CN113916168A - Involute template for field of large gear measuring instrument - Google Patents

Involute template for field of large gear measuring instrument Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113916168A
CN113916168A CN202111007908.1A CN202111007908A CN113916168A CN 113916168 A CN113916168 A CN 113916168A CN 202111007908 A CN202111007908 A CN 202111007908A CN 113916168 A CN113916168 A CN 113916168A
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China
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shaft
frame
measuring
screws
block
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CN202111007908.1A
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CN113916168B (en
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陈洪芳
梁超伟
石照耀
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Beijing University of Technology
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Beijing University of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B21/00Measuring arrangements or details thereof, where the measuring technique is not covered by the other groups of this subclass, unspecified or not relevant
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B21/00Measuring arrangements or details thereof, where the measuring technique is not covered by the other groups of this subclass, unspecified or not relevant
    • G01B21/02Measuring arrangements or details thereof, where the measuring technique is not covered by the other groups of this subclass, unspecified or not relevant for measuring length, width, or thickness
    • G01B21/04Measuring arrangements or details thereof, where the measuring technique is not covered by the other groups of this subclass, unspecified or not relevant for measuring length, width, or thickness by measuring coordinates of points
    • G01B21/042Calibration or calibration artifacts

Abstract

The invention discloses an involute template for the measurement field of a large gear, which comprises a frame, a counterweight frame, a centering shaft, a measurement shaft and a reference block, wherein two V-shaped blocks are arranged on the left side of the frame and fixed on the frame through screws, the V-shaped blocks are matched with a counterweight clamp hoop, the centering shaft is firmly fixed between the V-shaped blocks and the counterweight clamp hoop by screwing the screws, the counterweight clamp hoop is fixed with the counterweight frame through the screws, the counterweight block is connected with the counterweight frame through the screws, one side of the frame is provided with four reference cushion columns, the V-shaped block is fixed at the right end of the frame through the screws, the V-shaped blocks are matched with the clamp hoop to fix the measurement shaft, and the reference block is fixed on the measurement shaft through four screws. The parallelism of the two shafts can be ensured after final assembly by rough adjustment of the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft and fine adjustment on the gear measuring center in the assembly process, so that the precision of calibrating the gear measuring center by using the involute template can be ensured.

