CN113094833A - Method for designing diffuser with dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades - Google Patents

Method for designing diffuser with dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113094833A
CN113094833A CN202110380198.0A CN202110380198A CN113094833A CN 113094833 A CN113094833 A CN 113094833A CN 202110380198 A CN202110380198 A CN 202110380198A CN 113094833 A CN113094833 A CN 113094833A
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China
Prior art keywords
diffuser
blade
radial
axial
throat
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Pending
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CN202110380198.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李庆阔
卢新根
张燕峰
张英杰
韩戈
张子卿
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Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of CAS
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Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of CAS
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Priority to CN202110380198.0A priority Critical patent/CN113094833A/en
Publication of CN113094833A publication Critical patent/CN113094833A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/10Geometric CAD
    • G06F30/17Mechanical parametric or variational design
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/20Design optimisation, verification or simulation
    • G06F30/28Design optimisation, verification or simulation using fluid dynamics, e.g. using Navier-Stokes equations or computational fluid dynamics [CFD]

Abstract

The invention provides a modeling method of a diffuser with a dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades, wherein the diffuser prepared by the method has a tubular diffuser leading edge structure, and the radial and axial diffuser blades are integrally designed; compared with a common blade diffuser, the special three-dimensional fan-shaped structure of the front edge of the blade can better deal with the complicated unsteady flow at the outlet of the impeller; meanwhile, the radial diffuser blades and the axial diffuser blades are integrally molded at the flow passage part by adopting a smooth transition molded line, so that the pressure ratio, the efficiency and the stable working margin of the high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor are greatly improved in a limited flow space, and the centrifugal compressor is particularly suitable for the centrifugal compressors of small and medium-sized aeroengines and micro gas turbines.

Description

Method for designing diffuser with dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades
Technical Field
The invention provides a diffuser design method which has a dovetail type leading edge structure of a tubular diffuser and integrally molds radial and axial diffuser blades, and the diffuser combines the molding advantages of the tubular diffuser and the blade diffuser: compared with a tubular diffuser, the vane diffuser is convenient to mold, simple to process and low in manufacturing cost; compared with a common blade diffuser, the special three-dimensional fan-shaped structure of the front edge of the blade can better deal with the complicated unsteady flow at the outlet of the impeller; meanwhile, the radial diffuser blades and the axial diffuser blades are integrally molded by adopting a molded line with a certain curvature at the flow passage part, so that the pressure ratio, the efficiency and the stable working margin of the high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor are greatly improved in a limited flow space, and the centrifugal diffuser is particularly suitable for centrifugal compressor parts of small and medium-sized aeroengines and micro gas turbines.
Background
The centrifugal compressor has the advantages of compact structure, high pressure ratio, high reliability, convenience in manufacturing, low cost, good manufacturability, wider stable working margin and the like, so that the centrifugal compressor is widely applied to fluid working medium supercharging devices in industries such as aviation and petrochemical industry, and in the past decades, along with the industrial requirements, the performance requirements of people on the centrifugal compressor are higher and higher, and the centrifugal compressor is expected to have better pneumatic performance and wider working margin. In order to further improve the thrust-weight ratio of the engine and perfect the performance of the engine in various flight states at high altitude, the pressure ratio of the centrifugal compressor has higher requirements. The high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor has high and uneven airflow speed at the impeller outlet, and the width of the centrifugal impeller outlet is very small, so that the diffuser inlet and the impeller outlet are very close to each other, strong unsteady interaction exists between the diffuser inlet and the impeller outlet, the matching of the centrifugal impeller and the diffuser is deteriorated, the efficiency and the stable working range of the centrifugal compressor are greatly reduced, the diffuser design with compact structure and low loss rate is very challenging, and the high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor becomes a main technical obstacle for restricting the application of the high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor to engineering practice.
