CN114226547B - Side punching forming method, side punching forming device and control method of special-shaped pipe - Google Patents

Side punching forming method, side punching forming device and control method of special-shaped pipe Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114226547B
CN114226547B CN202111420029.1A CN202111420029A CN114226547B CN 114226547 B CN114226547 B CN 114226547B CN 202111420029 A CN202111420029 A CN 202111420029A CN 114226547 B CN114226547 B CN 114226547B
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China
Prior art keywords
shaping
punching
needle
cutting
curved surface
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CN114226547A (en
Inventor
王元宾
陈丽渊
陈修素
李周鲜
卢旭明
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Zhengjiang Changxing Heliang Intelligent Equipment Co Ltd
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Zhengjiang Changxing Heliang Intelligent Equipment Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D35/00Combined processes according to or processes combined with methods covered by groups B21D1/00 - B21D31/00
    • B21D35/001Shaping combined with punching, e.g. stamping and perforating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D28/00Shaping by press-cutting; Perforating
    • B21D28/24Perforating, i.e. punching holes
    • B21D28/28Perforating, i.e. punching holes in tubes or other hollow bodies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D3/00Straightening or restoring form of metal rods, metal tubes, metal profiles, or specific articles made therefrom, whether or not in combination with sheet metal parts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D35/00Combined processes according to or processes combined with methods covered by groups B21D1/00 - B21D31/00
    • B21D35/002Processes combined with methods covered by groups B21D1/00 - B21D31/00

Abstract

The invention relates to a side punching forming method and a side punching forming device for a special pipe and a control method thereof, and belongs to the technical field of pipe processing. The side punching forming method includes that firstly, a pre-cutting punching needle is used for pre-cutting a notch on the side face of the pipe wall, so that scraps of a punching sheet do not enter a special pipe; shaping the notch based on a shaping core rod to finish shaping the target hole on the pipe wall, ensuring that the shaping section of the shaping core rod is of a non-circular structure, ensuring that the inward shrinkage avoiding edge part is aligned with the first cutting shaping edge part of the notch when the front end is inserted, avoiding the notch collapse caused by pre-cutting, and correcting the collapse part by utilizing the extrapolation function of the circular arc part, thereby effectively improving the product rate of the product, and particularly having more effect on the thin-wall pipe; in addition, the special pipe can be formed without punching forming based on the core rod extending into the pipe, and the special pipe can be widely applied to the manufacturing fields of refrigeration, automobiles, aviation and the like.

Description

Side punching forming method, side punching forming device and control method of special-shaped pipe
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of pipe processing, in particular to a side punching forming method of a special pipe, a side punching forming device suitable for using the side punching forming method and a control method for the side punching forming device.
Background
In the production and manufacturing process of the tubular part, a bypass hole is sometimes required to be formed on the pipe wall of the tubular part, so that the bypass connector is fixedly connected at the hole by welding and the like, and a common forming mode is a forming method from inside to outside, for example, the technical scheme disclosed in the patent document with the publication number of CN107876629A is that the tubular part is formed by penetrating into a punching needle on a core rod in the pipe, so that the punched punching sheet is convenient to discharge and collect scraps, but the core rod has a complex structure and is difficult to be suitable for punching and forming a small-diameter pipe; another method is an outside-in molding method, for example, a method disclosed in patent document CN107617675a, which has a relatively simple apparatus structure but is not easy to discharge scraps of the punched sheet.
When the pipe wall is punched and molded in the two molding modes, a core rod is required to extend into the pipe, and the core rod is used as a supporting core rod in the outside-in molding mode so as to avoid the problem that the pipe wall collapses and deforms; in the forming mode from inside to outside, the forming device is used for carrying the punching needle and the punching needle driving mechanism; both of these two molding methods are not suitable for punching the special-shaped tube, for example, the middle region of the special-shaped tube with both ends of the bent tube structure as shown in fig. 16 is required to be punched, and both of the existing two molding methods are difficult to realize.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention mainly aims to provide a method suitable for side punching forming of a special pipe;
the invention mainly aims to provide a side punching forming device which is suitable for side punching forming of special-shaped pipes;
it is still another object of the present invention to provide a control method for the above side hole punching device.
In order to achieve the above main object, the side punching forming method provided by the present invention is suitable for side punching forming of a special pipe, and includes the steps of:
a side pre-punching step S1, namely driving a pre-cutting punching needle to feed along a pre-cutting path from the outer side of the pipe so as to pre-cut a notch at the pipe wall to be punched; the end of the incision of the pre-cutting punching needle is fed along a pre-cutting path to form a pre-punching track envelope surface, the pre-punching track envelope surface is positioned at the eccentric position of the pipe section where the pipe wall to be punched is positioned, and the pre-punching track envelope surface is intersected with the outer peripheral surface of the pipe section to form an intersecting space curved surface part; on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the outer peripheral surface is smaller than 180 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is smaller than or equal to 180 degrees;
a notch shaping step S2, namely driving the pre-cutting punch needle to withdraw, and driving the shaping mandrel to axially feed so that the front end part of the shaping section positioned at the front end of the shaping mandrel enters the inner cavity of the pipe section through a channel occupied by the intersecting curved surface; then driving the shaping core rod to rotate and axially feed, and carrying out rotary punching shaping on the cut; the outer periphery of the cross section of the shaping section part is formed by encircling an inward-shrinking avoidance edge part and an arc part with a central angle larger than or equal to 180 degrees, and the inward-shrinking avoidance edge part is inward-shrinking relative to the base circle where the arc part is positioned; the retraction relief edge is aligned with the pre-cut shaped mouth edge of the incision as the leading end is driven through the passageway.
