CN111636976A - Three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio efficient power propeller - Google Patents

Three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio efficient power propeller Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111636976A
CN111636976A CN202010511452.1A CN202010511452A CN111636976A CN 111636976 A CN111636976 A CN 111636976A CN 202010511452 A CN202010511452 A CN 202010511452A CN 111636976 A CN111636976 A CN 111636976A
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China
Prior art keywords
duct
bypass
thrust
main shaft
gas turbine
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CN202010511452.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN111636976B (en
Inventor
赵景山
张家悦
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Tsinghua University
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Tsinghua University
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K3/00Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan
    • F02K3/02Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber
    • F02K3/04Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber the plant including ducted fans, i.e. fans with high volume, low pressure outputs, for augmenting the jet thrust, e.g. of double-flow type
    • F02K3/06Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber the plant including ducted fans, i.e. fans with high volume, low pressure outputs, for augmenting the jet thrust, e.g. of double-flow type with front fan
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C6/00Plural gas-turbine plants; Combinations of gas-turbine plants with other apparatus; Adaptations of gas- turbine plants for special use
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/12Cooling of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller which comprises ducts and an air inlet mechanism arranged at the air inlet end of each duct, wherein each duct comprises an inner duct, a middle duct and an outer duct, the inner duct is positioned in the middle duct, and the middle duct is positioned in the outer duct. The three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller provided by the invention improves the utilization rate of gas heat energy and reduces the working temperature of key parts such as bearings and the like.

