CN111619654A - Obstacle avoidance robot - Google Patents

Obstacle avoidance robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111619654A
CN111619654A CN201910145859.4A CN201910145859A CN111619654A CN 111619654 A CN111619654 A CN 111619654A CN 201910145859 A CN201910145859 A CN 201910145859A CN 111619654 A CN111619654 A CN 111619654A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
obstacle avoidance
gear
bearing
straight
wheel
Prior art date
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Pending
Application number
CN201910145859.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
苑明海
蔡仙仙
李凡
顾文斌
黄伟俊
张希腾
田舒敏
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Hohai University Changzhou Campus
Original Assignee
Hohai University Changzhou Campus
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Hohai University Changzhou Campus filed Critical Hohai University Changzhou Campus
Priority to CN201910145859.4A priority Critical patent/CN111619654A/en
Publication of CN111619654A publication Critical patent/CN111619654A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D5/00Power-assisted or power-driven steering
    • B62D5/04Power-assisted or power-driven steering electrical, e.g. using an electric servo-motor connected to, or forming part of, the steering gear
    • B62D5/0418Electric motor acting on road wheel carriers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D7/00Steering linkage; Stub axles or their mountings
    • B62D7/06Steering linkage; Stub axles or their mountings for individually-pivoted wheels, e.g. on king-pins
    • B62D7/14Steering linkage; Stub axles or their mountings for individually-pivoted wheels, e.g. on king-pins the pivotal axes being situated in more than one plane transverse to the longitudinal centre line of the vehicle, e.g. all-wheel steering
    • B62D7/142Steering linkage; Stub axles or their mountings for individually-pivoted wheels, e.g. on king-pins the pivotal axes being situated in more than one plane transverse to the longitudinal centre line of the vehicle, e.g. all-wheel steering specially adapted for particular vehicles, e.g. tractors, carts, earth-moving vehicles, trucks

Abstract

The invention provides an obstacle avoidance robot, which comprises a driving system, a steering system, a supporting mechanism, an obstacle avoidance system and a connecting mechanism, wherein the driving system comprises a direct current motor, an intermediate gear, a gear shaft, a straight gear, a small belt wheel, a transmission belt, a belt wheel shaft, a belt wheel, a straight bevel gear, a wheel shaft and wheels; the steering system comprises a stepping motor, a straight bevel gear sleeve, a bottom plate, a wheel clamp and wheels; the supporting mechanism comprises a sleeve, a bearing seat, an angular contact ball bearing, a thrust ball bearing, a deep groove ball bearing and a bearing end cover; the obstacle avoidance system comprises an infrared obstacle avoidance sensor, a single chip microcomputer, a driver and a stepping motor; the connecting mechanism comprises a bolt, a nut and a washer. The invention can automatically sense obstacles, avoid the obstacles in the environment where people cannot enter, and safely, reliably, flexibly and quickly operate; meanwhile, the four-wheel independent walking system is provided, and an automatic programmable control system is provided.

Description

Obstacle avoidance robot
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of robots, and particularly relates to an obstacle avoidance robot.
Background
In modern industrial situations, robots are gradually replacing human beings as a new development trend. The intelligent robot is one kind of robot, and in scientific research and resource exploration, the intelligent robot can replace the work of most people and can replace or assist people to complete various works.
The robot finishes tasks in an unknown complex environment, firstly, unpredictable obstacles are faced, and the robot is operated to automatically avoid various types of obstacles which are possibly encountered in path planning. With the continuous development of the technology, the obstacle avoidance robot is more and more widely applied and is used in the aspects of household cleaning, search and rescue, pipeline wiring, flexible production lines, dangerous environment operation and the like. However, the obstacle avoidance robot in the complex environment with the coexistence of dynamic and static states, which cannot be entered by human, has poor obstacle avoidance capability, so that the robot which can automatically sense obstacles in the environment, is flexible in steering, has good trafficability and can automatically avoid obstacles in the environment, which cannot be entered by human, is necessary.