In the technical scheme, firstly, a notch is pre-cut on the side surface of the pipe wall through a pre-cutting punching needle, so that the scraps of the punching sheet do not enter the special pipe; the shaping core rod is used for shaping the notch to finish shaping the target hole on the pipe wall, the cross section of the shaping core rod is of a non-circular structure, the inward shrinkage avoiding edge part is ensured to be aligned with the edge part of the notch formed by cutting the notch firstly when the front end is inserted, the notch collapse caused by pre-cutting can be avoided, and the collapse part is corrected by utilizing the extrapolation function of the circular arc part, so that the product rate of a product is effectively improved, and the shaping core rod is particularly more effective for a thin-wall pipe. In addition, the special-shaped pipe is conveniently formed without punching forming based on the core rod extending into the pipe.
The specific scheme is that the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punching needle is perpendicular to the feeding direction of the shaping core rod. The technical scheme can effectively improve the forming quality of the holes.
The more specific scheme is that the pipe section is a straight pipe section, and the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punching needle is vertical to the axial direction of the straight pipe section. The technical scheme can further improve the forming quality of the holes.
The preferred embodiment is a D-profile configuration in cross section. The technical scheme can facilitate the manufacture of the shaping core rod and well balance and reduce the problems of the pressing probability of the collapse part of the cut and the shaping front edge strength of the shaping section.
The preferable scheme is that the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punching needle is downward. The technical scheme can be convenient for discharging the cut punching scraps.
The preferable scheme is that on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the outer peripheral surface is more than or equal to 30 degrees and less than 90 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is more than or equal to 60 degrees and less than or equal to 120 degrees. The technical scheme can effectively improve the forming quality of the holes.
In order to achieve the other purpose, the side punching forming device of the special pipe provided by the invention comprises a side punching forming unit and a clamping die unit for clamping the special pipe, wherein the clamping die unit comprises a clamping die set and a clamping die driving unit for driving the clamping die set to open and close; the side punching forming unit comprises a side pre-punching unit and a notch shaping unit; the side pre-punching unit comprises a pre-cutting punching needle and a punching needle driving unit, and the punching needle driving unit is used for driving the pre-cutting punching needle to axially feed; the incision shaping unit comprises a shaping core rod and a shaping driving unit, and the shaping driving unit is used for driving the shaping core rod to rotate and feed along the axial direction; a punch pin guide hole for the pre-cutting punch pin to reciprocate and a mandrel guide hole for the shaping mandrel to reciprocate are arranged on the closed clamp module; the pre-punching track enveloping surface of the pre-cutting punching needle is intersected with the clamping die cavity of the clamping die set to form an intersecting space curved surface part, and the pre-punching track enveloping surface is an enveloping surface formed by moving the incision end part of the punching needle in the punching needle guide hole; on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the die clamping cavity is smaller than 180 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the envelope surface of the pre-punching track is smaller than or equal to 180 degrees; the shaping section part of the shaping core rod passes through the core rod guide hole and can extend into the clamping die cavity by virtue of the channel occupied by the curved surface part of the intersecting space; the outer periphery of the cross section of the shaping section is formed by encircling an inward-shrinking avoidance edge part and an arc part with a central angle larger than or equal to 180 degrees, and the inward-shrinking avoidance edge part is inward-shrinking relative to the base circle where the arc part is located.
In the technical scheme, the pre-cutting punching needle is used for pre-cutting the notch on the side surface of the pipe wall, so that the waste scraps of the punching sheet do not enter the special pipe; the shaping core rod is used for shaping the notch to finish shaping the target hole on the pipe wall, the cross section of the shaping core rod is of a non-circular structure, and the inward shrinkage avoiding edge part can be adjusted to be aligned with the first-cut shaping edge part of the notch when the shaping front end is inserted, so that notch collapse caused by pre-cutting can be avoided, the collapsed part is corrected by utilizing the extrapolation function of the circular arc part, the product rate of a product is effectively improved, and the shaping core rod is particularly effective for a thin-wall pipe. In addition, the special-shaped pipe is conveniently formed without punching forming based on the core rod extending into the pipe.
The specific scheme is that the clamping module consists of a first clamping module and a second clamping module, wherein one clamping module is provided with a punching needle avoiding hole for accommodating the incision end part of a pre-cutting punching needle during pre-punching, and the other clamping module is provided with a guide through hole for the punching needle to pass through; and when the clamping module is closed, the guide through hole is in butt joint with the punch needle avoiding hole to form a Cheng Chong needle guide hole. The technical scheme can facilitate the processing of the clamping die.
More specifically, on the butt joint surface of two clamping dies, guide grooves with notches on the butt joint surface are respectively arranged, and when the clamping dies are closed, the two guide grooves are spliced into a core rod guide hole. The technical scheme is convenient for assembling and observing the working state of the integral core rod.
