CN112697074B - Dynamic object to be measured angle measuring instrument and measuring method - Google Patents

Dynamic object to be measured angle measuring instrument and measuring method Download PDF

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CN112697074B
CN112697074B CN202011455263.3A CN202011455263A CN112697074B CN 112697074 B CN112697074 B CN 112697074B CN 202011455263 A CN202011455263 A CN 202011455263A CN 112697074 B CN112697074 B CN 112697074B
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inertial navigation
navigation system
measured
dynamic
angle
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CN112697074A (en
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尹仕斌
郭寅
郭磊
邹剑
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Isv Tianjin Technology Co ltd
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Isv Tianjin Technology Co ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/26Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring angles or tapers; for testing the alignment of axes

Abstract

The invention provides a dynamic to-be-measured object angle measuring instrument and a measuring method, wherein the measuring instrument comprises a reference inertial navigation system, a small angle measuring system and a dynamic inertial navigation system; the reference inertial navigation system is arranged on the object to be measured and is used for feeding back the position information of the object to be measured; the small-angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are integrally arranged, and the relative positions of the small-angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are unchanged to form a measurement component A; the dynamic inertial navigation system is used for acquiring the position information of the measurement component A, and the small-angle measurement system is used for acquiring the angle information of the object to be measured; the coordinate systems of the reference inertial navigation system, the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are overlapped, and the coordinate systems of the reference inertial navigation system, the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are unified under an equipment coordinate system. The technical scheme provided by the invention can realize angle measurement when the object to be measured and the carrying platform move synchronously, the measurement can be carried out by one person without the cooperation of multiple persons, the measurement process only needs 1min, the measurement efficiency is high, and the method is suitable for various test scenes.

Description

Dynamic object angle measuring instrument and measuring method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of angle measurement, in particular to an angle measuring instrument and a measuring method for a dynamic object to be measured.
Background
At present, angle measurement is an important component of metrology science, and is widely applied to the field of industrial production, for example, in large-scale machine manufacturing and engineering installation, the spatial included angle between different-surface geometric elements (such as the axial line of a shaft, the central line of a hole and the normal line of a flat plate) of a plurality of measured objects which are several meters away from each other needs to be measured frequently. Such requirements relate to spatial angle measurements at larger spacings. The traditional angle measurement methods such as a three-coordinate measuring machine method, a multi-station theodolite method, a collimator measurement method and the like have certain limitations in measurement accuracy and application range, and the measured object is required to keep a static and stable state. The existing method for testing the angle between a large-size object to be tested (the size exceeds 10 meters) and additional equipment is a vertical target method, the method is a manual measurement mode, the whole measurement process takes more than several hours, more than ten meters of operation space is needed, and the measurement can be completed by being assisted by multiple persons, the operation is complex, the efficiency is low, the requirement on the environment is high, and the dynamic object to be tested cannot be measured.
The prior art and equipment require a measured object to be measured in an absolutely stable environment, and if the measured object is a dynamic measured object or is on a carrying platform, the measurement cannot be carried out, so that the application range of angle measurement is greatly limited, and high-precision angle measurement data cannot be obtained in many fields; and the real-time measurement can not be efficiently carried out, so that the timeliness of data acquisition is greatly reduced.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention provides a dynamic to-be-measured object angle measuring instrument and a measuring method, which can realize angle measurement when an object to be measured and a carrying platform move synchronously, can be operated by a single person without cooperation of multiple persons, has the advantages of only 1min in the measuring process, high measuring efficiency and suitability for various test scenes.
The technical scheme is as follows:
a dynamic object angle measuring instrument to be measured comprises a reference inertial navigation system, a small angle measuring system and a dynamic inertial navigation system;
the reference inertial navigation system is arranged on the object to be detected and used for feeding back the position information of the object to be detected;
the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are integrally arranged, and the relative positions of the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are unchanged to form a measurement component A; the dynamic inertial navigation system is used for acquiring the position information of the measurement component A, and the small-angle measurement system is used for acquiring the angle information of the object to be measured;
the coordinate system center of the reference inertial navigation system, the coordinate system center of the small angle measurement system and the coordinate system center of the dynamic inertial navigation system are coincided, and the coordinate systems of the three systems are unified under the coordinate system marked as the equipment coordinate system.