The chinese utility model patent with publication number CN202267871U discloses an automatic obstacle avoidance robot platform, which is mainly used for a robot to automatically avoid obstacles, and belongs to the technical field of robot control. The system comprises three parts, namely an ultrasonic ranging sensor, a mobile robot and a control main board. The ultrasonic ranging sensors are arranged around the mobile robot, and the detection direction of each ultrasonic ranging sensor can be adjusted in order to adapt to different use environments. The control mainboard is installed on mobile robot's frame. The color liquid crystal display module, the Bluetooth communication module and the communication and power interface are arranged on the control mainboard. However, the wheels of the robot platform are mounted at positions which result in limited steering range and poor steering flexibility, and the lower frame results in poor adaptability and passing performance of the robot platform in complex environments.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides an obstacle avoidance robot, which can detect obstacles in the environment, can automatically avoid the obstacles to reach a target position in the environment where people are difficult to enter, and has a four-wheel independent walking system, can flexibly steer, is stable in support and stable in walking, and has an automatic programmable control system.
The invention is mainly realized by the following technical scheme: an obstacle avoidance robot comprises a driving system, an obstacle avoidance system, a steering system, a supporting mechanism and a connecting mechanism, the driving system comprises a direct current motor, a middle gear, a straight gear, a gear shaft, a small belt wheel, a transmission belt, a belt wheel shaft, a first straight bevel gear, a wheel shaft and wheels, the intermediate gear is arranged on an output shaft of the direct current motor and is meshed with the straight gear, the gear shaft is arranged between the upper plate and the bottom plate, the lower end of the gear shaft is fixedly connected with a straight gear, the upper end of the gear shaft is fixedly connected with a small belt wheel, the small belt wheel is connected with a belt wheel through a transmission belt, the belt wheel is fixed at the upper end of the belt wheel shaft, the first straight-tooth bevel gear is fixed at the lower end of the belt wheel shaft and meshed with the bevel gear, and the bevel gear and the wheel are respectively and fixedly connected with the two ends of the wheel shaft;
the steering system comprises a stepping motor, a second straight bevel gear, a straight bevel gear sleeve and a wheel clamp, wherein the stepping motor is fixedly connected to the side surface of the wheel clamp; after receiving a steering signal from the obstacle avoidance system, the stepping motor drives the second straight bevel gear to drive the wheel clamp to rotate by a corresponding angle around the straight bevel gear sleeve, so that the wheel is steered.
The obstacle avoidance system is used for detecting obstacles, the steering system and the driving system are fixedly arranged on the bottom plate through the connecting mechanism, and the supporting mechanism is used for improving the running stability of the obstacle avoidance robot; the obstacle avoidance robot drives an intermediate gear through a direct current motor in the driving system to drive a straight gear meshed with the intermediate gear to rotate, a small belt pulley coaxially fixed with the straight gear transmits power to a belt pulley at the upper end of a belt pulley shaft through a transmission belt, so that a first straight bevel gear fixed at the lower end of the belt pulley shaft drives the meshed bevel gears to rotate to control the wheels to advance or retreat; keep away the barrier robot keep away after the barrier system detects the barrier, through the steering system control keeps away the barrier robot and turns to, step motor is after receiving turn signal, and drive second straight bevel gear drives wheel anchor clamps and rotates corresponding angle around straight bevel gear sleeve, makes the wheel turn to, avoids the barrier. Compared with the prior art, the ground clearance of the bottom plate for mounting the driving system is larger, the driving system controls each wheel to rotate independently, the rotating range of the wheels is large, the steering is more flexible, and the passing performance and the adaptability of the robot are better.
The obstacle avoidance system comprises an infrared obstacle avoidance sensor, a single chip microcomputer and a driver, wherein the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor is fixed on a bottom plate and transmits a detection signal to the single chip microcomputer through a lead connected with the single chip microcomputer, the single chip microcomputer is used as a control unit and is connected with the driver through a lead, the driver is connected with a stepping motor through a lead, and a steering signal sent by the single chip microcomputer controls the steering action of the stepping motor after being amplified by the driver; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor is used for detecting obstacles, and the single chip microcomputer is used for controlling the steering action of the wheels, so that the reliability is good and the cost is low.