The preferred proposal is that the axial direction of the punch needle guide hole is perpendicular to the axial direction of the core rod guide hole. The technical scheme can effectively improve the forming quality of the holes.
The preferable proposal is that the clamping cavity is of a straight hole structure, and the axial direction of the guide hole of the core rod is perpendicular to the axial direction of the clamping cavity. The technical scheme can further improve the molding quality of the holes.
The preferred embodiment is a D-profile configuration in cross section. The technical scheme can facilitate the manufacture of the shaping core rod and well balance and reduce the problems of the pressing probability of the collapse part of the cut and the shaping front edge strength of the shaping section.
The preferable scheme is that the punch needle guide holes are arranged in a downward extending way along the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle in the pre-cutting notch. The technical scheme can be convenient for discharging the cut punching scraps.
The preferable scheme is that on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the die clamping cavity is more than or equal to 30 degrees and less than 90 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is more than or equal to 60 degrees and less than or equal to 120 degrees. The technical scheme can effectively improve the forming quality of the holes.
The preferable scheme is that along the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle in the pre-cutting incision, the punch needle guide hole penetrates through the clamping module, and the punch needle guide hole is positioned in the downstream hole Duan Goucheng of the curved surface part of the intersecting space to cut the material and remove chips; the direction of the guide hole of the punching needle is downward, and the cutting chip discharging hole is positioned at the lower side of the curved surface part of the intersecting space. The technical scheme can be convenient for discharging the cut punching scraps.
The frame of the side punching forming device comprises a base, a horizontal mounting seat and a vertical mounting seat, wherein the horizontal mounting seat is fixed on the base and is arranged along the transverse direction, and the vertical mounting seat is arranged along the vertical direction; the clamping module comprises an upper movable clamping die movably arranged on the vertical mounting seat through a guide rail sliding block mechanism and a lower fixed clamping die fixedly arranged on the frame; the clamping die driving unit is a first linear displacement output device for driving the upper movable clamping die to reciprocate up and down, and a stator of the first linear displacement output device is fixed on the vertical mounting seat; the punching needle driving unit is a second linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the vertical mounting seat, and the second linear displacement output device and the rotor driving direction of the first linear displacement output device are all arranged vertically; the shaping driving unit comprises a sliding seat, a feeding driver and a rotation driver; the sliding seat is mounted on the frame in a reciprocating manner along the feeding direction of the shaping mandrel through a guide rail sliding block mechanism; the feeding driver is a third linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the horizontal mounting seat; the rotation driver comprises a fourth linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the sliding seat, and a gear and a rack forming a gear-rack mechanism; the gear is rotatably arranged on the sliding seat through the mounting vertical plate, and the shaping mandrel is fixedly connected with the gear in a coaxial shaft manner; the rack is mounted on the sliding seat in a reciprocating manner along the direction perpendicular to the feeding direction of the core rod through the guide rail sliding block mechanism; and the rotor of the fourth linear displacement output device is fixedly connected with the rack.
The preferable scheme is that the pre-cutting punching needle is detachably arranged on a rotor of the first linear displacement output device through a connecting mechanism, the connecting mechanism comprises a needle seat fixedly connected with the rotor, and a buffer block is arranged between the needle seat and the clamping module; the needle seat is arranged on the side face of the needle seat outwards, a needle accommodating groove is concavely arranged on the side face of the needle seat, a needle pressing block is detachably and fixedly arranged on a notch of the needle accommodating groove through a plum blossom handle, a pre-cutting punching needle is tightly pressed on the needle pressing block and the bottom face of the needle accommodating groove, and the groove length of the needle accommodating groove is larger than or equal to the length of the pre-cutting punching needle. The technical scheme is convenient for disassembling and assembling the pre-cutting punching needle.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a control method for controlling a side hole forming apparatus to operate, and adapted to the side hole forming apparatus described in any one of the above technical solutions, the control method comprising the steps of:
after finishing shaping the notch, controlling the shaping driving unit to drive the shaping mandrel to rotate until the inward shrinkage avoiding edge part is aligned with the first-cut shaping edge part of the notch; or alternatively, the first and second heat exchangers may be,
after the incision is pre-cut, the shaping driving unit is controlled to drive the shaping mandrel to rotate until the inward shrinkage avoiding edge part is aligned with the edge part of the incision, which is cut first, and then the shaping driving unit is controlled to drive the shaping mandrel to feed.
