CN113912072A - High-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay mineral - Google Patents

High-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay mineral Download PDF

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CN113912072A
CN113912072A CN202111176355.2A CN202111176355A CN113912072A CN 113912072 A CN113912072 A CN 113912072A CN 202111176355 A CN202111176355 A CN 202111176355A CN 113912072 A CN113912072 A CN 113912072A
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ore pulp
iron
superconducting magnetic
ore
magnetic separator
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靳文娟
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Shanghai Panshi Mining Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B33/00Silicon; Compounds thereof
    • C01B33/20Silicates
    • C01B33/36Silicates having base-exchange properties but not having molecular sieve properties
    • C01B33/38Layered base-exchange silicates, e.g. clays, micas or alkali metal silicates of kenyaite or magadiite type
    • C01B33/40Clays
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B03SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03BSEPARATING SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS
    • B03B7/00Combinations of wet processes or apparatus with other processes or apparatus, e.g. for dressing ores or garbage
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B03SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03BSEPARATING SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS
    • B03B9/00General arrangement of separating plant, e.g. flow sheets

Abstract

A high-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay minerals adopts a novel process of removing magnetic minerals by superconducting magnetic separation and then removing iron (titanium) oxide in clay mineral concentrates by a thiourea dioxide reduction method. The method is characterized in that a physical (superconducting magnetic separation) method and a chemical (reduction) method are combined, so that the effect of efficiently removing metal impurities is achieved, the method is superior to the traditional method, the impurity removal effect is 1+1>2, and the purified mineral with the content of iron oxide less than 0.15% and the content of titanium dioxide less than 0.02% is obtained.

Description

High-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay mineral
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of clay mineral purification, and particularly relates to a high-efficiency purification method of a low-grade clay mineral.
Background
Clay minerals are the main minerals that make up claystone and soil. They are a group of hydrous silicate minerals mainly containing aluminum, magnesium and the like. The clay minerals include kaolin, bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite, palygorskite and other minerals, except the sepiolite and the palygorskite which have chain layered structures, most of the clay minerals have layered structures, the particles are extremely fine, the size is generally smaller than the micron grade, and the clay minerals have plasticity of different degrees after being added with water.
The clay mineral has wide application in various industries of national economy. Wherein, the kaolin is mainly used for ceramic raw materials, papermaking, rubber fillers, coatings, refractory materials and oil refining catalysts; the bentonite is mainly used as a catalyst and a bleaching agent for drilling mud and refining petroleum, a binder for iron ore pellets and a foundry sand binder; attapulgite clay (attapulgite), clay mainly comprising water-containing magnesium-rich silicate (attapulgite) with a layer-chain transition structure, has very high use value because of its excellent thickening property, suspension property and suspension property, and is widely applied to the paint and paint industries in developed countries, but the attapulgite clay usually coexists with minerals such as dolomite, calcite, quartz, opal and the like, so that the purity of the attapulgite clay is not high, and the use effect and the use range are directly influenced. In addition, the attapulgite clay is also reported in the research of animal nutrition, and can be used as a feed additive to replace antibiotics to promote the growth of animals so as to obtain a better feeding effect.