Description

Three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio efficient power propeller
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of power propellers, in particular to a three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller.
Background
Since the second war, numerous countries in the world invest a great deal of research and development efforts to develop military and civil aviation airplanes. The power propeller of the aircraft is the heart, and each major revolutionary progress of the aircraft is closely related to the innovation and breakthrough of the power propeller technology.
At the end of the 40 s of the 20 th century, the western world began using turbojet engines. The turbojet engine can directly utilize the high-speed tail gas sprayed out by the tail spray pipe to generate power, so that the dependence of the prior piston engine on a propeller is eliminated, and the flying efficiency and power of the airplane are improved. However, as the demand of people for aviation airplanes increases, the turbojet engine has the fatal defect of poor economic performance. In the 60's of the 20 th century, turbofan engines with dual ducts were introduced. Compared with a turbojet engine, the turbofan engine has the advantages of compact structure, high propelling efficiency, low noise and the like. However, in both turbine engines and turbofan engines, the temperature in the combustion chamber can reach thousands of degrees celsius during operation, and such high temperature is a great challenge for parts in the engine that need to rotate. On the one hand, the existing lubricants are difficult to lubricate effectively at such high temperatures, and on the other hand, the rotating parts have a very short working life at high temperatures. In recent years, scientists and engineers have invested a great deal of time, effort and money in developing bearings that can operate efficiently at high temperatures. If can be with bearing work area's temperature drop to reasonable within range, with greatly reduced propeller cost, extension propeller life-span, improve the propeller performance.
Therefore, it is an urgent technical problem to be solved in the art to provide a high-efficiency propeller with a large thrust-weight ratio, which can reduce the temperature of the exhaust gas, so as to reduce the cost of the propeller, prolong the service life of the propeller, and improve the performance of the propeller.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller, which solves the problems in the prior art, reduces the temperature of tail gas, prolongs the service life of key parts such as bearings and the like, reduces the cost of the propeller, prolongs the service life of the propeller and improves the performance of the propeller.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following scheme:
the invention provides a three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller which comprises ducts and an air inlet mechanism arranged at the air inlet end of the ducts, wherein each duct comprises an inner duct, a middle duct and an outer duct, the inner duct is positioned in the middle duct, and the middle duct is positioned in the outer duct.
Preferably, the inner duct comprises a main shaft, an inner duct shell, a gas turbine rotor and a turbine, the gas turbine rotor and the turbine are fixedly connected with the main shaft respectively, the inner duct shell is fixedly connected with the main shaft through a plurality of supporting spokes, the inner duct shell is located between the gas turbine rotor and the turbine, the gas turbine rotor is close to the gas inlet end of the inner duct, the turbine is close to the gas outlet end of the inner duct, and a tail diversion cone is further fixedly arranged at one end, close to the gas outlet end of the inner duct, of the main shaft.
Preferably, the middle duct comprises a middle duct shell connected with the main shaft in a rotating mode, a tail spray pipe is arranged at one end, close to the air outlet end, of the middle duct shell, a combustion chamber located between the turbine and the gas turbine rotor is further arranged in the middle duct shell, a gas turbine stator is arranged at the other end of the middle duct shell, and the gas turbine stator and the gas turbine rotor are combined into a gas turbine.
Preferably, the outer duct comprises an outer duct shell fixedly connected with the middle duct shell, the diameter of the outer duct shell is gradually reduced along the direction from the air inlet end to the air outlet end, and the diameter of the tail nozzle is gradually increased along the direction from the air inlet end to the air outlet end.
Preferably, the air inlet mechanism comprises an air inlet channel, a diversion cone, a fan and a diversion ring, the fan is fixedly connected with one end of the main shaft, the diversion cone is located at one end of the fan far away from the duct, the diversion cone is fixedly connected with the center of the fan, and the diversion ring is located between the fan and the inner duct.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following technical effects:
the three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller provided by the invention improves the utilization rate of heat energy in high-temperature gas, effectively reduces the temperature of tail gas, and prolongs the service life of key parts such as bearings and the like. In the working process of the three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller, air is divided into three parts after passing through the air inlet mechanism and respectively enters an inner duct, a middle duct and an outer duct of the propeller; the air entering the inner duct provides a reaction force for the fan to generate a part of thrust, and key parts such as a main shaft, a bearing and the like are cooled at the same time, so that the working temperature of the fan is reduced, and the service life of the fan is prolonged; after passing through the gas turbine, the combustion chamber and the turbine, the air entering the middle duct is discharged at high speed through the tail nozzle to generate a part of thrust; the air passing through the bypass channel gives a reaction force to the fan, and also generates a part of thrust. Under the combined action of the three parts of thrust, the technical effects of large thrust-weight ratio and high-efficiency propulsion are realized. The temperature of the tail gas finally discharged by the three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller provided by the invention can be controlled between 300 ℃ and 400 ℃, and the tail gas is in a working temperature range which can be endured by a common bearing. According to the three-duct impeller scheme, the innermost duct is added on the basis of the duct structure, the working areas of key parts such as the main shaft and the bearing are effectively cooled by low-temperature airflow, the high-temperature environment is effectively shielded for the key parts such as the main shaft and the bearing, the working temperature is reduced, the service life is prolonged, and the performance of the impeller is improved. The aviation power propeller is a core component of the aviation aircraft, improves the working performance of the aviation power propeller, is favorable for improving the flight performance of the aviation aircraft, and has important economic and environmental protection significance.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings needed in the embodiments will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram I of a three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram II of a three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of an air intake mechanism in the three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of an inner duct of the three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural view of a middle duct in the three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic structural view of an outer duct casing in the three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the present invention;
wherein: 1-an air intake mechanism; 2-an inner duct; 3-middle duct; 4-an external duct; 5, an air inlet channel; 6-a flow guide cone; 7-a fan; 8-a flow guide ring; 9-a main shaft; 10-supporting spokes; 11-tail guide cone; 12-a turbine; 13-a gas turbine rotor; 14-a tail nozzle; 15-a combustion chamber; 16-a compressor turbine stator; 17-an bypass housing.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without inventive effort based on the embodiments of the present invention, are within the scope of the present invention.
The invention aims to provide a three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio high-efficiency power propeller, which can reduce the temperature of tail gas, prolong the service life of key parts such as bearings and the like, reduce the cost of the propeller, prolong the service life of the propeller, improve the performance of the propeller, solve the problem of overhigh temperature of the working environment of key rotating parts such as bearings and the like in the prior art and improve the utilization rate of heat energy of fuel gas.
In order to make the aforementioned objects, features and advantages of the present invention comprehensible, embodiments accompanied with figures are described in further detail below.
As shown in fig. 1 to 6: the three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the embodiment comprises a duct and an air inlet mechanism 1 arranged at the air inlet end of the duct, wherein the duct comprises an inner duct 2, a middle duct 3 and an outer duct 4, the inner duct 2 is positioned in the middle duct 3, and the middle duct 3 is positioned in the outer duct 4.
The air inlet mechanism 1 comprises an air inlet channel 5, a diversion cone 6, a fan 7 and a diversion ring 8, wherein the fan 7 is fixedly connected with one end of a main shaft 9, the diversion cone 6 is positioned at one end of the fan 7 far away from the culvert, the diversion cone 6 is fixedly connected at the center of the fan 7, and the diversion ring 8 is positioned between the fan 7 and the inner culvert 2; the air inlet mechanism 1 is used for rectifying the airflow direction and providing compressed air for the propeller.
The inner duct 2 comprises a main shaft 9, an inner duct shell, a gas turbine rotor 13 and a turbine 12, the gas turbine rotor 13 and the turbine 12 are fixedly connected with the main shaft 9 respectively, the inner duct shell is fixedly connected with the main shaft 9 through a plurality of supporting spokes 10, the inner duct shell is positioned between the gas turbine rotor 13 and the turbine 12, the gas turbine rotor 13 is close to the gas inlet end of the inner duct 2, the turbine 12 is close to the gas outlet end of the inner duct 2, and one end of the main shaft 9, which is close to the gas outlet end of the inner duct 2, is fixedly connected with a tail diversion cone 11; the air current in the inner duct 2 can cool the working areas of the main shaft 9, the bearings and other key parts, effectively shields the high-temperature environment for the main shaft 9, the bearings and other key parts, reduces the working temperature of the main shaft, prolongs the service life of the main shaft, and further improves the performance of the propeller.
The middle duct 3 comprises a middle duct shell which is rotationally connected with the main shaft 9, a tail nozzle 14 is arranged at one end, close to the air outlet end, of the middle duct shell, a combustion chamber 15 located between the turbine 12 and the compressor turbine rotor 13 is further arranged in the middle duct shell, a compressor turbine stator 16 is arranged at the other end of the middle duct shell, the compressor turbine stator 16 and the compressor turbine rotor 13 are combined into a compressor turbine, the diameter of the tail nozzle 14 is gradually increased along the direction from the air inlet end to the air outlet end, and a flow channel formed by the tail nozzle 14 and a tail guide cone 11 on the inner duct 2 has good aerodynamic performance.
The outer duct 4 comprises an outer duct shell 17 fixedly connected with the middle duct shell, the diameter of the outer duct shell 17 is gradually reduced along the direction from the air inlet end to the air outlet end, and the outer duct shell has good aerodynamic characteristics.
The working process of the three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of the embodiment is as follows:
the air is divided into three parts after passing through the air inlet mechanism 1, and the three parts respectively enter an inner duct 2, a middle duct 3 and an outer duct 4 of the propeller; the air entering the inner duct 2 gives a reaction force to the fan 7 to generate a part of thrust, and key parts such as a main shaft 9, a bearing and the like are cooled, so that the working temperature of the main shaft is reduced, and the service life of the main shaft is prolonged; after passing through a compressor turbine, a combustion chamber 15 and a turbine 12, air entering the middle duct 3 is discharged at a high speed through a tail nozzle 14 to generate a part of thrust; the air passing through the bypass duct 4 also reacts to the fan 7, generating a part of the thrust. Under the combined action of the three parts of thrust, the technical effects of large thrust-weight ratio and high-efficiency propulsion are realized. The temperature of the tail gas finally discharged by the power propeller provided by the embodiment can be controlled to be 300-400 ℃, and the tail gas is in a working temperature range which can be endured by a common bearing.
The principle and the implementation mode of the present invention are explained by applying specific examples in the present specification, and the above descriptions of the examples are only used to help understanding the method and the core idea of the present invention; meanwhile, for a person skilled in the art, according to the idea of the present invention, the specific embodiments and the application range may be changed. In view of the above, the present disclosure should not be construed as limiting the invention.

