CN111174963A - Device and method for monitoring stress of connecting bolt of variable-pitch bearing - Google Patents

Device and method for monitoring stress of connecting bolt of variable-pitch bearing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111174963A
CN111174963A CN201811346959.5A CN201811346959A CN111174963A CN 111174963 A CN111174963 A CN 111174963A CN 201811346959 A CN201811346959 A CN 201811346959A CN 111174963 A CN111174963 A CN 111174963A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
data
monitoring
bolt
remote
stress
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201811346959.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王青华
李冬冬
冯波
谢骊骊
俞健
沈海鸥
邹健
江继波
章正暘
张乃正
居颖峰
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Shanghai Minghua Electric Power Technology and Engineering Co Ltd
Original Assignee
Shanghai Minghua Electric Power Technology and Engineering Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Shanghai Minghua Electric Power Technology and Engineering Co Ltd filed Critical Shanghai Minghua Electric Power Technology and Engineering Co Ltd
Priority to CN201811346959.5A priority Critical patent/CN111174963A/en
Publication of CN111174963A publication Critical patent/CN111174963A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L5/00Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes
    • G01L5/24Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for determining value of torque or twisting moment for tightening a nut or other member which is similarly stressed
    • G01L5/243Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for determining value of torque or twisting moment for tightening a nut or other member which is similarly stressed using washers

Abstract

The invention relates to a device and a method for monitoring stress of a connecting bolt of a variable pitch bearing, wherein the device comprises a force sensor, a data acquisition device, a data storage device, a data transmission device, a remote data monitoring device and a remote state monitoring device, the force sensor measures force data received by the bolt in the working process and transmits the force data to the data acquisition device, the data acquisition device transmits acquired data to the data storage device and simultaneously transmits the acquired data to the remote data monitoring device through the data transmission device, and the remote data monitoring device compares the received data with prestored data and transmits a comparison result to the remote state monitoring device. Compared with the prior art, the method has the advantages of improving the measurement accuracy and robustness and the like under the condition of not damaging the bolt structure.