Further, the dynamic inertial navigation system comprises a housing I and 3 gyroscopes; the shell I is a cuboid, and the 3 gyroscopes are respectively arranged on three mutually vertical surfaces of the shell I; the small angle measuring system is arranged inside the shell I;
the reference inertial navigation system comprises a shell II and 3 gyroscopes, wherein the shell II is a hollow shell, and the 3 gyroscopes are respectively arranged on three surfaces of the shell II, which are perpendicular to each other;
the dynamic inertial navigation system can be embedded into the reference inertial navigation system, and the relative position of the dynamic inertial navigation system and the reference inertial navigation system is fixed or separated through a mechanical connection structure.
Further, the reference inertial navigation system, the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system realize that their respective coordinate systems are unified under the device coordinate system by the following means:
1) fixing a reference inertial navigation system and a dynamic inertial navigation system through a mechanical structure, and then installing the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system on a three-dimensional turntable;
2) unifying a three-dimensional turntable coordinate system and a shell I coordinate system into a same coordinate system through an installation relation, and defining the coordinate system as an equipment coordinate system; according to the connection relation between the shell II and the shell I, the coordinate system of the shell II is unified under the equipment coordinate system;
3) rotating each shaft of the three-dimensional rotary table, respectively recording the readings of the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system in a geodetic coordinate system at different positions, then calculating the conversion relation between the respective coordinate system and the equipment coordinate system, and unifying the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system to the equipment coordinate system;
4) adjusting the three-dimensional turntable to 0 degrees, emitting laser by a laser in the small-angle measurement system, adjusting the position of a reflector, and imaging the reflected laser at the central position of a camera, wherein the position is recorded as 0 degree of an angle measurement coordinate system; the three-dimensional rotary table is rotated for multiple times on the basis of camera imaging of laser energy returned by the reflector, imaging point images of the laser reflected by the reflector are respectively collected by the camera, and the conversion relation between a small-angle measurement coordinate system and an equipment coordinate system is obtained.
The method for measuring the angle of the dynamic object to be measured by using the angle measuring instrument for the dynamic object to be measured comprises the following steps:
firstly, combining a measuring component A and a reference inertial navigation system through a mechanical connection structure, initializing, and acquiring an initial zero position of an equipment coordinate system;
detaching the mechanical connection structure between the measurement component A and the reference inertial navigation system, and fixing a shell II of the reference inertial navigation system on an object to be measured; the conversion relation of the data collected by the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system in the equipment coordinate system is unchanged;
obtaining a unit vector of an object to be measured at an initial measuring position according to the following formula;
in the formula: n'1A unit vector of an initial measurement position of the object to be measured;
R1the conversion relation between the initial zero position of the equipment coordinate system and the conversion relation measured by the reference inertial navigation system at the initial measurement position is shown;
R2the conversion relation between the initial zero position of the equipment coordinate system and the conversion relation measured by the dynamic inertial navigation system at the initial measurement position;
n1the unit vector is converted for a horizontal angle and a vertical angle measured by a small angle measuring system under an equipment coordinate system when the initial measuring position of an object to be measured is measured;
thirdly, acquiring the position information of the object to be measured in real time by using a reference inertial navigation system;
acquiring the position of the measurement component A in real time by using a dynamic inertial navigation system of the measurement component A;
detecting the angle information of the object to be detected in real time by using a small-angle measuring system of the measuring part A;
and calculating the position and the pitch angle of the object to be measured under the equipment coordinate system, and comparing the position and the pitch angle with the initial measurement position of the object to be measured.
Further, the step III is specifically executed according to the following mode:
the reference inertial navigation system acquires the position information of the object to be measured in real time to obtain the conversion relation R between the object to be measured and the initial measurement position during the test3
Conversion relation R between dynamic inertial navigation system of measurement component A and initial zero position of equipment coordinate system4
The small-angle measuring system of the measuring part A detects the horizontal angle and the vertical angle of the characteristics of the object to be measured in real time and converts the horizontal angle and the vertical angle into unitsVector n2
Obtaining a unit vector n 'of the characteristics of the object to be measured in different states according to the following formula'2
In the dynamic to-be-measured object angle measuring instrument and the measuring method, the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system respectively monitor the relative position change of the to-be-measured object and the measuring part in a geodetic coordinate system in real time based on the characteristics of the inertial navigation system, and then the position change of the dynamic to-be-measured object is obtained by combining the conversion relation between the equipment coordinate system calibrated before delivery and the geodetic coordinate system. And obtaining the relative position included angle between the characteristic on the object to be measured and the body of the object to be measured by matching with a small-angle measuring system. The angle measurement when can realize determinand and carrying on platform synchronous motion, need not many people and cooperate the measurement, single can operate, and the measurement process only needs 1min, and measurement efficiency is high, is suitable for multiple test scene.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a dynamic angle measuring apparatus for an object to be measured according to the present invention
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of the dynamic angle measuring apparatus for an object to be measured during calibration according to the present invention;
FIG. 3a is a schematic structural diagram of a reference inertial navigation system in the dynamic object-to-be-measured angle measuring apparatus according to the present invention;
FIG. 3b is a schematic structural diagram of a dynamic inertial navigation system in the dynamic object-to-be-measured angle measuring apparatus according to the present invention;
fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of the working principle of the small angle measuring system in the dynamic object-to-be-measured angle measuring instrument provided by the invention.