Furthermore, the obstacle avoidance robot further comprises a battery pack, the battery pack is fixed below the bottom plate, and the direct current motor, the stepping motor and the obstacle avoidance system are powered by the battery pack; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: and power is supplied to a driving system, a steering system and an obstacle avoidance system.
Further, the supporting mechanism comprises a sleeve, a bearing sleeve, bearing seats, angular contact ball bearings, thrust ball bearings, deep groove ball bearings and bearing end covers, the sleeve is installed between the belt pulley and the bearing sleeve, the bearing sleeve is fixed on the bearing seats through a connecting mechanism, and a pair of angular contact ball bearings used for bearing axial loads and radial loads are arranged in the bearing seats on each belt pulley shaft; the upper end surface of the thrust ball bearing is in contact with the straight bevel gear sleeve, and the lower end surface of the thrust ball bearing is in contact with the wheel clamp and is used for bearing axial load; the deep groove ball bearing is arranged between the straight bevel gear sleeve and the wheel clamp, is fixed on the upper part of the wheel clamp through a bearing end cover and is used for bearing radial load; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: bear the radial load and the axial load that keep away barrier robot each part junction received, improve the stability of robot.
Furthermore, four mounting holes which are matched with the diameters of the belt pulley shafts and four groups of threaded holes which are used for mounting the bearing seat and the straight bevel gear sleeve are arranged on the bottom plate, and each group of threaded holes is uniformly distributed in a circumferential manner by taking the mounting holes as centers; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: the bolt and the pulley shaft are convenient to install.
Furthermore, the connecting mechanism comprises a plurality of groups of mutually matched bolts, nuts and washers, and the bearing sleeve, the bearing seat and the straight bevel gear sleeve are fixed on the bottom plate in sequence; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: fixed bearing housing, bearing frame and straight bevel gear sleeve.
Furthermore, the driving system drives the intermediate gear through the direct current motor, drives four straight gears meshed with the intermediate gear to rotate, transmits power to corresponding wheels through a transmission belt, a belt wheel shaft and a wheel shaft, drives the four wheels to rotate independently, and is provided with a steering system on each wheel clamp to control steering action of the corresponding wheel; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: the four wheels which move independently are arranged, so that the robot can better adapt to different terrains, and the passing capacity of the robot is improved.
Further, the angular contact ball bearings are mounted in a face-to-face manner; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: simple structure, easy dismounting increase the preload of bearing simultaneously.
Furthermore, the gear shaft fixes the small belt pulley through a shaft shoulder at the upper end, and the gear shaft and the small belt pulley are in interference fit; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: the small belt wheel can be stably fixed on the gear shaft and can bear larger axial force, torque and dynamic load after being fixed.
Furthermore, the obstacle avoidance system emits infrared signals outwards at a fixed frequency, when the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor detects a reflected signal, it is judged that an obstacle exists in front of the obstacle avoidance system, a high-level pulse signal is emitted to the single chip microcomputer, and the single chip microcomputer controls the stepping motor to enable the wheels to steer; when the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor cannot detect the reflected signal, judging that no obstacle exists in front, transmitting a low-level pulse signal to the single chip microcomputer, controlling the stepping motor by the single chip microcomputer to enable the wheels to rotate to the initial direction to continue to move forward, repeating the process to realize automatic sensing of the environment and avoid the obstacle; the beneficial effect who adopts above-mentioned scheme is: the infrared sensor has reliable detection result, simple control flow and high response speed during steering.
