CN114101591A - Core assembly modeling method for large curved surface shell casting - Google Patents

Core assembly modeling method for large curved surface shell casting Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114101591A
CN114101591A CN202111254070.6A CN202111254070A CN114101591A CN 114101591 A CN114101591 A CN 114101591A CN 202111254070 A CN202111254070 A CN 202111254070A CN 114101591 A CN114101591 A CN 114101591A
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sand core
sand
core
casting
peripheral
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CN114101591B (en
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宁显润
高超
黄鹏
鲁晨光
任良敏
陈扬
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Yibin Sichuan Push Heavy Machinery Co ltd
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Yibin Sichuan Push Heavy Machinery Co ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/10Cores; Manufacture or installation of cores
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/10Cores; Manufacture or installation of cores
    • B22C9/108Installation of cores

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  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Molds, Cores, And Manufacturing Methods Thereof (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a core assembly modeling method of a large curved surface shell casting in the technical field of casting, which comprises the steps of sand core positioning cavity design, inner cavity sand core design, peripheral sand core design, sand core preassembly, sand core formal assembly and the like, wherein a large-size moulding bed, an inner cavity sand core and a peripheral sand core are all cut into small blocks for assembly, so that a mould and a sand mould become smaller in volume and quality, the manufacturing cost and the operation difficulty of a core box are greatly reduced, the operation safety is improved, and the damaged sand core is conveniently and independently re-manufactured; when the sand core is assembled, the cavity is positioned by the sand core, the sand core in the inner cavity can be quickly and accurately placed into the cavity, the condition that the curved surface shell casting of the shaft and the bearing which are required to be placed in the inner cavity cannot be processed and scrapped due to deviation is avoided, meanwhile, the peripheral sand core is preassembled and placed according to the profile diagram, and formal assembly is carried out after marking, so that the assembly efficiency and precision are improved, and the sand mold quality is ensured.