However, the non-metal ore is mined for many years without restriction, so that the reserves of domestic high-quality clay resources are sharply reduced in recent years, the quality of the resources is sharply reduced, the ore content of raw ore is only 15% -22%, and the content of impurity minerals such as silicon dioxide, feldspar, mica and the like is more than 70%. In addition, the iron and titanium content of the mineral obtained by the existing mineral separation and purification method is high, and the requirement of the high-grade application field is difficult to meet, so that a more effective purification method for low-grade clay mineral is developed urgently.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a high-efficiency purification method of a low-grade clay mineral, and aims to solve the problem that the removal of iron and titanium by the traditional clay mineral purification method cannot meet the requirements of high-grade application fields.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that:
a high-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay minerals is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, crushing raw clay mineral ores, sequentially adding water and a dispersant for pulping to obtain coarse ore pulp with the solid content of 10% -30%, wherein the dispersant is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium hexametaphosphate, and the weight ratio of the sodium hydroxide to the sodium hexametaphosphate is 1: 10-1: 15;
secondly, the coarse ore pulp is screened by a vibrating screen with 50-70 meshes to remove coarse sand, and then a phi 250mm swirler is used to remove fine sand on the upper layer, so as to obtain primary purified ore pulp;
thirdly, adding water glass into the primary purified ore pulp to adjust the pH value to 7-9, adding sodium polyacrylate, wherein the addition amount of the sodium polyacrylate is 0.1-0.5% of the mass of the raw ore dry ore of the clay mineral, and fully stirring and uniformly mixing until the sodium polyacrylate is completely dissociated and dispersed in the ore pulp;
and fourthly, conveying the ore pulp uniformly mixed with the sodium polyacrylate in the third step to a sedimentation tank for sedimentation, measuring the temperature of the ore pulp in the sedimentation tank and the liquid level height of the ore pulp, and calculating the sedimentation time according to a Stokes law simplified empirical formula, wherein the Stokes law simplified empirical formula is as follows: t ═ Tn×h/d2Wherein T represents the settling time, n represents the temperature in centigrade, h represents the pulp liquid level height in centimeters, d represents the expected settled particle size in micrometers, the calculation takes 7, TnExpressing the temperature coefficient, and looking up the table to obtain T according to the temperature comparison table of the formula corresponding to the measured temperature valuenValues, the temperature look-up table is:
Figure BDA0003295234830000021
standing for the settling time, wherein the particle size of the particles of the lower-layer ore pulp in the settling pond is more than 7 microns, and the particle size of the particles of the upper-layer ore pulp is less than 7 microns after the settling is finished;
fifthly, adjusting the solid content of the upper layer ore pulp with the particle size of less than 7 microns to 15% -25%, feeding the upper layer ore pulp into a superconducting magnetic separator, setting the magnetic field of the superconducting magnetic separator to be 5T, and setting the flow speed of the ore pulp to be 21-35 m3H, removing iron and titanium;
sixthly, adjusting the solid content concentration of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator to be 18-22%, adding thiourea dioxide to reduce the residual iron element in the ore pulp to be in a positive trivalent state, wherein the addition amount of the thiourea dioxide is 3-5 per mill of the solid content of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator, fully stirring uniformly, standing for 1 hour, adding citric acid to convert the iron element in the ore pulp into ionic positive ferric ions, and the addition amount of the citric acid is 1-1.5 per mill of the solid content of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator, fully stirring, and reacting for 1 hour;
and step seven, adding a flocculating agent into the ore pulp after the reaction in the step six, fully and uniformly stirring, and performing filter pressing and dehydration to obtain the clay mineral concentrate.
In the first step, raw clay mineral ores are crushed to be less than 3-5 mm.
In the fifth step, the flow rate of the mixture fed into the superconducting magnetic separator is 25-31 m3/h。
The flocculating agent is aluminum sulfate, and the addition amount of the aluminum sulfate is 1-3 per mill of the dry ore content of the ore pulp subjected to iron removal by the superconducting magnetic separator.
The design principle and the effect of the invention are as follows:
1. the technical scheme of the invention combines impurity removal and thiourea dioxide reduction by using a superconducting magnetic separator:
the method for removing iron (titanium) by superconducting magnetic separation has obvious effect on removing weakly magnetic minerals which are difficult to separate by the traditional electromagnetic separation (magnetic field is 1.3T-1.6T), especially limonite, magnetite, hematite, pyrite, siderite and the like.
The weakly magnetic minerals mostly belong to paramagnetic substances, do not have magnetic domain structures, are much weaker in magnetism than the strongly magnetic minerals, are irrelevant to factors such as the shape and the granularity of the minerals, are determined only by the composition and the structure of the minerals, and roughly comprise: biotite, limonite, pyrite, hematite, chlorite, tourmaline, rutile, and the like. The minerals are difficult to remove by a simple electromagnetic separation method, and can only be removed by a superconducting magnetic separation method.