Claims (5)

1. The utility model provides a three ducts push away high-efficient power propeller of weight ratio greatly which characterized in that: the bypass comprises a bypass and an air inlet mechanism arranged at the air inlet end of the bypass, wherein the bypass comprises an inner bypass, a middle bypass and an outer bypass, the inner bypass is positioned in the middle bypass, and the middle bypass is positioned in the outer bypass.
2. The three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of claim 1, characterized in that: the inner duct comprises a main shaft, an inner duct shell, a gas turbine rotor and a turbine, wherein the gas turbine rotor and the turbine are fixedly connected with the main shaft respectively, the inner duct shell is fixedly connected with the main shaft through a plurality of supporting spokes, the inner duct shell is located between the gas turbine rotor and the turbine, the gas turbine rotor is close to the gas inlet end of the inner duct, the turbine is close to the gas outlet end of the inner duct, and the tail diversion cone is fixedly arranged at one end, close to the gas outlet end of the inner duct, of the main shaft.
3. The three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of claim 2, characterized in that: the middle duct comprises a middle duct shell connected with the main shaft in a rotating mode, a tail spray pipe is arranged at one end, close to the air outlet end, of the middle duct shell, a combustion chamber is arranged in the middle duct shell and located between the turbine and the gas turbine rotor, a gas turbine stator is arranged at the other end of the middle duct shell, and the gas turbine stator and the gas turbine rotor are combined into a gas turbine.
4. The three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of claim 3, characterized in that: the outer duct comprises an outer duct shell fixedly connected with the middle duct shell, the diameter of the outer duct shell is gradually reduced along the direction from the air inlet end to the air outlet end, and the diameter of the tail spray pipe is gradually increased along the direction from the air inlet end to the air outlet end.
5. The three-duct high thrust-weight ratio high-efficiency power propeller of claim 2, characterized in that: the air inlet mechanism comprises an air inlet channel, a flow guide cone, a fan and a flow guide ring, wherein the fan is fixedly connected with one end of the main shaft, the flow guide cone is located at one end of the fan far away from the duct, the flow guide cone is fixedly connected with the center of the fan, and the flow guide ring is located between the fan and the inner duct.
CN202010511452.1A 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 Three-duct high-thrust-weight-ratio efficient power propeller Active CN111636976B (en)

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