The invention has the following advantages: the robot can automatically sense the obstacles in the environment and control the wheels to turn to avoid the obstacles; the steering mechanism has the advantages of compact overall structure, flexible and quick steering action and reliable steering structure, and is convenient for executing tasks in an environment where people cannot enter; the driving system and the corresponding steering system simultaneously control the four wheels to independently move, so that the passing property and the adaptability of the robot are improved; other electronic equipment or auxiliary devices can be additionally arranged on the upper plate of the robot according to task requirements, and the expansibility is better.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic overall structure diagram of an obstacle avoidance robot according to the present invention;
fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional structure diagram of the obstacle avoidance robot of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a left side view of the obstacle avoidance robot of the present invention;
fig. 4 is a top view of the obstacle avoidance robot of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic circuit diagram of the obstacle avoidance robot of the present invention;
fig. 6 is a block diagram of an automatic obstacle avoidance procedure of the obstacle avoidance robot according to embodiment 1 of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. an upper plate; 2. a pulley; 3. a pulley shaft; 4. a bearing housing; 5. angular contact ball bearings; 6. a bearing seat; 7. a bolt; 8. a nut; 9. a thrust ball bearing; 10. a deep groove ball bearing; 11. a wheel clamp; 12. a bearing end cap; 13. a straight bevel gear sleeve; 14. a wheel; 15. a second straight bevel gear; 16. a first straight-tooth bevel gear; 17. a wheel shaft; 18. a bevel gear; 19. a stepping motor; 20. a sleeve; 21. a small belt pulley; 22. a transmission belt; 23. a gear shaft; 24. a base plate; 25. a gasket; 26. a direct current motor; 27. an intermediate gear; 28. an infrared obstacle avoidance sensor; 29. a single chip microcomputer; 30. a driver; 31. a straight gear.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the following embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that the terms "upper", "lower", "left", "right", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outer", and the like indicate orientations or positional relationships based on the orientations or positional relationships shown in the drawings, and are only for convenience in describing the present invention and simplifying the description, but do not indicate or imply that the device or element referred to must have a specific orientation, be constructed and operated in a specific orientation, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention.
Example 1
As shown in fig. 1 to 6, an obstacle avoidance robot includes a driving system, an obstacle avoidance system, a steering system, a supporting mechanism and a connecting mechanism, the driving system includes a dc motor 26, an intermediate gear 27, a spur gear 31, a gear shaft 23, a small pulley 21, a transmission belt 22, a pulley 2, a pulley shaft 3, a first spur bevel gear 16, a bevel gear 18, a pulley shaft 17 and a wheel 14, the intermediate gear 27 is installed on an output shaft of the dc motor 26, the intermediate gear 27 is engaged with the spur gear 31, the gear shaft 23 is installed between an upper plate 1 and a bottom plate 24, a lower end of the gear shaft 23 is fixedly connected with the spur gear 31 and an upper end of the gear shaft is fixedly connected with the small pulley 21, the small pulley 21 is connected with the pulley 2 through the transmission belt 22, the pulley 2 is fixed at an upper end of the pulley shaft 3, the first spur bevel gear 16 is fixed at a lower end of the pulley shaft 3, the first straight bevel gear 16 is engaged with a bevel gear, and two ends of the wheel shaft 17 are respectively fixedly connected with the bevel gear and the wheel 14.
The steering system comprises a stepping motor 19, a second straight bevel gear 15, a straight bevel gear sleeve 13 and a wheel clamp 11, wherein the stepping motor 19 is fixedly connected to the side surface of the wheel clamp 11, the second straight bevel gear 15 is fixed on a main shaft of the stepping motor 19 and meshed with the straight bevel gear sleeve 13, and the straight bevel gear sleeve 13 is fixed on a bottom plate 24 through a connecting mechanism; after receiving a steering signal from the obstacle avoidance system, the stepping motor 19 drives the second straight bevel gear 15 to drive the wheel clamp 11 to rotate by a corresponding angle around the straight bevel gear sleeve 13, so that the wheel 14 is steered.