The processing step of the superconducting magnetic separation can remove a plurality of types of magnetic iron-containing minerals (including strong magnetic minerals such as magnetite, ilmenite, pyrrhotite, ferrozinc spinel and the like, weak magnetic minerals such as hematite, limonite, siderite, ilmenite, biotite, manganite and the like), but certain defects exist, the superconducting magnetic separation rapidly flows into a cavity of a superconducting machine through ore pulp, the magnetic minerals are mostly adsorbed when passing through steel wool in the cavity, however, in consideration of the capacity machine and the economy of equipment, the ore pulp needs to pass through the cavity at a certain flow rate, the contact rate of the ore pulp and the steel wool is limited to a certain extent, not 100 percent of the magnetic mineral can be contacted, and a small part of the magnetic mineral is not adsorbed;
secondly, the reducing agent adopting a chemical method can permeate into mineral molecules, and due to a chemical reaction, the iron oxide can be basically removed as long as the ore pulp is uniformly stirred and the reaction time is enough, but only one iron mineral can be removed, and the iron removal range is narrow;
the two are combined, firstly, superconducting magnetic separation is used for removing impurities, and then thiourea dioxide is used for reducing and removing iron, so that the impurity removing effect can reach 1+1 to 2, and the purified mineral with the iron oxide content of less than 0.15% and the titanium dioxide content of less than 0.02% is obtained.
2. Selection of thiourea dioxide:
the sodium hydrosulfite iron removal method is a traditional iron removal method, and the process method is simple, feasible and easy to operate, but the method has the defects that the reaction condition is under an acidic condition, and the environment is not friendly; and the sodium hydrosulfite is decomposed fast usually under natural conditions, the decomposition of the sodium hydrosulfite is accelerated along with the reaction, the utilization rate of the sodium hydrosulfite is greatly reduced, and the iron removal effect is poor and the environment is polluted.
Therefore, the technical scheme adopts a thiourea dioxide reduction deferrization method to further deferrize the settled ore pulp, the reaction condition of the method is alkalescence, the ore pulp subjected to superconducting magnetic separation is alkalescence, and the pH value of the ore pulp does not need to be adjusted by adding sulfuric acid (which is also an important advantage of the technical scheme), namely the ore pulp subjected to superconducting magnetic separation directly enters a reaction tank for reaction.
This technical scheme uses thiourea dioxide to replace traditional sodium hydrosulfite, compares with sodium hydrosulfite and has advantages such as the reducibility is strong, the thermostability is good, the storage transportation is convenient, and the concrete performance is:
firstly, sulfinic acid with strong reducibility is generated by decomposition under an alkaline condition, and the reducibility is controllable;
thiourea dioxide has higher reduction potential, and the reduction potential is slowly reduced by only 20 percent of the reduction potential of the sodium hydrosulfite;
the thiourea dioxide has good safety performance and no pollution during production and use;
thiourea dioxide is a stable compound and is not dangerous. The sodium hydrosulfite often has explosion phenomenon in the field use process.
Thiourea dioxide contains little sulfide odor, and is safe in operation environment and sanitation.
The method is a new process for removing magnetic minerals by superconducting magnetic separation and then removing iron (titanium) oxide in clay mineral concentrate by a thiourea dioxide reduction method. The method is characterized in that a physical (superconducting magnetic separation) method and a chemical (reduction) method are combined, so that the effect of efficiently removing the metal impurities is achieved, and the method is superior to the traditional method.