Description

Core assembly modeling method for large curved surface shell casting
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of casting, in particular to a core assembly molding method of a large curved surface shell casting.
Background
The curved surface shell is a high-efficiency energy-saving device for conveying and improving gas pressure, and belongs to a technologically intensive turbine machine. Along with the rapid development of various industries in China and the large-scale process equipment, the mechanical equipment has larger and larger demand, and is widely applied to industries such as power plants, pharmacy, metallurgy, cracking, blast furnace gas and the like. Before this century, no mature energy-saving equipment for conveying and improving gas pressure exists in China, and the equipment of companies such as Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sulshou, DEMAG and the like is imported mainly, so that the price is high, the purchase of spare parts and the accident handling period are long, and the economic and production progress is severely restricted. Through continuous efforts and innovations of domestic colleges and universities and enterprises, the curved surface shell energy-saving equipment is successfully developed. The utilization rate of the machine type reaches or exceeds 500 annual demand at present, foreign exchange is saved by more than 30 hundred million dollars in import, and a large amount of equipment is exported to most countries and regions in Asia, Africa, south America and Europe. Therefore, the method has very important significance for the successful development of the curved surface shell casting.
The casting technology of the curved surface shell type casting is difficult to produce, the casting is composed of an upper shell and a lower shell, the material is HT250, the upper shell and the lower shell are cast in a split mode, the maximum single piece weight reaches 40 tons, and the maximum casting outline size is 6900 multiplied by 3780 multiplied by 2100. Many enterprises cannot adopt the conventional template process to manufacture due to the limitation of production equipment, process equipment and technology, and cannot complete development and production because the sand mould is too large and causes potential safety hazards in the hoisting process.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects of high production difficulty, high cost, potential safety hazard and the like of the existing large-scale curved surface shell castings, the invention aims to solve the technical problems that: the core assembly molding method of the large curved surface shell casting is easy to realize.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems is as follows:
a core assembly molding method of a large curved surface shell casting comprises the following steps:
a. designing a sand core positioning cavity: designing a forming die according to the projection profile of the internal cavity of the casting on the horizontal plane, placing the forming die on a horizontal sand mold for sand scraping molding, and taking out the forming die after the molding is solidified to form a sand core positioning cavity;
b. designing an inner cavity sand core: designing an inner cavity sand mold according to the overall contour of an inner cavity of a casting, wherein the inner cavity sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of inner cavity sand core blocks;
c. designing a peripheral sand core: designing a peripheral sand core according to the external profile of the casting, wherein the peripheral sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of peripheral sand core blocks;
d. pre-assembling a sand core: firstly, drawing a positioning line on the periphery of a sand core positioning cavity by taking the position of the sand core positioning cavity as a reference, then placing each peripheral sand core block according to the positioning line, drawing an alignment mark between adjacent peripheral sand core blocks, performing smooth polishing transition on a splicing part after the peripheral sand core blocks are spliced, and finally taking down each peripheral sand core block;
e. formally assembling the sand core: firstly, placing inner cavity sand core blocks in the sand core positioning cavities, performing sand filling and polishing on the splicing parts, then placing peripheral sand core blocks according to positioning lines and alignment marks on the peripheral sand core blocks, and finally using a ring box to perform sleeving and fixing on the assembled sand cores.
Further, the forming die is formed by splicing a plurality of shaping plates, and each shaping plate comprises a basic shaping plate and a plurality of replaceable shaping plates with different lengths.
Further, the height of the template is 100-150mm, and the draft angle of the mold is 8-15mm of negative draft.
Furthermore, the inner cavity sand core blocks comprise a base mold and a plurality of replaceable molds with different lengths, and each inner cavity sand core block is divided by taking each end surface or processing surface of the casting as a boundary line, so that the mass of each inner cavity sand core block is not more than 10 tons.
Furthermore, the peripheral sand core is divided into an upper layer and a lower layer by taking the middle waist line of the casting as a boundary, each layer of sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of peripheral sand core blocks, each peripheral sand core block is divided by taking each end surface or processing surface of the casting as a boundary, and the mass of each peripheral sand core block is not more than 10 tons.
Furthermore, when drawing a positioning line, drawing an axial center line on the sand core positioning cavity, drawing two reference lines which are overlapped with two end faces of the casting and are perpendicular to the center line according to the length of the casting, and finally deviating the center line to two sides of the casting to draw two side lines, wherein the positions of the two side lines exceed the edges of the peripheral sand cores which are placed subsequently by at least 50 mm.
Furthermore, when the inner cavity sand core block and the peripheral sand core block are assembled, the position of the sand core is finely adjusted by measuring the distance from the edge of the sand core to the two side lines.
Furthermore, after the sand core is sleeved by the ring box, resin sand is filled in a gap between the ring box and the sand core, and a weight of 3-5 times of the casting weight is pressed on the sand core.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the sand core is divided into a plurality of sand core blocks, the size and the quality of the sand core are smaller, the manufacturing cost and the operation difficulty of the core box are greatly reduced, the number and the weight of the core bones placed in the sand core are also smaller and lighter, the operation safety is improved, and in addition, even if individual sand cores are damaged, the damaged sand cores can be independently re-manufactured;
2. the core head position of the inner cavity sand core is integrally designed into a core head mould, and the mould is used for manufacturing a sand core positioning cavity, so that the inner cavity sand core is conveniently, quickly and accurately placed into a cavity, and the axial size of a curved surface shell casting of which the inner cavity is required to be provided with a shaft and a bearing is ensured not to deviate and cannot be processed to cause scrapping;