Description

Involute template for field of large gear measuring instrument
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of calibration of a large gear measuring instrument, in particular to a mechanical structure design of a novel involute template in the field of large gear measuring instruments.
Background
The gear is widely applied to military equipment, industrial products and civil commodities as an important part, and has the characteristics of compact structure, accurate transmission ratio, high transmission efficiency and the like. The large gear is widely applied to the manufacturing industries such as shipbuilding industry, coal mining industry, wind power generation, petroleum conveying systems and the like, a gear measurement center is generally adopted for detecting the gear precision, and in order to ensure the correct execution of the gear precision standard, a large-size involute value transmission system needs to be established for calibrating the precision of the gear measurement center.
The bull gear is widely applied in engineering, but bull gear templates for calibrating gear measuring instruments in China are few and few but large, because the bull gear involute template is large in size, complex in shape and difficult to machine, and a high-precision instrument for detecting the large-size template is lacked. At present, the gear sample plates in China are small in size, and the calibration requirement of a large gear measurement instrument with a large measurement range cannot be met. The invention uses the arc surface with controllable precision to replace the involute tooth profile to construct a novel involute sample plate, provides a mechanical structure of the novel involute sample plate, can realize high-precision detection while meeting the requirement of sample plate high-precision processing, and provides technical support for the establishment of a large-size involute quantity value transmission system, the realization of quantity value tracing and the expansion of the national standard of gear involute.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a novel involute sample plate for the field of large gear measurement instruments, provides a mechanical structure of a double-shaft arc-shaped large-size involute sample plate, provides a new idea for establishing a large-size gear involute quantity value transmission system, and solves the problem that the existing gear involute sample plate in China in the background technology has small size and cannot meet the technical requirement of calibrating a large gear measurement center.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme: a novel involute sample plate for the field of large gear measuring instruments adopts an arc to replace a theoretical involute of a large gear under fixed parameters. The novel involute template mechanical structure comprises a frame, a counterweight frame, a centering shaft, a measuring shaft and a reference block, wherein two V-shaped blocks are installed on the left side of the frame and fixed on the frame through screws, the V-shaped blocks are matched with the counterweight clamp hoop in a screwed mode, the centering shaft is firmly fixed between the V-shaped blocks and the counterweight clamp hoop through tightening screws, the counterweight clamp hoop is fixed with the counterweight frame through screws, the counterweight block is connected with the counterweight frame through screws, one side of the frame is provided with four reference cushion columns, the V-shaped blocks are fixed at the right end of the frame through screws, the V-shaped blocks are matched with the counterweight clamp hoop to fix the measuring shaft, and the reference blocks are fixed on the measuring shaft through four screws which are arranged at intervals of 90 degrees.
Preferably, the reference block is fixed on the measuring shaft in a screw thread mode, the top of the measuring shaft is a stepped shaft, and four threaded holes are uniformly distributed on the stepped shaft at an angle of 90 degrees.
Preferably, the measuring shaft and the centering shaft are fixed by the cooperation of a V-shaped block and a clamping hoop.
Preferably, the four hollowed-out cylinders are light-weight and hollow.
Preferably, the frame and the counterweight frame are both triangular structures.
Preferably, the four reference pad columns are distributed on one side of the frame and are kept on the same plane.
Preferably, the counterweight frame and the frame both adopt aluminum structures and are subjected to anodic oxidation and multiple aging treatment. The reference block, the shaft and the connecting piece are all made of bearing steel, and HRC60 is subjected to high-temperature aging treatment, quenching and ice-cooling treatment.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the reference block is fixed on the measuring central shaft in a screw thread mode, the top of the measuring shaft is a stepped shaft, and four threaded holes are uniformly distributed on the stepped shaft at an angle of 90 degrees. A through hole is formed in the middle of the reference block, so that the stepped shaft on the measuring shaft just passes through the through hole in the reference block, and the four stepped holes around the through hole correspond to the four threaded holes in the stepped shaft one to one. The arrangement with the mutual difference of 90 degrees can adjust the hole position to ensure that the hole position is on the same straight line with the upper end of the frame when the measuring shaft is assembled, and can naturally ensure the verticality of the side surface of the reference block and the plane of the upper end of the frame when the reference block is assembled.
2. The measuring shaft and the centering shaft are fastened by the V-shaped block matched with the clamp and then fixed on two parallel side surfaces of the frame, fine adjustment of the parallelism fine adjustment gasket is utilized during assembly, and the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft can be accurately guaranteed through a certain assembly process.
3. The position of the hollowing treatment of the frame is the optimal position determined after the optimization of ANSYS analysis software, so that the weight of the whole mechanical structure is reduced, and the strength of the whole structure can be ensured.
4. Considering the function of each part in the whole mechanical structure, comprehensively considering each angle such as precision, weight, economy and the like, the counterweight frame and the frame are both made of aluminum structures and are subjected to anodic oxidation and multiple aging treatment. The reference block, the shaft and the connecting piece are all made of bearing steel, and HRC60 is subjected to high-temperature aging treatment, quenching and ice-cooling treatment.
5. The frame is used as a main body of the whole mechanical structure, the whole shape of the frame is triangular, the stability of the whole structure is ensured, the frame is not easy to deform, the parallelism between two shafts is easy to guarantee during assembly, and the assembled structure is more stable.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the overall structure of the novel calibration template
FIG. 2A schematic view of the connection of the V-shaped block to the frame
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the connection of a reference block to a measuring shaft
FIG. 4 schematic view of a measuring shaft
FIG. 5 schematic of a reference block
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the connection of the counterweight clamp and counterweight frame
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of parallelism between two axes X, Y
FIG. 8 parallelism trimming shim
FIG. 9 is a schematic view of a parallelism adjusting shim
