namely a quantum key distribution network. However, there are few solutions in the prior art that apply quantum cryptography to secure storage, since storage security solutions involve a large number of aspects, both spatially separated locations and time uncertainty requirements, e.g. encryption at a certain time may require decryption at a later indeterminate time, so that it is firstly required to be able to decrypt and secondly only long-term security issues are considered.
In order to ensure the integrity and availability of storage on the user data cloud, the prior art also proposes a solution based on erasure coding technology, but the file cut formed therein is leaked independently or sensitive content can be leaked, and the confidentiality of the data cannot be perfectly protected like file encryption.
Therefore, in the existing schemes focusing on solving security by encryption, for example, a scheme of adopting full-file encryption to ensure that individual file blocks of each file do not leak information is adopted, encryption and decryption processes are concentrated on a storage center side, key management is complex, and the key management is mainly controlled by a cloud storage service provider, so that the problems that encryption is easy and decryption is difficult, users are bound to a fixed cloud service provider and the like are easily caused.
In the existing schemes focusing on reducing storage space resources, for example, schemes based on erasure coding technology, the data segmentation redundancy is less, the availability of data is higher, but the efficiency and the utilization rate of storage equipment can be improved, the security of files is not guaranteed, sensitive information of parts which are not leaked by each file cut cannot be guaranteed, the storage security of the files depends on the physical separability of cloud storage to a great extent, or users are required to store the file cut smaller than the threshold number on different clouds respectively to prevent data recovery.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention discloses a distributed cloud file storage method and system capable of providing quantum security and fault tolerance, and a client and cloud equipment for the distributed cloud file storage system. The quantum key is utilized to provide overall process protection in a mode of being independent in each stage by combining the quantum key with the erasure code technology, random deployment is provided for storage positions on the file dicing cloud, and a plurality of cloud storage service providers are provided for the random deployment, so that quantum security can be provided for data while the utilization rate of storage space resources is improved, and the integrity, usability and fault tolerance of the data can be ensured.
The first aspect of the invention relates to a distributed cloud file storage method, which comprises a file encryption step, an encoding step and a random uploading step;
in the file encryption step, encrypting a file with a quantum key to generate a ciphertext;
in the encoding step, erasure code encoding is carried out on the ciphertext to generate file cut blocks;
in the random uploading step, cloud storage service providers and cloud storage positions are randomly selected for the file dicing based on quantum keys, and the file dicing is uploaded based on the selected cloud storage service providers and cloud storage positions.
Further, the quantum key used for the file encryption step is different from the quantum key used for the random upload step.
Further, the distributed cloud file storage method of the present invention may further include a key generation step in which a quantum key is generated through quantum key distribution or a quantum random number generator.
Further, the distributed cloud file storage method further comprises the step of pre-configuring the cloud storage service provider and the storage position on the cloud for selection.
Further, in the random uploading step, the uploading of the file cut blocks is achieved in an encrypted manner by using an encryption key.
Further, the distributed cloud file storage method further comprises the step of establishing a corresponding relation between the file and the quantum key, and the step of establishing a corresponding relation between the file dices and cloud storage service providers and cloud storage positions.
Still further, the distributed cloud file storage method of the present invention further includes a downloading step, wherein the file is cut from the cloud to the local based on a user request, the ciphertext is generated locally by erasure code decoding using the file cut recovery, and the ciphertext is decrypted using a quantum key to obtain the file.
The second aspect of the invention relates to a user side for a distributed cloud file storage system, which comprises an encryption and decryption module, a local erasure code encoding and decoding module and a cloud separation storage module;
the encryption and decryption module is used for encrypting a file by utilizing a quantum key to generate a ciphertext and decrypting the ciphertext to generate a plaintext of the file;
the local erasure code encoding and decoding module is used for generating file cutting blocks through erasure code encoding, and generating the ciphertext through erasure code decoding by utilizing the file cutting blocks;
the cloud storage module is configured to randomly select a cloud storage server and a storage position on a cloud for the file dicing based on a quantum key to determine cloud equipment for the file dicing, and to realize uploading and downloading of the file dicing with respect to the cloud equipment.