According to the invention, a direct current motor 26 transmits driving force to other four meshed straight gears 31 through an intermediate gear 27, the straight gears 31 rotate to drive a gear shaft 23 to rotate, further drive a small belt wheel 21 to rotate, and drive a belt wheel 2 to rotate through a driving belt 22, so as to drive a belt wheel shaft 3, a first straight-tooth bevel gear 16 fixed at the lower end of the belt wheel shaft 3 transmits the driving force to a bevel gear 18, the bevel gear 18 drives a wheel shaft 17 to rotate, further drives a wheel 14 at the other end of the wheel shaft 17 to rotate, so that the linear motion of the robot is realized; after the stepping motor 19 receives the pulse signal sent by the single chip microcomputer 29, the stepping motor 19 rotates by a corresponding angle, the second straight bevel gear 15 fixedly connected to the stepping motor 19 rotates by a corresponding angle, and as the straight bevel gear sleeve 13 is fixed on the bottom plate 24, the second straight bevel gear 15 performs circular motion around the straight bevel gear sleeve 13, and as the stepping motor 19 is fixed on the wheel clamp 11, the wheel clamp 11 is simultaneously driven to rotate by a corresponding angle, so that the wheels 14 are controlled to rotate by the same angle, and the steering of the robot is realized.
The obstacle avoidance system comprises an infrared obstacle avoidance sensor 28, a single chip microcomputer 29 and a driver 30, wherein the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor 28 transmits a detection signal to the single chip microcomputer 29 through a lead connected with the single chip microcomputer 29, the driver 30 is connected with the stepping motor 19 through a lead, the single chip microcomputer 29 serves as a control unit and is connected with the driver 30 through a lead, and a pin sends a pulse signal to control the steering action of the stepping motor 19 after the pulse signal is amplified by the driver 30.
As shown in fig. 5, the control circuit of the single chip microcomputer includes a main control circuit, an external clock circuit, and a reset circuit, the main control circuit uses an AT89C51 single chip microcomputer as a main control CPU, and uses pins to send pulses to control the stepping motor, the external clock circuit is a self-excited oscillator, and is composed of a quartz crystal and a trimming capacitor connected to two ends of the single chip microcomputer XTAL1 and XTAL2, wherein the capacitors C1 and C2 are 30pF to trim the oscillation frequency, the reset circuit is a power-on reset circuit, and a capacitor is connected to a power supply AT a RST reset input pin of the single chip microcomputer, and a resistor is connected to the ground, and when resetting, the RST can be automatically reset by keeping a high level more than two machine cycles.
As shown in fig. 5, the driving circuit of the driver includes four ULN2003 drivers connected to the ports P0, P1, P2, and P3 of the single chip microcomputer, respectively, and since the ULN2003 driver is an open collector output, and the COM pin is connected to the power supply of the load to enable the diode to play a freewheeling role, a +5V power supply is added to each COM pin.
Furthermore, since the port P0 is used as an output port, a pull-up resistor is required to be connected externally, and the resistance value of the pull-up resistor is generally 10 kilo-ohms.
Further, the pins of the stepping motor controlled by the single chip are distributed as shown in fig. 5, pins P0.1 to P0.4 control the first stepping motor through a stepping motor driver, the pins of the first stepping motor are pins X10 to X13 which are respectively connected to corresponding pins of a driver U1, pins P0.5 to P0.7 and P2.0 control the second stepping motor through a stepping motor driver, pins X14 to X17 of the second stepping motor are respectively connected to corresponding pins of drivers U1 and U2, pins P2.1 to P2.3 and P3.0 control the third stepping motor through a stepping motor driver, pins X18, X19, X110 and X111 of the third stepping motor are respectively connected to corresponding pins of drivers U2 and U3, pins P3.1 to P3.3 and P1.7 control the fourth stepping motor, and the pins of the fourth stepping motor are pins X112, X113, X114 and X115 which are respectively connected to corresponding pins of drivers U3 and U4.