In the figure, 1-balancing weight, 2-balancing weight clamp, 3-balancing weight frame, 4-frame, 5-measuring shaft, 6-reference block, 7-reference cushion column, 8-clamp, 9-centering shaft, 10-V-shaped block and 11-parallelism fine adjustment gasket.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further described in detail below with reference to the attached drawings so that those skilled in the art can implement the invention by referring to the description text.
As shown in fig. 1 and 2, four stepped through holes are drilled on the V-shaped block 10, and screws are screwed into the threaded holes on the frame 4 through the through holes to fasten the V-shaped block 10 and the frame 4 together. The centering shaft 9 is clamped in the V-shaped grooves of the upper V-shaped block 10 and the lower V-shaped block 10, and the centering shaft 9 is tightly abutted to the V-shaped blocks 10 by screwing two screws on the counterweight clamp 2; similarly, the V-shaped block 10 at the right side of the frame 4 is screwed into a threaded hole on the frame 4 through four screws penetrating through the stepped through hole, the measuring shaft 5 is clamped in the V-shaped grooves of the upper V-shaped block 10 and the lower V-shaped block 10, and the measuring shaft 5 is tightly abutted to the V-shaped blocks 10 by screwing the two screws on the clamp 8; stepped through holes are drilled on the four reference padding columns 7, and screws penetrate through the stepped through holes and are screwed into threaded holes in the frame 4 to fix the reference padding columns 7.
As shown in fig. 1, 3, 4 and 5, the top of the measuring shaft 5 is a stepped shaft, and four threaded holes are uniformly distributed on the stepped shaft at 90 ° difference. A through hole is formed in the middle of the reference block 6, so that the stepped shaft on the measuring shaft 5 just passes through the through hole in the reference block 6, and four stepped holes around the through hole correspond to four threaded holes in the stepped shaft in position one to one. The reference block 6 and the measuring shaft 5 are fastened together by means of a screw connection.
After the above assembly is completed, it is an important point in the assembly process to ensure the parallelism of the measuring shaft 5 and the centering shaft 9, and the following three steps are a method of roughly adjusting the parallelism of the measuring shaft 5 and the centering shaft 9 in the assembly process.
The method comprises the following steps: the template is placed on a marble plane with guaranteed flatness, four V-shaped blocks 10 on the frame are unscrewed and loosened (only unscrewing is needed, and the four V-shaped blocks do not need to be completely unscrewed), the frame is placed on the marble plane through four reference cushion columns 7, a heavy object is placed above the frame 4 to keep the frame horizontal, block gauges with the same height are respectively arranged on the upper end and the lower end of the measuring shaft 5 and the upper end and the lower end of the fixed mandrel 9, and the measuring shaft 5 and the upper end and the lower end of the fixed mandrel 9 are pressed to enable the shafts to be attached to the block gauges.
Step two: as shown in figure 7, the screws on the four V-shaped blocks 10 are screwed on, the heavy object on the frame 4 is removed, so that the two shafts are theoretically on the same plane, the highest points of the measuring shaft 5 and the centering shaft 9 are hit by the torsion spring meter, the screws on the V-shaped blocks 10 are loosened when the heights are inconsistent, and the heights of the four points are kept consistent by finely adjusting the V-shaped blocks 10 according to the values on the torsion spring meter (downwards knocking or upwards prying). I.e. the co-operating V-shaped blocks 10 ensure parallelism in the direction of the centring axis 5 and the measuring axis 9X.
Step three: as shown in fig. 7, the large pattern plate is erected, and the large pattern plate is supported by placing both ends of the centering shaft 9 on the marble plane and fixed on the marble triangle block. And then, the torsional spring meter is used for striking the highest point of the measuring shaft 5, when the heights are inconsistent, the screws on the V-shaped block 10 are loosened, the screws on the V-shaped block 10 and the clamp 8 are finely adjusted (screwed up and unscrewed) according to the numerical values on the torsional spring meter, and the heights of the two points are kept consistent. I.e. the cooperation of the V-block 10 and the clamp 8 ensures parallelism in the direction of the measuring axis 5 and the centering axis 9Y.
As shown in fig. 1 and 6, four stepped through holes are formed in the inner side of the counterweight frame 3, and screws are screwed into threaded holes in the counterweight clamp 2 through the through holes to fix the counterweight frame 3; four stepped through holes are also formed in the inner side of the balancing weight 1, and screws penetrate through the through holes and are screwed into threaded holes in the balancing weight frame 3 to fix the balancing weight 1.
After the counterweight portion is assembled, fine adjustment of the parallelism of the measuring shaft 5 and the centering shaft 9 is still required, and the following four steps are a process of fine adjustment of the measuring shaft 5 and the centering shaft 9, and the following steps are performed by being installed on the gear measuring center.
Step four: and (3) installing the sample plate with the assembled counterweight part on a gear measuring center, beating the upper end of the centering shaft 9 for a circle through a torsion spring meter, and continuously adjusting the position of the upper tip of the gear measuring center to ensure the coaxiality of the upper tip and the lower tip, wherein the coaxiality is about 1 mu m.
Step five: as shown in fig. 7, the torsion spring gauge is installed at the position of the measuring head of the gear measuring center through the magnetic gauge stand, the movement of the measuring head is controlled, that is, the torsion spring gauge is controlled, the parallelism in the X direction is judged by judging whether the heights of the two ends of the measuring shaft 5 in the X direction are consistent, and the parallelism in the Y direction is judged by judging whether the heights of the two ends of the measuring shaft 5 in the Y direction are consistent.
Step six: as shown in fig. 7, 8 and 9, the adjustment in the X direction is to detach the two reference pad posts 7 at the right end of the frame 4, fix the two reference pad posts on the frame through the through holes on the parallelism fine-adjustment gasket 11, loosen the screws of the V-shaped block 10, finely fine-adjust the V-shaped block 10 through the jackscrews (screws) on the fine-adjustment parallelism fine-adjustment gasket 11, and continuously observe with the torsion spring meter during the adjustment process to make the number of the torsion springs at the upper end and the lower end consistent. The adjustment in the X direction is completed.
Step seven: as shown in FIG. 7, the adjustment in the Y direction causes the torsion spring meter to hit the highest point of the measuring shaft 5, the screw on the V-shaped block 10 is loosened, and the screw on the V-shaped block 10 and the screw on the clamping hoop 8 are finely adjusted (screwed up and unscrewed) according to the numerical value on the torsion spring meter, so that the two point readings are kept consistent. The adjustment in the Y direction is completed.
Although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes in the embodiments and/or modifications of the invention can be made, and equivalents and modifications of some features of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (5)