Further, the client of the present invention may further include a local key management module, where the local key management module is configured to manage and output quantum keys used for the encryption and decryption module and the cloud storage module, respectively, and store a correspondence between the file and the quantum key.
Further, the client of the present invention may further comprise a quantum key source comprising a quantum key distribution device and/or a quantum random number generator.
Further, the cloud storage module is further configured to store a correspondence between the file cut and a cloud storage service provider and a storage location on the cloud; and/or the local key management module is configured to output different quantum keys to the encryption and decryption module and the cloud storage module.
The third aspect of the invention relates to a distributed cloud file storage system, which comprises the user side and a plurality of cloud devices;
the cloud device is arranged for storing the file dicing and outputting the file dicing to the user side according to a user request; and, in addition, the processing unit,
the cloud devices are provided by different cloud storage providers.
Further, the client and cloud device are further configured to encrypt the file chunk with an encryption key and output it out, and to receive the encrypted file chunk and decrypt it with the encryption key.
A fourth aspect of the invention relates to a cloud device for use in the distributed cloud file storage system of the invention.
Drawings
The following describes the embodiments of the present invention in further detail with reference to the drawings.
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings that are required in the embodiments or the description of the prior art will be briefly described, it being obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and that other drawings may be obtained according to these drawings without inventive effort for a person skilled in the art.
Fig. 1 schematically illustrates a distributed cloud file storage system and a client and a cloud device thereof according to the present invention, wherein a file uploading process of the distributed cloud file storage method is also presented;
fig. 2 schematically illustrates a distributed cloud file storage system and a client and cloud device thereof according to the present invention, wherein a file downloading process of the distributed cloud file storage method is also presented.
Detailed Description
Hereinafter, exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. The following examples are provided by way of illustration to fully convey the spirit of the invention to those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains. Thus, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments disclosed herein.
Fig. 1 and 2 schematically illustrate a distributed cloud file storage system according to the present invention, and a client and a cloud device thereof.
As shown in fig. 1, the distributed cloud file storage system may include a user side and a plurality of cloud devices. Wherein the cloud devices are provided by different cloud storage providers, such as cloud storage provider 1, cloud storage provider 2, and cloud storage provider 3.
The user terminal can comprise an encryption and decryption module, a local erasure code encoding and decoding module, a cloud storage module, a local key management module and a quantum key source.
The quantum key source is used to generate a quantum key that has true randomness.
As an example, the quantum key source may comprise a quantum key distribution device for generating a quantum key by means of a quantum key distribution process, and/or a quantum random number generation means for generating a quantum random number (which is used as a quantum key).
The local key management module is connected with the quantum key source and is used for acquiring the quantum key from the quantum key source and carrying out storage and output management on the quantum key.
The local key management module is respectively connected with the encryption and decryption module and the cloud storage module so as to provide corresponding quantum keys for the local key management module. In the invention, the local key management module can respectively provide different quantum keys for the encryption and decryption module and the cloud storage module. Accordingly, as an example, the local key management module may store and manage the quantum key for the encryption and decryption module and the quantum key for the cloud storage module (i.e., the quantum key for distributed storage in fig. 1), respectively.
When a user generates a file to be uploaded, the encryption and decryption module encrypts the file by using the quantum key to generate a ciphertext.
For this reason, the local key management module may independently distribute the corresponding quantum key to the encryption and decryption module for each file to be uploaded of each user. Therefore, the local key management module can also record the corresponding relation between each file and the quantum key distributed by the file, and determine the binding relation between the quantum key and the file.
As an example, the local key management module may record such correspondence with the quantum key using the unique identification of the file. Such a unique identification may be, for example, a hash value generated with respect to the file, the full path name of the file, or a sequence number assigned to the file, etc.
And the encryption and decryption module generates ciphertext by utilizing the quantum key and the file to be uploaded, and then outputs the ciphertext to the local erasure code encoding and decoding module.
The local erasure code encoding and decoding module performs erasure code encoding on the ciphertext to generate a plurality of file cut blocks, such as a file cut block 1, a file cut block 2 and a file cut block 3, as shown in fig. 1.
And then, the local erasure code encoding and decoding module outputs the generated file cut blocks to the cloud-dividing storage module.