3. after the peripheral psammitolite is cored according to the location line, the wall thickness size of detection foundry goods that can be very convenient, also can in time adjust the psammitolite that has the problem if the size has the problem, satisfy the drawing size requirement, secondly, after the peripheral psammitolite of going into, can use the mode of naked eye or endoscope to go to inspect the die cavity clean degree, can use compressed air to blow and inhale the processing to the point that has the anomaly, avoided the production of foundry goods defect.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a diagram of a tire cavity in an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a partition view of a cavity sand core in an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a diagram of a two layer peripheral sand core in an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a line graph in an embodiment of the present invention;
the plot is labeled 1-core positioning cavity, 2-sand mold, 3-axial centerline, 4-datum line, 5-outlet end datum line, 6-lower core edge line.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated with reference to the following figures and examples.
The application provides a core assembly molding method of a large curved surface shell casting, which comprises the following steps:
a. designing a sand core positioning cavity: designing a forming die according to the projection profile of the internal cavity of the casting on the horizontal plane, placing the forming die on a horizontal sand mold for sand scraping molding, and taking out the forming die after the molding is solidified to form a sand core positioning cavity;
b. designing an inner cavity sand core: designing an inner cavity sand mold according to the overall contour of an inner cavity of a casting, wherein the inner cavity sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of inner cavity sand core blocks;
c. designing a peripheral sand core: designing a peripheral sand core according to the external profile of the casting, wherein the peripheral sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of peripheral sand core blocks;
d. pre-assembling a sand core: firstly, drawing a positioning line on the periphery of a sand core positioning cavity by taking the position of the sand core positioning cavity as a reference, then placing each peripheral sand core block according to the positioning line, drawing an alignment mark between adjacent peripheral sand core blocks, performing smooth polishing transition on a splicing part after the peripheral sand core blocks are spliced, and finally taking down each peripheral sand core block;
e. formally assembling the sand core: firstly, placing inner cavity sand core blocks in the sand core positioning cavities, performing sand filling and polishing on the splicing parts, then placing peripheral sand core blocks according to positioning lines and alignment marks on the peripheral sand core blocks, and finally using a ring box to perform sleeving and fixing on the assembled sand cores.
Compare current integral sand mould structure, this application is through dividing the sand mould into the structural style of polylith psammitolite to through the combination of above-mentioned specific mode, obtain the foundry goods sand mould. The mode can greatly reduce the production difficulty of large castings, improve the safety and ensure the quality of the castings.
Specifically, when designing the child mould, because the foundry goods size is great, and the foundry goods of many different models only has the difference on the size of some length or width, and the shape at key position is unanimous mostly, consequently, this application will the structural style that the child mould design becomes the concatenation of multiple template and forms, and the template includes the interchangeable template that basic template and polylith length are different. The basic template is used for the parts with the same model, and the replaceable template is reasonably selected and combined according to the sizes of different models. Therefore, the cost of the die can be greatly reduced, and the applicability of the tire die is improved.
In order to stably position the core head part of the inner cavity sand core block, the height of the template is preferably 100-150mm, and simultaneously, in order to smoothly demould, the draft angle is designed to be 8-15mm of a negative draft mode.
Similar to a forming die, the inner cavity sand core and the peripheral sand core are all in a structural form of splicing a plurality of sand core structures, so that the inner cavity sand core blocks are designed into a basic form and a plurality of replaceable forms with different lengths according to the size difference among castings of various types, and in the specific division process, for the requirements of convenience in manufacturing, subsequent processing and the like, the inner cavity sand core blocks are divided according to the boundary line of each end surface or processing surface of the castings, the quality of each inner cavity sand core block is not more than 10 tons, the adjustment, transportation and assembly are facilitated, and the safety is improved.
Similarly, because the height of the casting is generally higher, if the sand core is designed to be too large, the deformation of a core box is easily caused, more used core bones are used, and potential safety hazards exist, the preferred scheme is that the peripheral sand core is divided into an upper layer and a lower layer by taking the middle waist line of the casting as a boundary, each layer of sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of peripheral sand core blocks, each peripheral sand core block is divided by taking each end surface or processing surface of the casting as a boundary, and the mass of each peripheral sand core block is not more than 10 tons.
The concrete method for drawing the positioning line in the sand core preassembly stage is that firstly, an axial central line is drawn on a sand core positioning cavity, then two reference lines which are coincident with two end faces of a casting and are perpendicular to the central line are drawn according to the length of the casting, finally, the central line is deviated towards two sides of the casting, and two side lines are drawn, wherein the positions of the two side lines exceed the edge of a peripheral sand core placed subsequently by at least 50 mm. The purpose of drawing the positioning line is to facilitate the positioning during the subsequent core setting, and improve the efficiency and the precision of the assembly. Particularly, when the inner cavity sand core block and the peripheral sand core block are assembled, the positions of the sand cores are finely adjusted by measuring the distances from the edges of the sand cores to the two side lines, so that the sand cores are not deviated on the axis, and the axial concentricity is ensured.
Finally, after the sand core is sleeved by the ring box, a gap is formed between the ring box and the sand core, the gap is usually larger than 300mm, and resin sand is preferably filled into the gap between the ring box and the sand core for solidification to avoid casting deformation caused by expansion of the sand mould after casting, and a weight iron which is 3-5 times of the casting weight is pressed on the sand core to avoid the sand core floating upwards.
The invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples.
The first embodiment is as follows:
a press housing of a certain type is cast according to the core assembly molding method described above in the present application.
The method comprises the following steps: designing a sand core positioning cavity, selecting a proper moulding bed template according to the size of the sand core positioning cavity for assembly, placing the moulding bed on a sand mould 2 prepared in advance and measured by an infrared level meter during operation, scraping the moulding bed out along with the shape of the moulding bed in a sand scraping moulding mode, and taking out the moulding bed after the moulding is solidified to form a sand core positioning cavity 1 as shown in figure 1;
step two: the design of the cavity sand core is as shown in fig. 2, the cavity sand core is divided into 9 blocks according to the base and the processing surface of the cavity of the casting, wherein the sand cores 1#, 2#, 6#, 7#, 8# and 9# are basic types, and the sand cores 3#, 4# and 5# in the middle are replaceable types selected according to the size of the casting;
step three: designing the peripheral sand cores, and carrying out classification numbering according to the core setting sequence of the sand cores, wherein the placing positions of the peripheral sand cores are shown in the figure as shown in figure 3. Considering the height of the casting is too high, the casting is split from the waist part of the casting, and the peripheral sand core consists of two layers. The first layer of sand core takes the end face of an air inlet deflector as a reference surface and extends to the end face of a small-end diffuser as a reference sand core, the left sand core and the right sand core are respectively 1 sand core, namely 12# sand core and 15# sand core, and the two end heads are respectively provided with 2 sand cores, namely 10# sand core, 11# sand core, 13# sand core and 14# sand core, so that the first layer of shape is formed. The division of the second layer of sand cores is based on the centers of the circular flanges of the large tuyere and the small tuyere, the middle section of the second layer of sand cores is formed by 1 large sand core, namely the 18# sand core, the accuracy of the size of the casting is ensured, and the sand cores at two ends are the same as the division mode of the first layer of sand cores and are respectively surrounded by 4 sand cores, namely the 16#, 17#, 19# and 20# sand cores. The core box of the sand core is relatively large, is made of miscellaneous wood materials, is reinforced by channel steel on the assembly surface of the core box, is positioned or fixed at multiple points by screws, is arranged at intervals of 800-1000 mm and is distributed in the length direction and the height direction of the core box. And part of the cavity core with higher precision requirement is fixed by adopting a mode of arranging a bottom plate and assembling a positioning pin. The core box is manufactured according to the longest model, the middle section is adjusted according to different product models, and the baffle blocks are manufactured at four corners during the manufacturing of the core box, so that the verticality of the core box frame is ensured, and the error is controlled within 2 per thousand;
step four: pre-assembling a sand core, as shown in fig. 4, marking an axial center line 3 on a fetal membrane, taking a non-processing surface of an air inlet end as a reference surface and making a reference line 4 perpendicular to the center line, determining the length of a machine shell, deviating the length distance of the machine shell from the reference line 4 to an outlet end, marking an outlet end reference line 5 perpendicular to the center line, and finally respectively deviating 2m distances from the reference line 3 perpendicular to the axial center line to mark a side line 6; and (3) sand core assembly is carried out in advance before the lower peripheral core, on the basis of a reference line, as shown in FIG. 4, sand cores on two sides of 12# and 15# are put in according to the sizes of the distance sidelines S1 and S2, the two sides of the sand cores are symmetrical, the sand cores are close to the existing 12# and 15# sand cores, and sand cores of 10#, 11#, 13# and 14# are put in at the two ends of the inlet and the outlet, so that the sand core pre-assembly of the first layer of sand core is completed. After a sand core is put in, an alignment mark of any 2-3 surface marks is selected to ensure the accuracy of later formal core setting. When a second layer of sand core is arranged, the sand core of 12# and 15# is used as a reference to deflect 350mm towards the air outlet direction according to the requirements of a drawing, as shown in figure 3, 18# sand cores are arranged on the two cores, the two edges of the sand cores close to the outer parts are respectively aligned with the outer edges of the 9# sand core and the 10# sand core, when 16#, 17#, 19# sand cores and 20# sand cores are arranged, the sand cores can be attached to the 18# sand cores to complete the pre-allocation of the second layer of sand cores as long as the sand cores are separated from the inlet and the outlet, and any 2-3 surface line is marked with an L shape to ensure the accuracy of the formal core arrangement in the later period. After the pre-assembly of the two layers of sand cores is completed, operators carry out manual smooth polishing transition on all the sand cores along with the shape, so that dislocation or poor contact is avoided after casting pouring;
step five: and (3) formally assembling the sand cores, respectively putting 1# and 7# sand cores into the sand core positioning cavity according to the figure 2, measuring the distance between the two cores to meet the dimension required by a drawing, sequentially putting 2#, 3#, 6#, 5# and 4# inner cavity sand cores, respectively measuring the dimension distance from the edge of the sand core to a sideline after each sand core is put into the sand core, and requiring the left dimension and the right dimension to be equal. Gaps between each sand core are checked, and if gaps exist, resin sand can be filled in the gaps for sand filling and coating operations. When the cores are placed in the 8# and 9# positions, the cores are placed only by aligning the core heads of the inlet end tire mold and the outlet end tire mold, and the drawing requirements are met by measuring the space between the two cores by using a measuring tape. And when the peripheral core is formally arranged, arranging the core according to the marked L line. And finally, sleeving all the assembled sand cores by using a ring box, filling resin sand into a gap between the ring box and the sand cores, and pressing the sand cores by using a weight of 3-5 times of the pouring weight to avoid the sand cores floating upwards.
By adopting the core assembly modeling method, the manufacturing difficulty of the large casting sand mold can be greatly reduced, the production efficiency and the quality are improved, and the core assembly modeling method is safe and reliable and has good practicability and application prospect.