In the technical scheme, when the front end is inserted, the inward shrinkage avoidance edge part is ensured to be aligned with the first cut forming edge part of the notch, so that notch collapse caused by pre-cutting can be avoided, and the collapsed part is corrected by utilizing the extrapolation function of the arc part, thereby effectively improving the product rate of products and being more effective for the thin-wall tube.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a side-piercing forming device in an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of part C of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a vertical mounting base, a clamping die unit and a side pre-punching unit according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a side view of a vertical mount, a clamp die unit and a side pre-punch unit according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of part A in FIG. 3;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged view of part B of FIG. 4;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of an incision shaping unit in an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a pre-cut punch pin according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a shaping mandrel in an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a schematic view of an apparatus for pre-cutting a slit according to an embodiment of the present invention, wherein a clamping die in a closed state is placed in an open state for illustration;
FIG. 11 is a schematic view of a precutting punch needle and a special tube in the process of precutting a cut in the embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 12 is a schematic view of a precut punch needle and a profiled tube during the precut process of the incision;
FIG. 13 is a schematic view of a profile tube after side pre-punching in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 14 is a schematic view of an apparatus for performing an incision shaping operation according to an embodiment of the present invention, wherein a clamping mold that is in a closed state is placed in an open state for illustration;
FIG. 15 is a schematic view of a shaping mandrel and a special pipe during the shaping process of the incision in the embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 16 is a schematic view showing the relative positions of the shaping segment of the shaping mandrel and the notch during the spinning process according to the embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 17 is a schematic view showing the structure of a deformed tube after shaping by cutting in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 18 is a schematic view of a first cross-sectional configuration of the shaped end portion of the shaped mandrel in an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 19 is a schematic view showing a second cross-sectional configuration of the shaping end portion of the shaping mandrel in accordance with the embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 20 is a schematic view of a third cross-sectional configuration of a shaped end portion of a shaped mandrel in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 21 is a schematic view of a fourth cross-sectional configuration of a shaped end portion of a shaped mandrel in an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 22 is a flowchart illustrating a side-hole forming method according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 23 shows a sheet structure surrounded by a pre-punched slit on a punch pin according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to examples and figures thereof.
The invention mainly aims at improving the structure of the existing pipe fitting side punching forming device and the pipe fitting side punching forming method, namely, a pre-cutting punch is utilized to pre-cut a notch on the pipe fitting from the outer side surface in the side punching forming process, and then a shaping core rod with a non-circular structure is utilized to shape the notch, so that the problem that the special pipe is difficult to side punch in the prior art can be effectively solved.
Examples
As shown in fig. 21, the method for side punching and forming the opposite tube of the present invention includes a side pre-punching step S1 and a notch shaping step S2, and specifically includes the following steps:
a side pre-punching step S1, as shown in fig. 8, 11, 12 and 13, of driving the pre-cutting punch needle 18 to feed along a pre-cutting path from the outer side of the special-shaped tube 01 so as to pre-cut a notch 011 at the wall of the special-shaped tube 01 to be punched; the cut end 180 of the pre-cutting punch needle 18 is fed along a pre-cutting path to form a pre-punching track envelope surface which is positioned at the eccentric position of the pipe section 010 at the pipe wall to be punched, and the pre-punching track envelope surface is intersected with the outer peripheral surface of the pipe section to form an intersection space curved surface part; on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the outer peripheral surface is smaller than 180 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is smaller than or equal to 180 degrees.
Wherein the shank segment of the pre-punch needle 18 where the portion contacting the notch 011 during pre-punching of the notch 011 constitutes a notch end in the present invention, which is fixedly connected to the end of the needle fixing part 189 and has an outer diameter generally smaller than that of the needle fixing part 189, for example, as in the notch end 180 in fig. 12, which forms an envelope surface at the notch 011 and on the downstream side thereof during pre-punching of the notch 011, which envelope surface has generally the same shape as the contour of the notch end, and which envelope surface constitutes the envelope surface of the pre-punch trajectory in the present embodiment, i.e., the shape of the notch 011 is determined by it; in this embodiment, the notched end is constructed by using a straight circular rod with a bevel-shaped front end, and the pipe section 010 is a straight pipe section as an example, so that those skilled in the art can understand the interaction between the notched end with other shapes and the pipe section 010 during the precutting process based on this description; as shown in fig. 12, the die structure 012 is a die cut from the tube segment 010 by a pre-cut die needle; as shown in fig. 23, when the outer peripheral surface of the precut punch pin 18 is in contact with the notch 011, the outer periphery of the notch 011 encloses a block structure 181 similar to the punch structure 012 on the outer peripheral surface of the precut punch pin 18, and the outer peripheral surface of the block structure 181 and the outer peripheral surface structure of the punch structure 012 enclose an intersecting space curved surface portion, on which the central angle of the curved surface portion belonging to the outer peripheral surface of the pipe section 010 is generally required to be smaller than 180 degrees, i.e., the central angle E of the both side ends of the circumference of the punch structure 012 with respect to the central axis of the pipe section 010 is smaller than 180 degrees, as shown in fig. 12, and the central angle F of the both side ends of the circumference of the block structure 181 with respect to the central axis of the precut punch pin 18 is smaller than or equal to 180 degrees, as shown in fig. 23.
In order to improve the quality of the notch and the quality of the shaping, it is generally required that the central angle of the curved surface portion belonging to the outer peripheral surface is 30 degrees or more and 90 degrees or less and that the central angle of the curved surface portion belonging to the envelope surface of the pre-punching track is 60 degrees or more and 120 degrees or less on the curved surface portion of the intersecting space. The technical scheme can effectively improve the forming quality of the holes.
A notch shaping step S2, as shown in fig. 9 and fig. 15 to fig. 17, of driving the pre-cutting punch 18 out of the processing position, and driving the shaping mandrel 19 to axially feed, so that the front end 1900 of the shaping segment 190 at the front end enters the inner cavity of the pipe segment 010 through the channel occupied by the intersecting curved surfaces, i.e. passes through the notch 011; then, the shaping mandrel 19 is driven to rotate and axially feed, and the notch 011 is subjected to rotary extrusion shaping; as shown in fig. 16, the outer periphery of the cross section of the shaping segment 190 is surrounded by an inward-contraction avoiding edge 191 and an arc 192 having a central angle of 180 degrees or more, the inward-contraction avoiding edge 191 being inward-contracted with respect to a base circle 199 where the arc is located; when the front end of the shaping segment 190 is driven through the notch 011, the retraction avoiding edge 191 is aligned with the first-cut shaping edge 0110 of the notch 011, i.e. the position where the pre-cutting punch 18 is first in contact with the pipe segment 010 for shaping.