Detailed Description
The technical scheme of the invention is described in detail in the following with reference to the accompanying drawings and the detailed description.
A dynamic object angle measuring instrument to be measured comprises a reference inertial navigation system 6, a small angle measuring system 3 and a dynamic inertial navigation system 2;
the reference inertial navigation system 6 is arranged on the object to be measured 5 and used for feeding back the position information of the object to be measured 5;
the small angle measurement system 3 and the dynamic inertial navigation system 2 are integrally arranged, and the relative positions of the two are unchanged to form a measurement component A1; the dynamic inertial navigation system is used for acquiring the position information of the measuring component A1, and the small-angle measuring system 3 is used for acquiring the angle information of the object to be measured 5;
the coordinate system center of the reference inertial navigation system 6, the coordinate system center of the small angle measurement system 3 and the coordinate system center of the dynamic inertial navigation system 2 are coincident, and the coordinate systems of the three systems are unified under a coordinate system marked as an equipment coordinate system.
In particular, the dynamic inertial navigation system 2 comprises a housing I and 3 gyroscopes 8; the shell I is a cuboid, and the 3 gyroscopes 8 are respectively arranged on three mutually vertical surfaces of the shell I; the small angle measuring system 3 is arranged inside the shell I;
the reference inertial navigation system 6 comprises a shell II and 3 gyroscopes 8, wherein the shell II is a hollow shell, and the 3 gyroscopes 8 are respectively arranged on three mutually vertical surfaces of the shell II;
the dynamic inertial navigation system 2 can be embedded into the reference inertial navigation system 6, and the relative position of the two is fixed or separated through a mechanical connection structure.
The calibration process of the dynamic angle measuring instrument for the object to be measured is as follows: the reference inertial navigation system 6, the small angle measurement system 3 and the dynamic inertial navigation system 2 realize that their respective coordinate systems are unified under the equipment coordinate system by the following means:
1) fixing the reference inertial navigation system 6 and the dynamic inertial navigation system 2 through a mechanical structure, and then installing the fixed reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system on a three-dimensional turntable;
2) unifying a three-dimensional turntable coordinate system and a shell I coordinate system into a same coordinate system through an installation relation, and defining the coordinate system as an equipment coordinate system; according to the connection relation between the shell II and the shell I, unifying the coordinate system of the shell II under the equipment coordinate system;
3) rotating each shaft of the three-dimensional rotary table, respectively recording readings of the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system in a geodetic coordinate system at different positions, calculating a conversion relation between the respective coordinate system and an equipment coordinate system, and unifying the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system to the equipment coordinate system;
4) adjusting the three-dimensional turntable to 0 degrees, emitting laser by a laser in a small-angle measurement system, adjusting the position of a reflector 4, imaging the reflected laser at the central position of a camera, and recording the position as 0 degree of an angle measurement coordinate system; the three-dimensional turntable is rotated for multiple times on the basis of camera imaging by laser energy returned by the reflector 4, imaging point images of the laser reflected by the reflector are respectively collected by the camera, and the conversion relation between a small-angle measurement coordinate system and an equipment coordinate system is obtained.
The method for measuring the angle of the dynamic object to be measured by using the angle measuring instrument of the dynamic object to be measured comprises the following steps:
firstly, combining a measuring component A1 with a reference inertial navigation system 6 through a mechanical connection structure, initializing, and acquiring an initial zero position of an equipment coordinate system; the reading of the reference inertial navigation system or the dynamic inertial navigation system at the initial measurement position in the equipment coordinate system can be marked as the initial zero position of the equipment coordinate system;
disassembling a mechanical connection structure between the measurement component A1 and the reference inertial navigation system 6, and fixing a shell II of the reference inertial navigation system on an object to be measured; the conversion relation of the data collected by the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system in the equipment coordinate system is unchanged;
obtaining a unit vector of an object to be measured at an initial measuring position in a control module 7 (which can be a computer, an industrial personal computer and the like) according to the following formula;
in the formula: n'1A unit vector of an initial measurement position of the object to be measured;
R1the conversion relation between the zero position measured by the standard inertial navigation system and the initial zero position of the equipment coordinate system at the initial measurement position is obtained;
R2the conversion relation between the initial zero position of the equipment coordinate system and the conversion relation measured by the dynamic inertial navigation system at the initial measurement position;
n1the unit vector is converted into a horizontal angle and a vertical angle measured by a small-angle measuring system under an equipment coordinate system when the position of an object to be measured is initially measured;
thirdly, acquiring the position information of the object to be measured in real time by using a reference inertial navigation system;
acquiring the position of the measurement component A in real time by using a dynamic inertial navigation system of the measurement component A;
detecting the angle information of the object to be detected in real time by using a small-angle measuring system of the measuring part A;
and calculating the position and the pitch angle of the object to be measured under the equipment coordinate system, and comparing the position and the pitch angle with the initial measurement position of the object to be measured.