According to the cloud storage system and the cloud storage method, a user can configure a plurality of cloud storage positions in the cloud storage module in advance. As previously described, these on-cloud storage locations correspond to multiple cloud devices, which may be provided by different cloud storage providers.
Thus, before uploading each file chunk to the cloud device, the cloud-splitting storage module may randomly select an on-cloud storage location (i.e., the cloud device) for each file chunk from among a plurality of on-cloud storage locations that are pre-configured using the quantum key. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the storage locations on the cloud may be randomly selected for each file chunk, or may be randomly selected for a preset number of file chunks. Correspondingly, the cloud storage module can also record the corresponding relation between each file block and the storage position on the cloud. By establishing the corresponding relation at the user side, sensitive key information can be allowed to be kept locally without uploading to cloud equipment, and leakage risks caused by attack of cloud storage service providers are effectively avoided.
Therefore, the random arrangement is provided for the cloud storage positions of the file dices by providing a plurality of cloud storage service provider selections for the file dices and utilizing the true randomness of the quantum key, so that different cloud storage service providers and different cloud storage positions (cloud devices) under the same cloud storage service provider are allowed to be randomly selected for different file dices of the same file, the randomness of the storage positions on the cloud of the different file dices of the same file can be ensured, and the attack based on file statistics characteristics, which is implemented by screening the statistics rules in the prior art, is effectively avoided. In addition, the possibility of single or partial cloud storage service providers from collusion to acquire user data can be effectively prevented.
Further, the cloud storage module may encrypt the file chunk with an encryption key before uploading the file chunk to the cloud device, thereby providing a protected transmission link between the client and the cloud device.
As an example, the encryption key may be a quantum key provided based on quantum key distribution, but it is different from the quantum key used to form ciphertext and the quantum key used for random selection of storage locations on the cloud, which would be managed by the cloud-split storage module and the corresponding cloud storage server configuration.
As an example, the cloud storage module may be an independent device in the user side, or may be an APP application in the user device.
The cloud device is used for receiving and storing file dicing, and outputting file dicing to the user side according to a user request.
Further, as shown in fig. 2, when the user side requests to download the recovery file, the cloud storage module may download the file chunk corresponding to the file from the corresponding cloud storage server (cloud device) based on the corresponding relationship between the file chunk and the storage location on the cloud based on the user request.
When the cloud device outputs the file block to the user terminal in response to the request, the encryption key can be used for encrypting the file block to provide a protected transmission link.
When the cloud storage module receives the protected file block, the cloud storage module can decrypt the protected file block by using the same encryption key to generate a plaintext of the file block, and output the plaintext to the local erasure code encoding and decoding module.
The local erasure code encoding and decoding module utilizes file blocking to restore and generate ciphertext. Based on the erasure code principle, the number k of file blocks successfully downloaded is not less than the threshold value n required by erasure code decoding.
The encryption and decryption module decrypts the ciphertext by using the quantum key, thereby obtaining the plaintext of the file.
For a better understanding of the working principle of the present invention, the distributed cloud file storage method according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to fig. 1 and 2.
As shown in fig. 1, the distributed cloud file storage method according to the present invention may include a key generation step, a file encryption step, an encoding step, and a random uploading step.
In the key generation step, the quantum key may be generated by quantum key distribution or a quantum random number generator. The generated quantum key can be stored and managed independently according to the quantum key used for the file encryption step and the quantum key used for the random uploading step.
In the file encryption step, the file to be uploaded may be encrypted by using a quantum key in an encryption/decryption module, for example, to generate a ciphertext. Wherein, the corresponding relation between the file and the quantum key used for carrying out encryption operation on the file can be recorded while the quantum key is used for encryption, namely, the binding of the file/key is realized.
The ciphertext may then be erasure coded in an encoding step, for example, using a local erasure coding codec module, to generate a number of file chunks, for example file chunk 1, file chunk 2, file chunk 3.