1. The utility model provides a gear wheel is calibration model for measuring instrument field which characterized in that: the balance weight measuring device comprises a frame, a balance weight frame, a centering shaft, a measuring shaft and a reference block, wherein two V-shaped blocks are arranged on the left side of the frame and fixed on the frame through screws, the V-shaped blocks are matched with a balance weight clamp, the centering shaft is firmly fixed between the V-shaped blocks and the balance weight clamp by screwing the screws, the balance weight clamp is fixed with the balance weight frame through the screws, the balance weight block is connected with the balance weight frame through the screws, one side of the frame is provided with four reference cushion columns, the V-shaped blocks are fixed at the right end of the frame through the screws, the V-shaped blocks are matched with the clamp to fix the measuring shaft, and the reference block is fixed on the measuring shaft through four screws;
four stepped through holes are drilled on the V-shaped block, and screws penetrate through the through holes and are screwed into threaded holes in the frame to fasten the V-shaped block and the frame together; the centering shaft is clamped in the V-shaped grooves of the upper V-shaped block and the lower V-shaped block, and the centering shaft is tightly leaned against the V-shaped blocks by screwing two screws on the counterweight clamp; the V-shaped block on the right side of the frame is screwed into a threaded hole on the frame through four screws penetrating through the stepped through hole, the measuring shaft is clamped in the V-shaped grooves of the upper and lower V-shaped blocks, and the measuring shaft is tightly abutted to the V-shaped block by screwing the two screws on the clamp; stepped through holes are drilled on the four reference cushion columns, and screws penetrate through the stepped through holes and are screwed into threaded holes in the frame to fix the reference cushion columns;
a through hole is formed in the middle of the reference block, so that the stepped shaft on the measuring shaft just passes through the through hole on the reference block, and four stepped holes around the through hole correspond to the positions of four threaded holes on the stepped shaft one by one; the reference block and the measuring shaft are fastened together by means of a screw connection.
2. The calibration template as claimed in claim 1, wherein the calibration template comprises: after the assembly is completed, the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft is ensured to be an important point in the assembly process, and the following three steps are a method for roughly adjusting the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft in the assembly process;
the method comprises the following steps: the template is placed on a marble plane with guaranteed flatness, screws are unscrewed from four V-shaped blocks on the frame to be loosened, the frame is placed on the marble plane through four reference cushion columns, a heavy object is placed above the frame to keep the frame horizontal, block gauges with the same height are respectively arranged on the upper end and the lower end of the measuring shaft and the fixed shaft, and the upper end and the lower end of the measuring shaft and the fixed shaft are pressed to enable the shaft to be attached to the block gauges;
step two: screwing the screws on the four V-shaped blocks, moving the heavy object on the frame, so that the two shafts theoretically should be on the same plane, beating the highest points of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft by using a torsion spring meter, loosening the screws on the V-shaped blocks when the heights are inconsistent, and finely adjusting the V-shaped blocks according to the numerical values on the torsion spring meter to keep the heights of the four points consistent; the parallelism of the centering shaft and the measuring shaft in the X direction is ensured by matching with the V-shaped block;
step three: erecting the large sample plate, placing two ends of the centering shaft on the marble plane to support the large sample plate, and fixing the large sample plate on the marble triangular block; the highest point of the measuring shaft is hit by the torsion spring meter, when the heights are inconsistent, the screw on the V-shaped block is loosened, the screw on the V-shaped block and the screw on the clamping hoop are finely adjusted according to the numerical value on the torsion spring meter, and the heights of the two points are kept consistent; the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft 9 in the Y direction is ensured by matching the V-shaped block and the clamp;
after the three steps are completed, the rough adjustment of the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft in the assembling process is completed; the inner side of the counterweight frame is provided with four stepped through holes, and screws penetrate through the through holes and are screwed into threaded holes on the counterweight clamp to fix the counterweight frame; the inner side of the balancing weight is also provided with four stepped through holes, and a screw passes through the through holes and is screwed into a threaded hole on the balancing weight frame to fix the balancing weight;
after the counterweight part is assembled, fine adjustment of parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft is still needed, the following four steps are processes of fine adjustment of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft, and the following steps are completed by being installed on a gear measuring center;
step four: installing a sample plate with the assembled counterweight part on a gear measuring center, beating the upper end of a centering shaft for a circle through a torsion spring meter, and continuously adjusting the position of an upper tip of the gear measuring center to ensure the coaxiality of the upper tip and the lower tip, wherein the coaxiality is about 1 mu m;
step five: the method comprises the following steps that a torsional spring meter is installed at a measuring head position of a gear measuring center through a magnetic meter base, the movement of the measuring head is controlled, namely the torsional spring meter is controlled, the parallelism in the X direction is judged according to whether the heights of the torsional spring meter in the X direction at two ends of a measuring shaft are consistent, and the parallelism in the Y direction is judged according to whether the heights of the torsional spring meter in the Y direction at two ends of the measuring shaft are consistent;
step six: adjusting the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft in the X direction, removing two reference cushion columns at the right end of the frame, fixing the two reference cushion columns on the frame through holes in a parallelism fine-adjustment gasket, loosening screws of the V-shaped blocks, finely fine-adjusting the V-shaped blocks through a top screw on the fine-adjustment parallelism fine-adjustment gasket, and continuously observing by using a torsion spring table in the adjusting process to enable the expressing numbers of the torsion springs at the upper end and the lower end to be consistent; completing the adjustment in the X direction;
step seven: adjusting the parallelism of the measuring shaft and the centering shaft in the Y direction, driving the highest point of the measuring shaft by the torsion spring meter, loosening the screw on the V-shaped block, and finely adjusting the screws on the V-shaped block and the clamp hoop according to the numerical value on the torsion spring meter so as to keep the readings of the two points consistent; the adjustment in the Y direction is completed.
3. The novel calibration template for the field of large gear measurement instruments according to claim 1, wherein: the reference block is fixed on the measuring central shaft in a screw thread mode, the top of the measuring shaft is a stepped shaft, and four threaded holes are uniformly distributed on the stepped shaft at an angle of 90 degrees; a through hole is formed in the middle of the reference block, so that the stepped shaft on the measuring shaft just passes through the through hole in the reference block, and the four stepped holes around the through hole correspond to the four threaded holes in the stepped shaft one to one.
4. The novel calibration template for the field of large gear measurement instruments according to claim 1, wherein: the counterweight frame and the frame both adopt aluminum structures; the reference block, the shaft and the connecting piece are all made of bearing steel, and HRC60 is subjected to high-temperature aging treatment, quenching and ice-cooling treatment.
5. The novel calibration template for the field of large gear measurement instruments according to claim 1, wherein: the frame is the main part of whole mechanical structure, and the overall shape of frame is triangle-shaped.
CN202111007908.1A 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 Involute template for large gear measuring instrument field Active CN113916168B (en)