In this step, as shown in fig. 16 and 18, the cross section of the shaping segment 190 has a D-shaped surface structure, and the outer periphery of the front end 1900 has a chamfer surface structure, so that the shaping segment 190 can be conveniently inserted into the notch 011, the shaping segment 190 can be conveniently processed, and the strength of the contact front edge in the shaping process can be effectively ensured; in addition, the cross-sectional structure of the shaping segment 190 has various obvious forms, for example, a non-circular structure as shown in fig. 19 to 21, and all of them have specific structures, that is, the outer circumferences of the cross-sections of the shaping segments 1901, 1902, 1903 are surrounded by inward-shrink avoidance edge portions 1911, 1912, 1913 and circular arcs 1921, 1922, 1923 with a central angle of 180 degrees or more, and the inward-shrink avoidance edge portions 1911, 1912, 1913 are inward-shrunk relative to base circles 1991, 1992, 1993 where the circular arc portions are located, so that when the shaping segments enter the notch before spinning, the secondary extrusion of the collapsed notch can be reduced to reduce the quality of the finished product, and the shaping and extrapolation can be performed on the collapsed notch to play a role in repairing.
In order to facilitate control, processing and improvement of the shape quality of the slit, the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle 18 is generally set to be perpendicular to the feeding direction of the shaping mandrel 19, and for the pipe segment 010 of the straight pipe structure, the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle 18 is also generally set to be perpendicular to the axial direction of the pipe segment 010. In order to be able to carry out the chip removal better, the feed direction of the pre-cutting punch pins 18 is usually set in a downward inclined arrangement or in a vertically downward arrangement; of course, the pre-cutting punch 18 may be used to push the slice into the receiving chamber or into the aperture and into the collection receiving unit, and may be disposed horizontally, obliquely upward or vertically upward.
The specific structure of the side punching forming device constructed based on the side punching forming method can be in a multi-clamping-die structure, for example, a special pipe is formed in a first clamping die station by pre-punching, then is transferred to a second clamping die by a manipulator for shaping, and one clamping die or the manipulator and the special pipe are always kept in a clamping and positioning state in the transferring process, so that the positioning deviation caused by transferring can be effectively reduced, and the side punching forming device can also be in a common clamping die structure, namely, the special pipe is subjected to pre-cutting punching and shaping treatment on the same clamping die in sequence, so that the positioning machining precision can be effectively improved, and the occupied area of the whole machine of the equipment is reduced; in this embodiment, the structure of the molding apparatus will be exemplarily described taking a common mode structure as an example.
Referring to fig. 1 to 7, the side hole punching forming device 1 of the present invention includes a frame, a control unit mounted on the frame, a clamping die unit 2 and a side hole punching forming unit, wherein the side hole punching forming unit includes a side pre-punching unit 3 and a cut shaping unit 4. The frame comprises a base 10, a horizontal installation seat 11 and a vertical installation seat 12, wherein the horizontal installation seat 11 and the vertical installation seat 12 are fixed on the base 10 and are arranged along the transverse direction, and an inverted T-shaped installation support structure is formed by the horizontal installation seat 11 and the vertical installation seat 12. In the present embodiment, as shown in fig. 1, the control unit includes a control panel 15, an emergency stop button 16, and the like.
As shown in fig. 2 to 6, the clamping die unit 2 is used for clamping a special pipe 01, and specifically includes a clamping die set 21 and a clamping die driving unit 20 for driving the clamping die set 21 to open and close, wherein the clamping die set is composed of more than two clamping dies, and can be more than three; two components are commonly used, wherein two components can be two movable clamping molds, one fixed clamping mold and one movable clamping mold. In the present embodiment, the clamp module 21 includes an upper movable clamp 22 vertically movably mounted on the vertical mount 12 by the rail slider mechanism 13, and a lower fixed clamp 23 fixedly mounted on the horizontal mount 11; the clamping die driving unit 20 is a first linear displacement output device for driving the upper movable clamping die 22 to reciprocate vertically, and a stator of the first linear displacement output device is fixed on the vertical mounting seat 12. The specific structure of the first linear displacement output device can be a linear displacement output device formed by an air cylinder, an oil cylinder, a linear motor, a rotating motor, a four-bar nut mechanism, a gear rack mechanism and the like, and is specifically constructed by adopting the air cylinder. In order to improve the matching alignment between the two clamping molds, a clamping mold guide post 25 is arranged between the upper movable clamping mold 22 and the lower fixed clamping mold 23, and the clamping mold guide post 25 is fixedly connected with one clamping mold and is matched with a guide hole arranged on the other clamping mold for guiding.