Before uploading each file chunk to the cloud device, a cloud storage server and a cloud storage location (cloud device) for uploading the file chunk may be randomly selected in a random uploading step, for example, by using a cloud storage module. For example, for three file chunks of the same file, a certain cloud storage location of cloud storage server 1 may be randomly selected for file chunk 1, a certain cloud storage location of cloud storage server 2 may be selected for file chunk 2, and a certain cloud storage location of cloud storage server 3 may be selected for file chunk 3, as shown in fig. 1.
Therefore, in the random uploading step, a plurality of cloud storage servers and cloud storage locations can be configured in advance by a user so as to allow random selection of uploading locations.
Similarly, when a cloud storage facilitator and a storage location on the cloud are randomly selected for file dicing, the correspondence between the file dicing and the cloud storage facilitator and the storage location on the cloud with respect to the random selection thereof may also be recorded.
Furthermore, in order to ensure the security of the data transmission link between the user terminal and the cloud terminal device, the encryption key can be used for encrypting the file cut blocks, so that the file cut blocks are allowed to be transmitted in the transmission link in an encrypted mode.
Further, the distributed cloud file storage method according to the present invention may further include a downloading step, as shown in fig. 2.
In the downloading step, a user sends a request to the cloud storage module to request downloading and recovering of the corresponding file from the cloud device.
And the cloud storage module downloads each file chunk from the corresponding cloud device according to the corresponding relation between the recorded file chunk for the file and the cloud device for the file chunk.
When the cloud device outputs the file to the user terminal for dicing, the cloud device can encrypt the file by using an encryption key so as to provide security protection for the download link.
And after receiving the file blocks with the corresponding quantity, the cloud storage module sends the file blocks to the local erasure code encoding and decoding module. Those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that the number k of file chunks for the local erasure code codec module need only be no less than the threshold n required for erasure code decoding.
In the local erasure code encoding and decoding module, erasure codes are used for decoding, and ciphertext is generated by file blocking recovery. Therefore, finally, the ciphertext can be decrypted by utilizing the quantum key in the encryption and decryption module so as to restore the user file required to be generated.
Based on the above-described distributed cloud file storage method and system, it can be appreciated that, compared with the prior art that the erasure code backup is processed on the cloud conventionally, the invention advances the process to the user side, and considers both the safety requirement and the availability fault tolerance requirement; meanwhile, because disaster recovery and fault tolerance are realized by using erasure codes, the method has the advantages that the method is higher than the traditional encryption usability in effect, and the storage space is saved compared with the traditional secret sharing algorithm. In addition, the method also allows the user side to restore to obtain the original file under the condition that part of cloud storage service providers fail and even maliciously modify the storage file on the cloud to cut blocks by reasonably setting the threshold.
More importantly, the invention further provides that random deployment of storage positions on the file dicing cloud is realized by means of true randomness of the quantum key in the uploading process, so that randomness and position independence of data scattered storage are ensured, and small data redundancy is allowed; meanwhile, erasure codes based on quantum randomness are fault-tolerant to disaster recovery, on the basis of saving space compared with traditional disaster recovery, quantum randomness is applied to improve the safety of disaster recovery, and safety storage of cloud data analysis is realized through enhanced randomness, so that even if an eavesdropper grasps all cloud data, or cloud attackers collect all uploaded data of users for recovering the data, sensitive data cannot be analyzed through a data analysis means. In addition, the storage space utilization rate is greatly optimized compared with the conventional backup means that multiple copies (2-3) are respectively stored in different cloud ends in units of files.
Furthermore, the invention realizes the whole process encryption of the file by utilizing the quantum key and the quantum security algorithm, so that even if part of links or the key of the file is leaked, a person stealing the key cannot recover the plaintext information as long as the quantum key managed by the user side is not completely leaked. In addition, all ownership rights of the quantum keys for file encryption and random selection of storage positions are attributed to users, and are not mastered by cloud service providers, and users can independently maintain corresponding relations among file processing dicing, encryption and cloud storage through maintaining keys; based on the true randomness of the quantum key, the key is distributed according to the fine granularity of each file in the key use process, the key is not reused, and the keys used by each file are different. Further, under such encryption protection measures, the number of file chunks per cloud storage may not be limited by the threshold n set to ensure security.
By means of the security guarantee of the quantum key to the uploading/downloading channel, even if data are all collected, an eavesdropper cannot obtain the data completely, and cannot crack effective information.