The tubular diffuser is formed by a series of diffuser pipelines uniformly distributed along the circumferential direction, two adjacent tubular diffuser channels penetrate at an inlet, so that a dovetail-shaped front edge is formed, and the special three-dimensional structure of the front edge has good applicability to high-Mach-number incoming flow and is very suitable for a high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. But because the tubular diffuser is difficult to process and high in cost, the tubular diffuser is difficult to be used in engineering practice at present. Therefore, a new diffuser capable of ensuring the aerodynamic performance of the high-pressure ratio centrifugal compressor and reducing the processing cost is needed. Chinese patent CN201610608677.2 discloses a vane diffuser with a dovetail leading and trailing edge structure and a modeling method thereof, which comprises a built-in radial diffuser vane and a built-in axial diffuser vane which are designed separately, the diffuser can be creatively transformed from a traditional vane diffuser, and has the advantages of convenient modeling, low manufacturing cost, simple processing and the like, and the special dovetail leading and trailing edge can improve the adaptability of the diffuser to high-speed disordered flow at the outlet of a centrifugal impeller, thereby improving the efficiency and stable working margin of a high-pressure ratio centrifugal compressor. However, the vane diffuser disclosed in the patent also has disadvantages, mainly in that the cross section of the passage is elliptical, which results in the enhancement of the vortex strength of the passage; meanwhile, after the airflow passes through a 90-degree bent pipe at the outlet of the radial diffuser, the flow cannot be finely controlled only by the wheel disc and the wheel cover, the flow is disordered, and the loss is large.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects and shortcomings of the prior art, the invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing a diffuser modeling method which is provided with a dovetail-shaped leading edge structure of a tubular diffuser and integrally designs a radial diffuser blade and an axial diffuser blade, wherein the blade diffuser is convenient to model, simple to process and low in manufacturing cost compared with the tubular diffuser by integrally designing the radial diffuser blade and the axial diffuser blade; compared with a common blade diffuser, the special three-dimensional fan-shaped structure of the front edge of the blade can better deal with the complicated unsteady flow at the outlet of the impeller; meanwhile, the radial diffuser blades and the axial diffuser blades are integrally molded at the flow passage part by adopting a smooth transition molded line, so that the pressure ratio, the efficiency and the stable working margin of the high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor are greatly improved in a limited flow space, and the centrifugal compressor is particularly suitable for the centrifugal compressors of small and medium-sized aeroengines and micro gas turbines.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows:
the utility model provides a diffuser design method with forked tail leading edge and integration of radial and axial blade, the diffuser includes diffuser rim plate, diffuser wheel cap and sets up a plurality of integration diffuser blades that evenly distributed along circumference between diffuser rim plate and the diffuser wheel cap, diffuser rim plate, diffuser wheel cap all include radial section and axial segment, each integration diffuser blade all includes a radial blade segment and an axial blade section, each radial blade section distributes between the radial section of diffuser rim plate and diffuser wheel cap, each axial blade section distributes between the axial segment of diffuser rim plate and diffuser wheel cap, adjacent two form a diffusion runner between the integration diffuser blade, its characterized in that, the integration molding method of integration diffuser blade is as follows:
SS1, the diffuser wheel disc or the diffuser wheel cover is used as a base disc, a plurality of basic diffuser blades which are uniformly distributed along the circumferential direction are machined on the base disc in a machining mode, each basic diffuser blade is shaped by taking the blade of the existing blade diffuser as an elementary blade, the radial blade section of each basic diffuser blade is turned to the axial blade section of the basic diffuser blade in a smooth transition mode, the front end of the radial blade section is formed as the front edge of the basic diffuser blade, and the rear end of the axial blade section is formed as the tail edge of the basic diffuser blade;
and SS2, processing a fan-shaped curved surface structure at the front edge part of each basic diffuser blade, wherein the fan-shaped curved surface is tangent to the suction surface profile where the throat part of the blade passage is located on the suction surface side of the basic diffuser blade, the fan-shaped curved surface is bent from the suction surface side to the pressure surface side of the blade to adapt to the high-speed incoming flow Mach number of an impeller outlet, and the sectioning depth of the fan-shaped curved surface from the suction surface side to the pressure surface side of the blade is not more than the length of the throat part of the blade passage to ensure that the area of the throat part of the blade passage is kept basically unchanged before and after sectioning.
Preferably, in step SS2, when the fan-shaped curved surface structure is processed, a smooth Bezier curve model is adopted on the basis of the leading edge portion of the basic diffuser blade, and the curve is tangent to the profile of the suction surface where the throat of the blade passage is located, and the curve is curved toward the pressure side to adapt to the mach number of the high-speed incoming flow at the impeller outlet.
Preferably, in step SS2, in order to ensure that the basic diffuser blades do not change in throat area of the diffuser while introducing the leading edge fan-shaped structure, parameters of throat length are introduced while performing primitive blade modeling, but since too long a throat length results in insufficient diffuser expansion capability, and too short a throat length results in poor rectification effect, it is necessary to determine a throat length with an appropriate length according to the incoming flow condition.