Detailed Description
Example (b): high-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay mineral
A high-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay minerals is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, crushing raw clay mineral ores to the size of less than 3-5mm, sequentially adding water and a dispersing agent for pulping to obtain coarse ore pulp with the solid content of 10% -30%, wherein the dispersing agent is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium hexametaphosphate, and the weight ratio range of the sodium hydroxide to the sodium hexametaphosphate is 1: 10-1: 15;
secondly, the coarse ore pulp is screened by a vibrating screen with 50-70 meshes to remove coarse sand, and then a phi 250mm swirler is used to remove fine sand on the upper layer, so as to obtain primary purified ore pulp;
thirdly, adding water glass into the primary purified ore pulp to adjust the pH value to 7-9, adding sodium polyacrylate, wherein the addition amount of the sodium polyacrylate is 0.1-0.5% of the mass of the raw ore dry ore of the clay mineral, and fully stirring and uniformly mixing until the sodium polyacrylate is completely dissociated and dispersed in the ore pulp;
and fourthly, conveying the ore pulp uniformly mixed with the sodium polyacrylate in the third step to a sedimentation tank for sedimentation, measuring the temperature of the ore pulp in the sedimentation tank and the liquid level height of the ore pulp, and calculating the sedimentation time according to a Stokes law simplified empirical formula, wherein the Stokes law simplified empirical formula is as follows: t ═ Tn×h/d2Wherein T represents the settling time, n represents the temperature in centigrade, h represents the pulp liquid level height in centimeters, d represents the expected settled particle size in micrometers, the calculation takes 7, TnExpressing the temperature coefficient, and looking up the table to obtain T according to the temperature comparison table of the formula corresponding to the measured temperature valuenValues, the temperature look-up table is:
Figure BDA0003295234830000041
standing for the settling time, wherein the particle size of the particles of the lower-layer ore pulp in the settling pond is more than 7 microns, and the particle size of the particles of the upper-layer ore pulp is less than 7 microns after the settling is finished;
fifthly, adjusting the solid content of the upper layer ore pulp with the particle size of less than 7 microns to 15% -25%, feeding the upper layer ore pulp into a superconducting magnetic separator, setting the magnetic field of the superconducting magnetic separator to be 5T, and setting the flow speed of the ore pulp to be 21-35 m3H, removing iron and titanium;
sixthly, adjusting the solid content concentration of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator to be 18-22%, adding thiourea dioxide to reduce the residual iron element in the ore pulp to be in a positive trivalent state, wherein the addition amount of the thiourea dioxide is 3-5 per mill of the solid content of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator, fully stirring uniformly, standing for 1 hour, adding citric acid to convert the iron element in the ore pulp into ionic positive ferric ions, and the addition amount of the citric acid is 1-1.5 per mill of the solid content of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator, fully stirring, and reacting for 1 hour;
and seventhly, adding a flocculating agent into the ore pulp after the reaction in the sixth step, fully and uniformly stirring, and performing filter pressing and dehydration to obtain clay mineral concentrate, wherein the flocculating agent is aluminum sulfate, and the addition amount of the aluminum sulfate is 1-3 per mill of the dry ore amount of the ore pulp subjected to iron removal by the superconducting magnetic separator.
In the fifth step, the flow rate of the mixture fed into the superconducting magnetic separator is 25-31 m3/h。
Table 1 below shows the impurity data of the clay mineral concentrate obtained in example 1:
table 1:
item Fe2O3(%) TiO2(%) Whiteness degree
Coarse mineral dressing 0.58 0.28 78
Superconducting ore 0.29 0.02 88
Ore after reduction of thiourea dioxide 0.15 0.02 92
The information of the superconducting magnetic separator in the embodiment is as follows:
TABLE 2 superconducting magnet separator information
Figure BDA0003295234830000051
TABLE 3 purification results of superconducting magnetic separation and impurity removal under different flow rates
Figure BDA0003295234830000052
As can be seen from Table 3, the purifying effect of the superconducting magnetic separation becomes better gradually along with the reduction of the flow rate of the ore pulp, namely the Fe in the minerals2O3And TiO2The content gradually decreases as the pulp flow rate decreases.But a moderate flow rate needs to be selected in view of economic efficiency.