As shown in fig. 2 to 6, the side pre-punching unit 3 includes a pre-cutting punch pin 18 and a punch pin driving unit 30, and the punch pin driving unit 30 is used for driving the pre-cutting punch pin to feed along the axial direction thereof, in this embodiment, to reciprocate along the vertical direction, and the feeding direction is downward along the vertical direction. As shown in fig. 8, the pre-cut punch pin 18 includes a pin fixing portion 189 and a cut end portion 180. In this embodiment, the punch pin driving unit 30 is a second linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the vertical mounting base 12, and is specifically configured by using an air cylinder in this embodiment.
In the present embodiment, the pre-cutting punch pin 18 is detachably mounted on the mover of the first linear displacement output device through the connection mechanism 31; the connecting mechanism 31 comprises a needle seat 32 fixedly connected with a rotor of the first linear displacement output device and a needle pressing block 35 arranged on the needle seat through a plum blossom handle 34; the needle seat 32 is mounted on the vertical mounting seat 12 in a vertically reciprocating manner through a guide rail sliding block mechanism 33, the guide rail sliding block mechanism 33 and the guide rail sliding block mechanism 13 share the same linear guide rail, and a buffer block 36 is arranged between the needle seat 32 and the upper movable clamping die 22 and used for limiting the descending limit and buffer of the pre-cutting punch needle 18; the needle holder 32 is provided with a needle receiving groove 320 concavely on the side surface of the outward arrangement, and a needle pressing block 35 is detachably fixed on the notch of the needle receiving groove 320 through two plum handles 34, the needle fixing part 189 of the pre-cutting punch needle 18 is tightly pressed on the needle pressing block 35 and the groove bottom surface of the needle receiving groove 320, and the groove length of the needle receiving groove 320 is greater than or equal to the length of the pre-cutting punch needle 18, so that the disassembling and assembling operation of the pre-cutting punch needle 18 can be completed through the needle receiving groove 320 by disassembling the needle pressing block 35.
The incision shaping unit 4 includes a shaping mandrel 19 and a shaping driving unit 40, and the shaping mandrel 19 includes a shaping segment 190 and a rod fixing portion 197; the shaping driving unit 40 is used for driving the shaping mandrel 19 to rotate around the axis and move in a feeding way along the axis, and the two movements can be independently carried out; in the present embodiment, the shaping driving unit 40 specifically includes a sliding seat 41, a feeding driver 42 and a rotation driver; the slide seat 41 is mounted on the horizontal mount 11 by a rail slider mechanism 43 so as to be reciprocally movable in the feeding direction of the shaping mandrel 19; the feeding driver 42 is a third linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the horizontal mounting seat 11, and is specifically constructed by using an air cylinder. The rotation driver comprises a fourth linear displacement output device 50 with a stator fixed on the sliding seat 41, and a gear 51 and a rack 52 which form a gear rack mechanism; the gear 51 is rotatably mounted on the slide base 41 by the mounting riser 53, and the rod fixing portion 197 of the shaping mandrel 19 is fixedly connected with the gear 51 in a coaxial manner; the rack 52 is reciprocally mounted on the slide block 41 by a guide rail slider mechanism in a direction perpendicular to the core rod feeding direction; the mover of the fourth linear displacement output device 50 is fixedly connected with the rack 52, so that the linear motion of the cylinder is converted into the rotation of the shaping mandrel 19 through a gear-rack mechanism, and the control is facilitated.
Since the side punch forming apparatus 1 of the present embodiment adopts a common mode structure, in order to simplify the equipment structure, the clamp die structure is improved, and the closed clamp die set 21 is provided with a punch guide hole 208 for the reciprocal movement of the precut punch pin 18 and a core rod guide hole 209 for the reciprocal movement of the shaping core rod 19. Specifically, a punch needle avoidance hole 2080 is provided on the lower fixed clamping die 23 for accommodating the cut end 180 of the precut punch needle 18 during precutting, and a guide through hole 2081 for the precut punch needle 18 to pass through is provided on the upper movable clamping die 22; when the clamping module 21 is closed, the guide through hole 2081 is in butt joint with the punch needle avoiding hole 2080 to form a Cheng Chong needle guide hole 208; on the abutting surfaces of the two clamping molds, semi-guide hole structures with notches on the abutting surfaces are respectively arranged, and when the clamping mold set 21 is closed, the two guide grooves are spliced into a core rod guide hole 209.
In this embodiment, the axial direction of the punch pin guide hole 208 is perpendicular to the axial direction of the core rod guide hole 209, and the axial direction of the punch pin guide hole 208 is vertically arranged, so that chip removal treatment is conveniently performed on the punch piece 012, specifically, the chip removal hole 81 arranged on the lower die holder is used for discharging, and the chip removal process is performed by blowing air by using the air blowing hole 82 in the chip removal process, so that better chip removal is performed; the die cavity 2010 of the die set 21 has a straight hole structure, and the axial direction of the core rod guide hole 209 is perpendicular to the axial direction of the die cavity 2010.
In the working process, in order to realize that before the shaping mandrel 19 is rotated and punched, the retracted avoiding edge 191 can be aligned with the first cutting shaping edge 0110 of the notch 011, one of the following two methods is set for the control method of the side punching shaping device 1: (1) After finishing shaping the notch 011, controlling the shaping driving unit 40 to drive the shaping mandrel 19 to rotate until the retraction avoiding edge 191 on the shaping driving unit aligns with the notch to be cut into the notch edge 0110; (2) After the notch 011 is pre-cut, the shaping driving unit 40 is controlled to drive the shaping mandrel 19 to rotate until the retraction avoiding edge 191 is aligned with the first-cut shaping edge 0110 of the notch 011, and then the shaping driving unit 40 is controlled to drive the shaping mandrel 19 to feed so as to extend into the notch 011 to perform the whirling shaping treatment.