Further, the step (c) is specifically executed according to the following mode:
the reference inertial navigation system acquires the position information of the object to be measured in real time to obtain the conversion relation R between the object to be measured and the initial measurement position during the test3
Conversion relation R between dynamic inertial navigation system of measurement component A and initial zero position of equipment coordinate system4
The small-angle measuring system of the measuring part A detects the horizontal angle and the vertical angle of the characteristics of the object to be measured in real time and converts the horizontal angle and the vertical angle into a unit vector n2
Obtaining a unit vector n 'of the characteristics of the object to be measured in different states according to the following formula'2
When the method is used specifically, the movement of the reference inertial navigation system 6 and the movement of the dynamic inertial navigation system 2 are kept consistent at the moment of measurement by the small-angle measurement system 3. Two usage scenarios are derived: firstly, the dynamic object to be measured is statically placed on the carrying platform, the dynamic object to be measured and the carrying platform are relatively static, and the carrying platform moves to drive the dynamic object to be measured to move; the reference inertial navigation system 6 is installed on the dynamic object to be tested, an operator holds the measuring component A by hand, and the characteristics of the dynamic object to be tested are tested on the carrying platform. Secondly, the dynamic object to be measured moves automatically, the reference inertial navigation system 6 is installed on the dynamic object to be measured, and an operator is in/on the dynamic object to be measured and holds the measuring component A to test the characteristics of the dynamic object to be measured.
The test principle of the small-angle measurement system is as follows: the dynamic object angle measuring instrument can adopt a commercial small angle measuring system, and can also build the small angle measuring system according to the use condition, as shown in fig. 4, the small angle measuring system comprises a reflector group besides a laser and a camera; the reflector group comprises two semi-transparent semi-reflecting mirrors; laser projected by the laser is reflected by the two semi-transparent semi-reflectors and then is emitted from an angle vertical to the camera imaging plane, and the emitting position corresponds to the central position of the camera imaging plane; the emitted laser is reflected by a reflector I (namely a reflector 4 arranged on an object to be measured in the using process), and then forms an image on an imaging plane of a camera, the included angle of the reflector I relative to the imaging plane of the camera can be obtained based on the offset of the imaging position and the central position, and the included angle between the axis to be measured and the portable angle measuring instrument is obtained by combining the installation relation of the reflector I and the object to be measured.
In the dynamic object to be measured angle measuring instrument and the measuring method, the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system respectively monitor the relative position change of the object to be measured and the measuring part in the geodetic coordinate system in real time based on the characteristics of the inertial navigation system, and then the position change of the dynamic object to be measured is obtained by combining the conversion relation between the equipment coordinate system and the geodetic coordinate system calibrated before leaving the factory. And obtaining the relative position included angle between the characteristic of the object to be measured and the body of the object to be measured by matching with a small-angle measuring system. Angle measurement when can realize determinand and carrying on platform simultaneous movement need not many people and cooperates the measurement, and single can be operated, and the measurement process only needs 1min, and measurement of efficiency is high, is suitable for multiple test scene.
The foregoing descriptions of specific exemplary embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. The foregoing description is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The exemplary embodiments were chosen and described in order to explain certain principles of the invention and its practical application to enable others skilled in the art to make and use various exemplary embodiments of the invention and various alternatives and modifications thereof. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the following claims and their equivalents.

Claims (5)

1. A dynamic object angle measuring instrument to be measured is characterized in that: the system comprises a reference inertial navigation system, a small angle measurement system and a dynamic inertial navigation system;
the reference inertial navigation system is arranged on the object to be detected and used for feeding back the position information of the object to be detected;
the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are integrally arranged, and the relative positions of the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system are unchanged to form a measurement component A; the dynamic inertial navigation system is used for acquiring the position information of the measuring component A, and the small-angle measuring system is used for acquiring the angle information of the object to be measured;
the coordinate system center of the reference inertial navigation system, the coordinate system center of the small angle measurement system and the coordinate system center of the dynamic inertial navigation system are superposed, and the coordinate systems of the three systems are unified under the coordinate system marked as the equipment coordinate system.