Furthermore, the front edge of each element diffuser blade is controlled by a multipoint Bezier curve, the size of the fan-shaped structure is determined according to the incoming flow condition, and the sectioning depth cannot be longer than the length of the throat part in order to ensure that the throat part area of the diffuser is basically unchanged before and after sectioning.
Preferably, in step SS1, the radial blade section and the axial blade section are smoothly connected by a Bezier curve, and the profile of the suction surface and the profile of the pressure surface of the base diffuser blade are angularly offset along the circumferential direction and are symmetric about the centerline of the channel, so as to ensure that the overall flow channel is trumpet-shaped.
Furthermore, the midline of the channel is controlled by a certain curvature, so that the molded lines of the suction surface and the pressure surface have better diffusion and flow guiding capacity and less loss.
Preferably, the cover and the wheel disc of the diffuser both comprise a radial part and an axial part, and the axial part is arranged at the outer circumferential part of the radial part and is in smooth transition connection with the radial part and the axial part. The diffuser wheel cover, the diffuser wheel disc and the diffuser blades form an integrated blade diffuser.
Preferably, the diffuser is arranged at the gas outlet part of the centrifugal compressor, and the inlet radius R of the diffuser3The ratio of the centrifugal impeller to the centrifugal impeller exit radius R2 is 1.03 to 1.1.
The diffuser with integrated radial/axial vanes of this invention has a tubular diffuser dovetail leading edge geometry at the diffuser inlet with a vane-like diffuser like passage formed in the diffuser passage.
Preferably, in step SS1, the half angle of expansion of the basic diffuser blades for shaping is not more than 6 °, the ratio of the throat length L to the throat width of the blade passage is 1/3-1, and the number of diffuser blades is 17-29.
Further, the size of the fan shape of the front edge of the diffuser can be obtained by adjusting a Bezier control line of the front edge; the cross-sectional area of the diffuser passage can be obtained by changing the pre-compression angle of the leading edge of the elementary blade and the expansion half angle of the diffuser, so that the area ratio of the inlet and the outlet of the diffuser is adjusted.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a diffuser obtained by the above molding method.
The invention also aims to provide a centrifugal compressor which is characterized by comprising the diffuser.
Compared with the traditional blade type diffuser, the radial/axial integrated blade type diffuser with the fused tube type characteristics, which is prepared by the invention, has the advantages that the adaptability of the fan-shaped front edge structure of the inlet to high-Mach-number airflow is better, and the efficiency and the stable working margin of the centrifugal compressor can be effectively improved in a compact space; compared with a tubular diffuser, the vane diffuser not only inherits the advantages of the tubular diffuser, but also can adopt the traditional vane diffuser processing technology, and effectively solves the problems of large processing difficulty, high cost, difficult guarantee of processing precision and the like of the tubular diffuser. In addition, the integrated diffuser model is adopted, the flow direction of fluid at a large corner can be effectively controlled, and the flow loss is effectively reduced, so that the performance higher than that of the traditional vane type and pipe type diffusers can be obtained.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of a fabricated dovetail leading edge and radial and axial blade integrated diffuser of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of an integrated disk structure formed by integrating diffuser vanes with a diffuser shroud.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the modeling parameters of the leading edge of the blade profile.
FIG. 4 is a three-dimensional schematic view of a diffuser blade with a dovetail leading edge and radial and axial blade segment integration.
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of a diffuser of the present invention applied to a high pressure ratio centrifugal compressor.
Description of reference numerals:
1-a diffuser disk; 2-diffuser shroud; 3-a fan-shaped leading edge; 4-integral diffuser vanes; 5, an integrated blade channel; 6-diffuser tie bolt; 7-centrifugal compressor impeller; 8-R3Is diffuser vane inlet radius; theta1A suction surface pre-compression angle; theta2Is a flow passage expansion angle; beta is the included angle between the flow channel central line and the coordinate x axis.