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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1415933A (en) * 2002-12-25 2003-05-07 北京工业大学 unsymmetrical gauge head with straddling balls and method for measuring conic involute gear with concave helical gear teeth
CN201697583U (en) * 2010-05-14 2011-01-05 成都工具研究所 Sample plate of non-involute profile
CN103292673A (en) * 2013-05-29 2013-09-11 辽宁科技大学 Method and device for detecting wear of tooth surface of large involute spur gear
CN109540060A (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-03-29 北京工业大学 A kind of large scale involute model design method suitable for evaluating involute checker device
CN110398188A (en) * 2019-07-26 2019-11-01 北京工业大学 Twin axle circular arc type large scale involute model

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1415933A (en) * 2002-12-25 2003-05-07 北京工业大学 unsymmetrical gauge head with straddling balls and method for measuring conic involute gear with concave helical gear teeth
CN201697583U (en) * 2010-05-14 2011-01-05 成都工具研究所 Sample plate of non-involute profile
CN103292673A (en) * 2013-05-29 2013-09-11 辽宁科技大学 Method and device for detecting wear of tooth surface of large involute spur gear
CN109540060A (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-03-29 北京工业大学 A kind of large scale involute model design method suitable for evaluating involute checker device
CN110398188A (en) * 2019-07-26 2019-11-01 北京工业大学 Twin axle circular arc type large scale involute model

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