The supporting mechanism comprises a sleeve 20, a bearing sleeve 4, a bearing seat 6, angular contact ball bearings 5, a thrust ball bearing 9, a deep groove ball bearing 10 and a bearing end cover 12, wherein the sleeve 20 is installed between the belt pulley 2 and the bearing sleeve 4, the bearing sleeve 4 is fixed on the bearing seat 6 through a connecting mechanism, and a pair of angular contact ball bearings 5 used for bearing axial loads and radial loads are arranged in the bearing seat 6 on each belt pulley shaft 3; the upper end face of the thrust ball bearing 9 is in contact with a straight bevel gear sleeve 13, and the lower end face of the thrust ball bearing is in contact with a wheel clamp 11 and is used for bearing axial load; the deep groove ball bearing 10 is arranged between a straight bevel gear sleeve 13 and a wheel clamp 11, is fixed on the upper part of the wheel clamp 11 through a bearing end cover 12 and is used for bearing radial load; bear the radial load and the axial load that keep away barrier robot each part junction received, improve the stability of robot. The connecting mechanism comprises a plurality of groups of mutually matched bolts 7, nuts 8 and washers 25, and the bearing sleeve 4, the bearing seat 6 and the straight bevel gear sleeve 13 are fixed on the bottom plate 24 in sequence; so as to fix the bearing sleeve 4, the bearing seat 6 and the straight bevel gear sleeve 13.
The obstacle avoidance robot further comprises a battery pack, the battery pack is fixed below the bottom plate 24, and the direct current motor 26, the stepping motor 19 and the obstacle avoidance system are powered by the battery pack; four mounting holes which are matched with the diameters of the pulley shafts 3 and four groups of threaded holes for mounting the bearing seats 6 and the straight bevel gear sleeve 13 are formed in the bottom plate 24, and each group of threaded holes are uniformly distributed in a circumferential manner by taking the mounting holes as centers, so that bolts 7 and the pulley shafts 3 can be conveniently mounted; the angular contact ball bearings 5 are installed in a face-to-face mode, are simple in structure and convenient to disassemble and assemble, and simultaneously increase the preload of the bearings.
The gear shaft 23 fixes the small belt wheel 21 through a shaft shoulder at the upper end, and the gear shaft 23 and the small belt wheel 21 are in interference fit, so that the small belt wheel 21 can be stably fixed on the gear shaft 23 and can bear larger axial force, torque and dynamic load after being fixed.
When the obstacle avoidance robot is started, the obstacle avoidance robot defaults to move straight ahead, and meanwhile, the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor 28 starts to work to detect obstacles in the surrounding environment; when the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor 28 detects that an obstacle exists in the advancing path, a high-level pulse signal is transmitted to the single chip microcomputer 29, the control program defaults that the wheels 14 turn right, and at the moment, the robot moves straight to the right (the steering angle of the wheels 14 can be adjusted through the control program, and the default is that the wheels turn right by 90 degrees); when the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor 28 detects that no obstacle exists in the advancing direction, a low-level pulse signal is transmitted to the single chip microcomputer 29, at the moment, the control program controls the wheels 14 to rotate to the angle of the initial position, and the robot continues to advance; when the robot turns right and advances for a certain time or the obstacle is located on the right side, although the robot still keeps turning right and moves, the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor 28 detects the direction of the obstacle again every 1 s: if the signal is changed into a low-level pulse signal, the robot turns to the initial angle to continue to move forwards; if the high-level pulse signals are continuously output for 10s, namely after the robot continuously moves straight to the right for 10s, the robot still has obstacles, the front obstacles are considered to be walls or obstacles on the right side, at the moment, the driving system controls the wheels 14 to rotate to the left, and the robot moves straight to the left; when the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor 28 outputs the low-level pulse signal again, the driving system controls the wheels 14 to rotate to the initial direction to continue to move straight, and the process is repeated, so that the automatic environment sensing is realized, the obstacles are automatically avoided, and the operation is safe, reliable, flexible and quick.
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a keep away barrier robot, includes actuating system, keeps away barrier system, a steering system, supporting mechanism and coupling mechanism, its characterized in that: the driving system comprises a direct current motor, an intermediate gear, a straight gear, a gear shaft, a small belt wheel, a transmission belt, a belt wheel shaft, a first straight bevel gear, a wheel shaft and wheels, wherein the intermediate gear is arranged on an output shaft of the direct current motor and meshed with the straight gear; the driving system drives the intermediate gear through the direct current motor to drive the straight gear meshed with the intermediate gear to rotate, and the small belt pulley coaxially fixed with the straight gear transmits power to the belt pulley at the upper end of the belt pulley shaft through the driving belt, so that the first straight bevel gear fixed at the lower end of the belt pulley shaft drives the meshed bevel gears to rotate to control the forward or backward movement of the wheels;
the steering system comprises a stepping motor, a second straight bevel gear, a straight bevel gear sleeve and a wheel clamp, wherein the stepping motor is fixedly connected to the side surface of the wheel clamp; after receiving a steering signal from the obstacle avoidance system, the stepping motor drives the second straight bevel gear to drive the wheel clamp to rotate by a corresponding angle around the straight bevel gear sleeve, so that the wheel is steered.