Claims (8)

1. A core assembly molding method of a large curved surface shell casting is characterized by comprising the following steps:
a. designing a sand core positioning cavity: designing a forming die according to the projection profile of the internal cavity of the casting on the horizontal plane, placing the forming die on a horizontal sand mold for sand scraping molding, and taking out the forming die after the molding is solidified to form a sand core positioning cavity;
b. designing an inner cavity sand core: designing an inner cavity sand mold according to the overall outline of an inner cavity of a casting, wherein the inner cavity sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of inner cavity sand core blocks;
c. designing a peripheral sand core: designing a peripheral sand core according to the external profile of the casting, wherein the peripheral sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of peripheral sand core blocks;
d. pre-assembling a sand core: firstly, drawing a positioning line on the periphery of a sand core positioning cavity by taking the position of the sand core positioning cavity as a reference, then placing each peripheral sand core block according to the positioning line, drawing an alignment mark between adjacent peripheral sand core blocks, performing smooth polishing transition on a splicing part after the peripheral sand core blocks are spliced, and finally taking down each peripheral sand core block;
e. formally assembling the sand core: firstly, placing inner cavity sand core blocks in the sand core positioning cavity, performing sand filling and polishing on the splicing parts, then placing peripheral sand core blocks according to positioning lines and alignment marks on the peripheral sand core blocks, and finally using a ring box to perform sleeving and fixing on the assembled sand core.
2. The core assembly molding method of the large curved surface shell casting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the forming die is formed by splicing a plurality of shaping plates, and each shaping plate comprises a basic shaping plate and a plurality of replaceable shaping plates with different lengths.
3. The core assembly molding method of a large curved surface shell casting as claimed in claim 2, wherein: the height of the template is 100-150mm, and the draft angle of the pattern is 8-15mm of the negative pattern.
4. The core assembly molding method of the large curved surface shell casting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the inner cavity sand core blocks comprise a base mold and a plurality of replaceable molds with different lengths, and each inner cavity sand core block is divided by taking each end surface or a processing surface of a casting as a boundary line, so that the mass of each inner cavity sand core block is not more than 10 tons.
5. The core assembly molding method of the large curved surface shell casting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the peripheral sand core is divided into an upper layer and a lower layer by taking the middle waist line of the casting as a boundary, each layer of sand core is formed by splicing a plurality of peripheral sand core blocks, each peripheral sand core block is divided by taking each end surface or processing surface of the casting as a boundary, and the mass of each peripheral sand core block is not more than 10 tons.
6. The core assembly molding method of the large curved surface shell casting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: when drawing a positioning line, drawing an axial central line on the sand core positioning cavity, drawing two reference lines which are coincident with two end faces of the casting and are perpendicular to the central line according to the length of the casting, and finally deviating the central line to two sides of the casting to draw two side lines, wherein the positions of the two side lines exceed the edges of the peripheral sand cores which are placed subsequently by at least 50 mm.
7. The core assembly molding method of a large curved surface shell casting as claimed in claim 6, wherein: when the inner cavity sand core block and the peripheral sand core block are assembled, the positions of the sand cores are finely adjusted by measuring the distances from the edges of the sand cores to the two side lines.
8. The core assembly molding method of the large curved surface shell casting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: after the sand core is sleeved by the ring box, resin sand is filled in a gap between the ring box and the sand core, and a weight of 3-5 times of the pouring weight is pressed on the sand core.
CN202111254070.6A 2021-10-27 2021-10-27 Core assembly molding method of large curved surface shell casting Active CN114101591B (en)

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CN115069984A (en) * 2022-06-27 2022-09-20 共享装备股份有限公司 Flexible guiding device for core setting of sand mold and sand mold

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CN115069984B (en) * 2022-06-27 2023-06-30 共享装备股份有限公司 Flexible guiding device for sand mould core setting and sand mould

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