2. The dynamic object angle measuring instrument according to claim 1, wherein: the dynamic inertial navigation system comprises a shell I and 3 gyroscopes; the shell I is a cuboid, and the 3 gyroscopes are respectively arranged on three mutually vertical surfaces of the shell I; the small angle measuring system is arranged inside the shell I;
the reference inertial navigation system comprises a shell II and 3 gyroscopes, wherein the shell II is a hollow shell, and the 3 gyroscopes are respectively arranged on three surfaces of the shell II, which are perpendicular to each other;
the dynamic inertial navigation system can be embedded into the reference inertial navigation system, and the relative position of the dynamic inertial navigation system and the reference inertial navigation system is fixed or separated through a mechanical connection structure.
3. The dynamic object angle measurement instrument according to claim 2, wherein: the reference inertial navigation system, the small angle measurement system and the dynamic inertial navigation system realize that respective coordinate systems are unified under an equipment coordinate system in the following ways:
1) fixing a reference inertial navigation system and a dynamic inertial navigation system through a mechanical structure, and then installing the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system on a three-dimensional turntable;
2) unifying a three-dimensional turntable coordinate system and a shell I coordinate system into a same coordinate system through an installation relation, and defining the coordinate system as an equipment coordinate system; according to the connection relation between the shell II and the shell I, unifying the coordinate system of the shell II under the equipment coordinate system;
3) rotating each shaft of the three-dimensional rotary table, respectively recording readings of the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system in a geodetic coordinate system at different positions, calculating a conversion relation between the respective coordinate system and an equipment coordinate system, and unifying the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system to the equipment coordinate system;
4) adjusting the three-dimensional turntable to 0 degrees, emitting laser by a laser in the small-angle measurement system, adjusting the position of a reflector, and imaging the reflected laser at the central position of a camera, wherein the position is recorded as 0 degree of an angle measurement coordinate system; and the three-dimensional turntable is rotated for multiple times on the basis of the imaging of the camera by the laser energy returned by the reflector, the camera is utilized to respectively collect the images of the imaging points of the laser reflected by the reflector, and the conversion relation between the small-angle measurement coordinate system and the equipment coordinate system is obtained.
4. The method for measuring the angle of a dynamic object to be measured by using the dynamic object to be measured angle measuring instrument according to claim 1, comprising the steps of:
firstly, combining a measuring component A and a reference inertial navigation system through a mechanical connection structure, initializing, and acquiring an initial zero position of an equipment coordinate system;
detaching the mechanical connection structure between the measurement component A and the reference inertial navigation system, and fixing a shell II of the reference inertial navigation system on an object to be measured; the conversion relation of the data collected by the reference inertial navigation system and the dynamic inertial navigation system in the equipment coordinate system is unchanged;
obtaining a unit vector of an object to be measured at an initial measuring position according to the following formula;
in the formula: n'1A unit vector of an initial measurement position of the object to be measured;
R1the conversion relation between the zero position measured by the standard inertial navigation system and the initial zero position of the equipment coordinate system at the initial measurement position is obtained;
R2the conversion relation between the initial zero position of the equipment coordinate system and the conversion relation measured by the dynamic inertial navigation system at the initial measurement position is obtained;
n1the unit vector is converted for a horizontal angle and a vertical angle measured by a small angle measuring system under an equipment coordinate system when the initial measuring position of an object to be measured is measured;
thirdly, acquiring the position information of the object to be measured in real time by using a reference inertial navigation system;
acquiring the position of the measurement component A in real time by using a dynamic inertial navigation system of the measurement component A;
detecting the angle information of the object to be measured in real time by using a small-angle measuring system of the measuring component A;
and calculating the position and the pitch angle of the object to be measured under the equipment coordinate system, and comparing the position and the pitch angle with the initial measurement position of the object to be measured.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein: step three is specifically executed according to the following mode:
the reference inertial navigation system acquires the position information of the object to be measured in real time to obtain the conversion relation R between the object to be measured and the initial measurement position during the test3
Conversion relation R between dynamic inertial navigation system of measurement component A and initial zero position of equipment coordinate system4
The small-angle measuring system of the measuring part A detects the horizontal angle and the vertical angle of the characteristic of the object to be measured in real time and converts the horizontal angle and the vertical angle into a unit vector n2
Obtaining a unit vector n 'of the characteristics of the object to be measured in different states according to the following formula'2
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