In order to realize the arrangement of the intersecting space curved surface portion in the side punching forming method, in the present apparatus, it is required that a pre-punching track envelope surface of the pre-cutting punch pin 18 and a clamping cavity 2010 of the clamping module 21 intersect to form an intersecting space curved surface portion, where the pre-punching track envelope surface is an envelope surface formed by moving a cut end 180 of the pre-cutting punch pin 18 in the punch pin guide hole 208; on the intersecting space curved surface portion, the central angle of the curved surface portion belonging to the die clamping chamber 2010 is smaller than 180 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface portion belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is smaller than or equal to 180 degrees. The shaping segment of the shaping mandrel 19 passes through the mandrel guide hole 209 and can extend into the clamping cavity 2010 by intersecting the channels occupied by the curved surface portions.

Claims (12)

1. The side punching forming method of the special-shaped pipe is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
a side pre-punching step, namely driving a pre-cutting punching needle to feed along a pre-cutting path from the outer side of the pipe so as to pre-cut a notch at the pipe wall to be punched; the incision end part of the pre-cutting punching needle is fed along the pre-cutting path to form a pre-punching track enveloping surface, the pre-punching track enveloping surface is positioned at the eccentric position of the pipe section where the pipe wall to be punched is positioned, and the pre-punching track enveloping surface is intersected with the outer peripheral surface of the pipe section to form an intersecting space curved surface part; on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the outer peripheral surface is smaller than 180 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is smaller than or equal to 180 degrees;
a notch shaping step, namely driving the pre-cutting punch needle to withdraw, and driving the shaping mandrel to axially feed so that the front end part of the shaping section part positioned at the front end of the shaping mandrel enters the inner cavity of the pipe section through the channel occupied by the curved surface part of the intersecting space; then driving the shaping core rod to rotate and axially feed, and carrying out rotary extrusion shaping on the notch; the outer periphery of the cross section of the shaping section is formed by encircling an inward-shrinking avoidance edge part and an arc part with a central angle larger than or equal to 180 degrees, and the inward-shrinking avoidance edge part is inward-shrinking relative to the base circle of the arc part; the retraction relief edge portion is aligned with a pre-cut shaped mouth edge portion of the incision as the leading end portion is urged through the passageway.
2. The side-piercing forming method as claimed in claim 1, wherein:
the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punching needle is perpendicular to the feeding direction of the shaping mandrel;
the pipe section is a straight pipe section, and the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punching needle is perpendicular to the axial direction of the straight pipe section.
3. The side-piercing forming method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that:
the cross section is of a D-shaped surface structure;
the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punching needle is downward;
on the intersecting space curved surface portion, a central angle of the curved surface portion belonging to the outer peripheral surface is 30 degrees or more and less than 90 degrees, and a central angle of the curved surface portion belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is 60 degrees or more and 120 degrees or less.
4. The utility model provides a side punching forming device of special pipe, includes side punching forming unit and is used for the centre gripping the clamp mould unit of special pipe, the clamp mould unit includes clamp module group and is used for order about clamp module group opens and close press from both sides mould drive unit, its characterized in that:
the side punching forming unit comprises a side pre-punching unit and a notch shaping unit; the side pre-punching unit comprises a pre-cutting punching needle and a punching needle driving unit, and the punching needle driving unit is used for driving the pre-cutting punching needle to axially feed; the incision shaping unit comprises a shaping core rod and a shaping driving unit, and the shaping driving unit is used for driving the shaping core rod to rotate and axially feed; a punch pin guide hole for the pre-cutting punch pin to reciprocate and a mandrel guide hole for the shaping mandrel to reciprocate are arranged on the closed clamp module;
the pre-punching track enveloping surface of the pre-cutting punching needle is intersected with the clamping die cavity of the clamping die set to form an intersecting space curved surface part, and the pre-punching track enveloping surface is an enveloping surface formed by moving the incision end part of the pre-cutting punching needle in the punching needle guide hole; on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the die clamping cavity is smaller than 180 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is smaller than or equal to 180 degrees; the shaping section part of the shaping core rod passes through the core rod guide hole and can extend into the clamping die cavity by virtue of the channel occupied by the curved surface part of the intersecting space; the outer periphery of the cross section of the shaping section is formed by encircling an inward-shrinking avoidance edge part and an arc part with a central angle larger than or equal to 180 degrees, and the inward-shrinking avoidance edge part is inward-shrinking relative to the base circle where the arc part is located.
5. The side-piercing forming device as recited in claim 4, wherein:
the clamping module consists of a first clamping module and a second clamping module, wherein one clamping module is provided with a punching needle avoiding hole for accommodating the incision end part of the pre-cutting punching needle during pre-punching, and the other clamping module is provided with a guide through hole for the pre-cutting punching needle to pass through; when the clamping module is closed, the guide through hole is in butt joint with the punching needle avoiding hole to form the punching needle guide hole;
and guide grooves with notches positioned on the butt joint surfaces are respectively arranged on the butt joint surfaces of the two clamping dies, and when the clamping dies are closed, the two guide grooves are spliced into the core rod guide hole.