Comparative example 1:
TABLE 4 comparison of crude beneficiation with ore indexes after sodium hydrosulfite/thiourea dioxide reduction
Item Fe2O3(%) Ti O2(%) Whiteness degree
Coarse mineral dressing 0.58 0.28 78
After the sodium hydrosulfite is reduced 0.51 0.28 80
After thiourea dioxide reduction 0.41 0.28 82
The above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical ideas and features of the present invention, and the purpose thereof is to enable those skilled in the art to understand the contents of the present invention and implement the present invention, and not to limit the protection scope of the present invention. All equivalent changes and modifications made according to the spirit of the present invention should be covered within the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A high-efficiency purification method of low-grade clay minerals is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, crushing raw clay mineral ores, sequentially adding water and a dispersant for pulping to obtain coarse ore pulp with the solid content of 10% -30%, wherein the dispersant is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium hexametaphosphate, and the weight ratio of the sodium hydroxide to the sodium hexametaphosphate is 1: 10-1: 15;
secondly, the coarse ore pulp is screened by a vibrating screen with 50-70 meshes to remove coarse sand, and then a phi 250mm swirler is used to remove fine sand on the upper layer, so as to obtain primary purified ore pulp;
thirdly, adding water glass into the primary purified ore pulp to adjust the pH value to 7-9, adding sodium polyacrylate, wherein the addition amount of the sodium polyacrylate is 0.1-0.5% of the mass of the raw ore dry ore of the clay mineral, and fully stirring and uniformly mixing until the sodium polyacrylate is completely dissociated and dispersed in the ore pulp;
and fourthly, conveying the ore pulp uniformly mixed with the sodium polyacrylate in the third step to a sedimentation tank for sedimentation, measuring the temperature of the ore pulp in the sedimentation tank and the liquid level height of the ore pulp, and calculating the sedimentation time according to a Stokes law simplified empirical formula, wherein the Stokes law simplified empirical formula is as follows: t ═ Tn×h/d2Wherein T represents the settling time, n represents the temperature in centigrade, h represents the pulp liquid level height in centimeters, d represents the expected settled particle size in micrometers, the calculation takes 7, TnExpressing the temperature coefficient, and looking up the table to obtain T according to the temperature comparison table of the formula corresponding to the measured temperature valuenValues, the temperature look-up table is:
Figure FDA0003295234820000011
standing for the settling time, wherein the particle size of the particles of the lower-layer ore pulp in the settling pond is more than 7 microns, and the particle size of the particles of the upper-layer ore pulp is less than 7 microns after the settling is finished;
fifthly, adjusting the solid content of the upper layer ore pulp with the particle size of less than 7 microns to 15% -25%, feeding the upper layer ore pulp into a superconducting magnetic separator, setting the magnetic field of the superconducting magnetic separator to be 5T, and setting the flow speed of the ore pulp to be 21-35 m3H, removing iron and titanium;
sixthly, adjusting the solid content concentration of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator to be 18-22%, adding thiourea dioxide to reduce the residual iron element in the ore pulp to be in a positive trivalent state, wherein the addition amount of the thiourea dioxide is 3-5 per mill of the solid content of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator, fully stirring uniformly, standing for 1 hour, adding citric acid to convert the iron element in the ore pulp into ionic positive ferric ions, and the addition amount of the citric acid is 1-1.5 per mill of the solid content of the ore pulp subjected to iron and titanium removal by the superconducting magnetic separator, fully stirring, and reacting for 1 hour;
and step seven, adding a flocculating agent into the ore pulp after the reaction in the step six, fully and uniformly stirring, and performing filter pressing and dehydration to obtain the clay mineral concentrate.
2. The efficient purification method according to claim 1, wherein: in the first step, raw clay mineral ores are crushed to be less than 3-5 mm.
3. The efficient purification method according to claim 1, wherein: in the fifth step, the flow rate of the mixture fed into the superconducting magnetic separator is 25-31 m3/h。
4. The efficient purification method according to claim 1, wherein: the flocculating agent is aluminum sulfate, and the addition amount of the aluminum sulfate is 1-3 per mill of the dry ore content of the ore pulp subjected to iron removal by the superconducting magnetic separator.
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