Detailed Description
In order to make the implementation objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings in the embodiments of the present invention. In the drawings, the same or similar reference numerals denote the same or similar elements or elements having the same or similar functions throughout. The described embodiments, which are part of the present invention, are not all embodiments, and are intended to be illustrative of the present invention and should not be construed as limiting the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
As shown in fig. 1 and 2, the diffuser with dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades of the invention comprises a diffuser wheel disc 1, a diffuser wheel cover 2 and a plurality of integrated diffuser blades 4 arranged inside. The diffuser wheel cover 1 and the diffuser wheel disc 2 both comprise a radial part and an axial part, the axial parts are arranged on the outer circumferential part of the radial part, and the radial part and the axial part are in smooth transition connection; the diffuser connecting bolt 6 fixes the integrated diffuser blade 4 between the diffuser wheel disc 1 and the diffuser wheel cover 2, and the embodiment is suitable for a high-pressure ratio centrifugal compressor. Wherein the diffuser wheel cover 2 and the integrated diffuser vane 4 form an integrated disc, and a machine tool is utilized firstlyMilling integrated diffuser blades on the integrated disc, wherein the radial rotating axial blade part of the integrated diffuser needs smooth transition in the milling process to form 17-29 integrated blades; and finally, a diffuser wheel disc 1, a diffuser wheel cover 2 and an integral disc formed by the integral diffuser blades are connected together by using a diffuser connecting bolt 6 to form an integral blade channel. In addition, in the diffuser processing process, the inlet radius R of the diffuser needs to be ensured3Radius R of centrifugal impeller outlet2The ratio of the ratio is 1.03 to 1.1. The expansion half angle of the blade diffuser is not more than 6 degrees, the ratio of the length L of the throat part of the diffuser to the width of the throat part of the diffuser is 1/3-1, and the number of the diffuser blades 4 is 17-29.
FIG. 3 illustrates the introduction of a throat length L and a precompression angle θ based on a conventional primitive blade1Equal design features, R3Is the radial diffuser vane inlet radius, θ2Is a flow passage expansion angle; beta is the included angle between the flow channel central line and the coordinate x axis. When three-dimensional modeling is carried out after the throat length characteristic is introduced, the sectional depth of the front edge sector cannot be longer than the throat length, so that the flow variation range of the gas compressor is basically unchanged before and after modification. The cross-sectional area of the diffuser passage can be adjusted by varying the leading edge precompression angle theta of the elementary blades1And diffuser divergence angle θ2And obtaining the flow rate of the gas to be mixed, thereby adjusting the area ratio of the inlet and the outlet of the diffuser.
FIG. 4 illustrates a single integrated diffuser vane that is created by introducing a throat length and pre-compression angle into a conventional elementary vane diffuser (FIG. 3), followed by three-dimensional contouring, creative introduction of a leading edge sector, and integrated design contouring.
Fig. 5 shows an example of the diffuser of the present invention applied to a high pressure ratio centrifugal compressor. The diffuser is arranged at the outlet part of the centrifugal compressor. When the centrifugal impeller 7 works, the centrifugal impeller rotates around the compressor shaft 8 to pressurize airflow; then the airflow is decelerated and pressurized in a diffusion channel consisting of a diffuser wheel disc 1, a diffuser wheel cover 2 and integrated diffuser blades 4, and then enters a combustion chamber. The centrifugal compressor has high rotating speed and pressure ratio, and the distance between the inlet of the diffuser and the outlet of the impeller is very small, so that the Mach number Ma of the inlet of the diffuser is high, and meanwhile, due to the interaction of the leakage flow of the centrifugal impeller and the boundary layer near the shroud and the jet flow action at the low blade height of the centrifugal impeller, the structure of the fan-shaped front edge can be well suitable for the incoming flow condition, and the efficiency and the stable working margin of the compressor can be effectively improved.
In conclusion, the radial/axial integrated blade type diffuser can be directly used in a centrifugal compressor and a micro gas turbine of a medium and small aviation gas turbine engine, and the performance of the diffuser can be improved on the basis of not changing the size of a prototype and the processing and manufacturing cost, so that the efficiency of the compressor and the stable working margin are improved.