6. The side-piercing forming device as claimed in claim 4 or 5, wherein:
the axial direction of the punch pin guide hole is perpendicular to the axial direction of the core rod guide hole;
the die clamping cavity is of a straight hole structure, and the axial direction of the core rod guide hole is perpendicular to the axial direction of the die clamping cavity.
7. The side-piercing forming device as recited in claim 6, wherein:
the cross section is of a D-shaped surface structure;
along the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle for pre-cutting the notch, the punch needle guide hole extends downwards;
on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the die clamping cavity is more than or equal to 30 degrees and less than 90 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is more than or equal to 60 degrees and less than or equal to 120 degrees.
8. The side-piercing forming device as recited in claim 6, wherein:
along the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle for pre-cutting the notch, the punch needle guide hole penetrates through the clamping module, so that the punch needle guide hole is positioned at a hole Duan Goucheng blanking chip removal hole at the downstream of the curved part of the intersecting space; the direction of the punch needle guide hole is downward, and the blanking chip removal hole is positioned at the lower side of the curved surface part of the intersecting space.
9. The side-piercing forming device as claimed in claim 4 or 5, wherein:
the cross section is of a D-shaped surface structure;
along the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle for pre-cutting the notch, the punch needle guide hole extends downwards;
on the curved surface part of the intersecting space, the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the die clamping cavity is more than or equal to 30 degrees and less than 90 degrees, and the central angle of the curved surface part belonging to the pre-punching track envelope surface is more than or equal to 60 degrees and less than or equal to 120 degrees.
10. The side-piercing forming device as claimed in claim 4 or 5, wherein:
along the feeding direction of the pre-cutting punch needle for pre-cutting the notch, the punch needle guide hole penetrates through the clamping module, so that the punch needle guide hole is positioned at a hole Duan Goucheng blanking chip removal hole at the downstream of the curved part of the intersecting space; the direction of the punch needle guide hole is downward, and the blanking chip removal hole is positioned at the lower side of the curved surface part of the intersecting space.
11. The side-piercing forming device as claimed in claim 4 or 5, wherein:
the frame of the side punching forming device comprises a base, a horizontal mounting seat and a vertical mounting seat, wherein the horizontal mounting seat is fixed on the base and is transversely arranged, and the vertical mounting seat is vertically arranged;
the clamping module comprises an upper movable clamping die movably arranged on the vertical mounting seat through a guide rail sliding block mechanism and a lower fixed clamping die fixedly arranged on the frame; the clamping die driving unit is a first linear displacement output device for driving the upper movable clamping die to reciprocate up and down, and a stator of the first linear displacement output device is fixed on the vertical mounting seat;
the punching needle driving unit is a second linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the vertical mounting seat, and the second linear displacement output device and the rotor driving direction of the first linear displacement output device are both vertically arranged;
the shaping driving unit comprises a sliding seat, a feeding driver and a rotation driver; the sliding seat is mounted on the frame in a reciprocating manner along the feeding direction of the shaping mandrel through a guide rail sliding block mechanism; the feeding driver is a third linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the horizontal mounting seat; the rotation driver comprises a fourth linear displacement output device with a stator fixed on the sliding seat, and a gear and a rack forming a gear-rack mechanism; the gear is rotatably arranged on the sliding seat through a mounting vertical plate, and the shaping mandrel is fixedly connected with the gear in a coaxial shaft manner; the rack is mounted on the sliding seat in a reciprocating manner along the direction perpendicular to the feeding direction of the core rod through a guide rail sliding block mechanism; the rotor of the fourth linear displacement output device is fixedly connected with the rack;
the pre-cutting punching needle is detachably arranged on a rotor of the first linear displacement output device through a connecting mechanism, the connecting mechanism comprises a needle seat fixedly connected with the rotor, and a buffer block is arranged between the needle seat and the clamping module; the needle seat is arranged on the side face of the needle seat outwards, a needle accommodating groove is concavely formed in the side face of the needle seat outwards, a needle pressing block is detachably and fixedly arranged on a notch of the needle accommodating groove through a plum blossom handle, the pre-cutting punching needle is tightly pressed on the needle pressing block and the bottom face of the needle accommodating groove, and the groove length of the needle accommodating groove is larger than or equal to the length of the pre-cutting punching needle.
12. A control method of a side-hole forming device according to any one of claims 4 to 11, characterized by comprising the steps of:
after finishing shaping the incision, controlling the shaping driving unit to drive the shaping mandrel to rotate until the inward shrinkage avoiding edge part is aligned with the earlier-cut shaping edge part of the incision; or alternatively, the first and second heat exchangers may be,
after the incision is precut, controlling the shaping driving unit to drive the shaping core rod to rotate until the inward shrinkage avoiding edge part is aligned with the precut shaping opening edge part of the incision, and controlling the shaping driving unit to drive the shaping core rod to perform feeding action.
CN202111420029.1A 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 Side punching forming method, side punching forming device and control method of special-shaped pipe Active CN114226547B (en)

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Denomination of invention: Side punching forming method, side punching forming device and control method for irregular pipes

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