2. An obstacle avoidance robot as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the obstacle avoidance system comprises an infrared obstacle avoidance sensor, a single chip microcomputer and a driver, wherein the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor is fixed on a bottom plate and transmits detection signals to the single chip microcomputer through a lead connected with the single chip microcomputer, the single chip microcomputer serves as a control unit and is connected with the driver through a lead, the driver is connected with a stepping motor through a lead, and steering signals sent by the single chip microcomputer control the steering action of the stepping motor after being amplified by the driver.
3. An obstacle avoidance robot as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the battery pack is fixed below the bottom plate, and the direct current motor, the stepping motor and the obstacle avoidance system are powered by the battery pack.
4. An obstacle avoidance robot as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the supporting mechanism comprises a sleeve, a bearing seat, angular contact ball bearings, a thrust ball bearing, a deep groove ball bearing and a bearing end cover, the sleeve is arranged between the belt wheel and the bearing sleeve, the bearing sleeve is fixed on the bearing seat through a connecting mechanism, and a pair of angular contact ball bearings used for bearing axial load and radial load is arranged in the bearing seat on each belt wheel shaft; the upper end surface of the thrust ball bearing is in contact with the straight bevel gear sleeve, and the lower end surface of the thrust ball bearing is in contact with the wheel clamp and is used for bearing axial load; the deep groove ball bearing is arranged between the straight bevel gear sleeve and the wheel clamp, is fixed on the upper part of the wheel clamp through a bearing end cover and is used for bearing radial load.
5. An obstacle avoidance robot according to claim 4, wherein: the bottom plate is provided with four mounting holes matched with the diameters of the pulley shafts and four groups of threaded holes for mounting the bearing seats and the straight bevel gear sleeves, and each group of threaded holes are circumferentially and uniformly distributed by taking the mounting holes as centers.
6. An obstacle avoidance robot according to claim 4, wherein: the connecting mechanism comprises a plurality of groups of mutually matched bolts, nuts and washers, and the bearing sleeve, the bearing seat and the straight bevel gear sleeve are fixed on the bottom plate in sequence.
7. An obstacle avoidance robot as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the driving system drives the intermediate gear through the direct current motor, drives the four straight gears meshed with the intermediate gear to rotate, transmits power to corresponding wheels through a transmission belt, a belt wheel shaft and a wheel shaft, drives the four wheels to rotate independently, and is provided with a steering system on each wheel clamp to control steering action of the corresponding wheel.
8. An obstacle avoidance robot according to claim 4, wherein: the angular contact ball bearings are mounted in a face-to-face manner.
9. An obstacle avoidance robot as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the gear shaft fixes the small belt wheel through a shaft shoulder at the upper end, and the gear shaft and the small belt wheel are in interference fit.
10. An obstacle avoidance robot according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein: the obstacle avoidance system transmits an infrared signal outwards at a fixed frequency, when the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor detects a reflected signal, the obstacle in front is judged, a high-level pulse signal is transmitted to the single chip microcomputer, and the single chip microcomputer controls the stepping motor to enable the wheels to turn; when the infrared obstacle avoidance sensor cannot detect the reflected signal, it is judged that no obstacle exists in front, a low-level pulse signal is transmitted to the single chip microcomputer, the single chip microcomputer controls the stepping motor to enable the wheels to rotate to the initial direction to continue to move forward, the process is repeated to achieve automatic environment sensing, and the obstacle is avoided.
CN201910145859.4A 2019-02-27 2019-02-27 Obstacle avoidance robot Pending CN111619654A (en)

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