The object of the present invention is fully effectively achieved by the above embodiments. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the present invention includes, but is not limited to, what is described in the accompanying drawings and the foregoing detailed description. While the invention has been described in connection with what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the disclosed embodiment, but on the contrary, is intended to cover various modifications within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a diffuser design method with forked tail leading edge and integration of radial and axial blade, the diffuser includes diffuser rim plate, diffuser wheel cap and sets up a plurality of integration diffuser blades that evenly distributed along circumference between diffuser rim plate and the diffuser wheel cap, diffuser rim plate, diffuser wheel cap all include radial section and axial segment, each integration diffuser blade all includes a radial blade segment and an axial blade section, each radial blade section distributes between the radial section of diffuser rim plate and diffuser wheel cap, each axial blade section distributes between the axial segment of diffuser rim plate and diffuser wheel cap, adjacent two form a diffusion runner between the integration diffuser blade, its characterized in that, the integration molding method of integration diffuser blade is as follows:
SS1, the diffuser wheel disc or the diffuser wheel cover is used as a base disc, a plurality of basic diffuser blades which are uniformly distributed along the circumferential direction are machined on the base disc in a machining mode, each basic diffuser blade is shaped by taking the blade of the existing blade diffuser as an elementary blade, the radial blade section of each basic diffuser blade is turned to the axial blade section of the basic diffuser blade in a smooth transition mode, the front end of the radial blade section is formed as the front edge of the basic diffuser blade, and the rear end of the axial blade section is formed as the tail edge of the basic diffuser blade;
and SS2, processing a fan-shaped curved surface structure at the front edge part of each basic diffuser blade, wherein the fan-shaped curved surface is tangent to the suction surface profile where the throat part of the blade passage is located on the suction surface side of the basic diffuser blade, the fan-shaped curved surface is bent from the suction surface side to the pressure surface side of the blade to adapt to the high-speed incoming flow Mach number of an impeller outlet, and the sectioning depth of the fan-shaped curved surface from the suction surface side to the pressure surface side of the blade is not more than the length of the throat part of the blade passage to ensure that the area of the throat part of the blade passage is kept basically unchanged before and after sectioning.
2. The diffuser design method of claim wherein in step SS2, the fan-shaped curved surface is machined by a smooth Bezier curve based on the leading edge of the base diffuser vane and tangent to the profile of the suction surface at the throat of the vane passage, the curve curving toward the pressure side to accommodate the Mach number of the high speed incoming flow at the exit of the impeller.
3. The diffuser design method of claim wherein in step SS2, to ensure that the base diffuser vanes do not change the throat area of the diffuser while introducing the leading edge segment structure, parameters of the throat length are introduced while shaping the elementary vanes, but the throat length is determined to have a suitable length according to the incoming flow because too long a throat length will result in insufficient diffuser expansion capability and too short a throat length will result in poor flow straightening effect.
4. The diffuser design method of claim 3 wherein the leading edge of each elementary diffuser vane is controlled by a multi-point Bezier curve, and the size of the fan-shaped structure is determined based on the incoming flow conditions, so that the depth of the cut is not longer than the length of the throat to ensure that the area of the diffuser throat is substantially constant before and after the cut.
5. The diffuser design method of claim wherein in step SS1, the radial and axial vane segments are smoothly connected by a Bezier curve, and the profile of the suction and pressure surfaces of the base diffuser vane is angularly offset in the circumferential direction and is axisymmetric about the centerline of the channel to ensure that the overall flow path is flared.
6. The method of claim 5 wherein the centerline of the passage is controlled by a curvature that provides suction and pressure profile with better diffuser and flow conductance and lower losses.
7. The diffuser design method of claim wherein the shroud and the diffuser disk of the diffuser each include a radial portion and an axial portion, and wherein the axial portions are disposed on an outer circumferential portion of the radial portion and are joined by a smooth transition. The diffuser wheel cover, the diffuser wheel disc and the diffuser blades form an integrated blade diffuser.
8. The method of designing a diffuser according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the diffuser is arranged at the outlet portion of the centrifugal compressor and has a diffuser inlet radius R3The ratio of the centrifugal impeller to the centrifugal impeller exit radius R2 is 1.03 to 1.1.
9. The diffuser design method of claim wherein in step SS1, the base diffuser vane used for shaping has a half angle of divergence of no more than 6 °, the ratio of the throat length L to the throat width of the vane passage is 1/3-1, and the number of diffuser vanes is 17-29.
10. The diffuser design method of claim 9 wherein the size of the leading edge sector of the diffuser is obtained by adjusting a leading edge Bezier control line; the cross-sectional area of the diffuser passage can be obtained by changing the pre-compression angle of the leading edge of the elementary blade and the expansion half angle of the diffuser, so that the area ratio of the inlet and the outlet of the diffuser is adjusted.
CN202110380198.0A 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 Method for designing diffuser with dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades Pending CN113094833A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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CN202110380198.0A CN113094833A (en) 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 Method for designing diffuser with dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202110380198.0A CN113094833A (en) 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 Method for designing diffuser with dovetail leading edge and integrated radial and axial blades

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Publication Number Publication Date
CN113094833A true CN113094833A (en) 2021-07-09

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