While the invention has been described in connection with the specific embodiments illustrated in the drawings, it will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the art that the above embodiments are merely illustrative of the principles of the invention, which are not intended to limit the scope of the invention, and various combinations, modifications and equivalents of the above embodiments may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (14)

1. A distributed cloud file storage method comprises a file encryption step, an encoding step and a random uploading step;
in the file encryption step, encrypting a file with a quantum key to generate a ciphertext;
in the encoding step, erasure code encoding is carried out on the ciphertext to generate file cut blocks;
in the random uploading step, cloud storage service providers and cloud storage positions are randomly selected for the file dicing based on quantum keys, and the file dicing is uploaded based on the selected cloud storage service providers and cloud storage positions.
2. The distributed cloud file storage method of claim 1, wherein the quantum key used for the file encryption step is different from the quantum key used for the random upload step.
3. The distributed cloud file storage method of claim 1, further comprising a key generation step, wherein the quantum key is generated by quantum key distribution or a quantum random number generator.
4. The distributed cloud file storage method of claim 1, further comprising the step of pre-configuring the cloud storage facilitator and storage locations on the cloud for selection.
5. The distributed cloud file storage method of claim 1, wherein in the random uploading step, uploading of the file chunks is achieved in an encrypted manner using an encryption key.
6. The distributed cloud file storage method of claim 1, further comprising the steps of establishing a correspondence between the file and a quantum key, and establishing a correspondence between the file chunk and a cloud storage server and a storage location on the cloud.
7. The distributed cloud file storage method of any of claims 1-6, further comprising a downloading step, wherein the file chunk is downloaded from the cloud to the local based on a user request, the ciphertext is generated locally by erasure code decoding with the file chunk recovery, and the ciphertext is decrypted with a quantum key to obtain the file.
8. The user terminal for the distributed cloud file storage system comprises an encryption and decryption module, a local erasure code encoding and decoding module and a cloud separation storage module;
the encryption and decryption module is used for encrypting a file by utilizing a quantum key to generate a ciphertext and decrypting the ciphertext to generate a plaintext of the file;
the local erasure code encoding and decoding module is used for generating file cutting blocks through erasure code encoding, and generating the ciphertext through erasure code decoding by utilizing the file cutting blocks;
the cloud storage module is configured to randomly select a cloud storage server and a storage position on a cloud for the file dicing based on a quantum key to determine cloud equipment for the file dicing, and to realize uploading and downloading of the file dicing with respect to the cloud equipment.
9. The client of claim 8, further comprising a local key management module configured to manage and output quantum keys for the encryption and decryption module and the cloud storage module, respectively, and to store correspondence between the file and the quantum keys.
10. The client of claim 8, further comprising a quantum key source comprising a quantum key distribution device and/or a quantum random number generator.
11. The client of claim 9, wherein the cloud storage module is further configured to store correspondence between the file chunks and cloud storage servers and storage locations on a cloud; and/or the local key management module is configured to output different quantum keys to the encryption and decryption module and the cloud storage module.
12. A distributed cloud file storage system comprising the client of any one of claims 8-11, and a plurality of cloud devices;
the cloud device is arranged for storing the file dicing and outputting the file dicing to the user side according to a user request; and, in addition, the processing unit,
the cloud devices are provided by different cloud storage providers.
13. The distributed cloud file storage system of claim 12, wherein the client and cloud device are further configured to encrypt and export out the file chunks with an encryption key, and to receive and decrypt encrypted file chunks with the encryption key.
14. A cloud device for the distributed cloud file storage system of claim 12 or 13.
CN202111241957.1A 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 Distributed cloud file storage method and system, user terminal and cloud device thereof Pending CN116032499A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN117318942A (en) * 2023-11-29 2023-12-29 江苏微知量子科技有限公司 Distributed storage system combined with quantum security technology

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN117318942A (en) * 2023-11-29 2023-12-29 江苏微知量子科技有限公司 Distributed storage system combined with quantum security technology
CN117318942B (en) * 2023-11-29 2024-02-13 江苏微知量子科技有限公司 Distributed storage system combined with quantum security technology

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