Description

Device and method for monitoring stress of connecting bolt of variable-pitch bearing
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of new energy, in particular to a device and a method for monitoring stress of a variable-pitch bearing connecting bolt for a variable-pitch wind turbine generator system.
Background
Wind power is one of the important clean energy sources at present, and a fan cabin structure mainly comprises a variable pitch system, a yaw system, a hub, blades and the like, wherein a variable pitch bearing is mainly used for connecting a blade root and the hub, transmitting the load of the blade root to the hub and playing an important role in the variable pitch system. The pitch bearing and the hub are generally connected by high-strength bolts.
The bolt of the type is tested in severe working environment, alternating fatigue load and environmental oxidation corrosion; the bearing limit load is large, and the running power is large; the requirements of precision grade and strength grade are high. Due to the working characteristics of the connecting bolt of the variable-pitch bearing and the hub, the phenomena of bolt fatigue fracture, bolt creep, bolt looseness, delayed fracture and the like can occur, the faults can lead to the stop of the fan, the blade can fall off in serious conditions, and great hidden danger is brought to safety production.
The invention patent with the application number of 201410353570.9 discloses a stress monitoring sensor and a method for a connecting bolt with a fiber grating type structure, wherein elongated grooves are respectively arranged on the left side and the right side of a single screw rod of a common bolt, a micro grating type sensor is respectively implanted in each groove, signals are led out by optical fibers and then pass through small holes formed in corresponding positions of a nut to be led out from the top surface of the nut, and the stress state of the bolt is remotely monitored in real time. The invention patent with the application number of 201710474049.4 discloses a stress monitoring device and a method for a top cover bolt of a pumped storage unit, wherein a piezoelectric force sensor is arranged on the top cover bolt, and a signal conditioning device and a data acquisition device are used for comparing a collected stress value with a prestored stress value and judging the abnormal state of the bolt.
Analysis has been patented to find: (1) the bolt is required to be processed, the structure of the bolt is changed, and potential safety hazards exist; (2) the piezoelectric sensor can only carry out short-time measurement and cannot realize long-term online monitoring.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects in the prior art and provide a device and a method for monitoring the stress of a connecting bolt of a variable-pitch bearing.
The purpose of the invention can be realized by the following technical scheme:
a stress monitoring device for a connecting bolt of a variable-pitch bearing comprises a force sensor, a data acquisition device, a data storage device, a data transmission device, a remote data monitoring device and a remote state monitoring device, wherein the force sensor is connected with the input side of the data acquisition device, the output side of the data acquisition device is respectively connected with the data storage device and the data transmission device, the data transmission device is connected with the remote data monitoring device, and the remote data monitoring device is connected with the remote state monitoring device;
the force sensor measures force data received by the bolt in the working process and transmits the force data to the data acquisition device, the data acquisition device transmits acquired data to the data storage device and transmits the acquired data to the remote data monitoring device through the data transmission device, and the remote data monitoring device compares the received data with prestored data and transmits a comparison result to the remote state monitoring device.
Preferably, the force sensor is a washer type force sensor.
Preferably, the data acquisition device is internally provided with an analog-to-digital conversion circuit for converting an analog signal obtained by the force sensor into a digital signal.
Preferably, the data storage device comprises a local data storage and a remote data storage, wherein the local data storage is directly connected with the data acquisition device, and the remote data storage is connected with the data acquisition device through a data transmission device.
Preferably, the data transmission device comprises a wireless data transmission device and a memory card transmission device which are respectively connected with the data acquisition device, and the wireless data transmission device is connected with the remote data memory;
the wireless data transmission device transmits the acquired data from the data acquisition device positioned at the high altitude to the remote data memory in a wireless transmission mode; the storage card transmission device obtains data storage by storing data to the storage card and using a manual transfer mode.
Preferably, the remote data storage is a ground storage device, and the local data storage transfers data to the remote data storage manually.
Preferably, the remote data monitoring device is a ground data monitoring device, which is a comparator, compares the real-time stress condition of the bolt with the stress condition of the pre-stored healthy condition, and outputs a comparison result for determining the abnormal state of the bolt of the pitch bearing, and specifically includes: and when the real-time stress is obviously larger than the pre-stored stress, determining that the bolt is in an abnormal state, and transmitting the result to a remote state monitoring device.
Preferably, the remote state monitoring device is connected with the remote data monitoring device through an Ethernet;
preferably, the remote state monitoring device receives data monitoring information sent by the remote data monitoring device in an ethernet mode, and performs remote data analysis and state monitoring on the stress state of the pitch bearing bolt.
A monitoring method adopting the force monitoring device for the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing of claim 1, comprising the following steps of:
1) storing and analyzing the force signal acquired in real time to obtain a load spectrum under the working environment of the bolt;
2) meanwhile, a time-frequency domain analysis method and a threshold comparison analysis method are adopted, stress data of the bolt under normal conditions are used as mother data, and an upper threshold and a lower threshold are set;
3) and comparing the bolt data serving as subdata with the parent data in the working process, and sending a pre-alarm signal if the subdata exceeds the threshold range of the parent data.
Preferably, the method for diagnosing the working state of the bolt is to perform time domain and frequency domain comparison analysis and trend analysis on the collected bolt stress data and the data in the normal range to judge whether the hidden trouble exists.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
by adopting the annular force sensor, the robustness of the sensing data acquisition is ensured on the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the sensing data. Under the condition of not damaging the structure of the bolt, the stress condition of the bolt under the working condition can be accurately obtained, a load spectrum is established, the stress condition of the bolt is visually judged, and the tracing of historical data is facilitated. The invention adopts a time-frequency domain analysis method for data, and simultaneously contains time domain and frequency domain information which can accurately judge the bolt fault condition, and adopts a threshold value comparison analysis method and a method for comparing real-time data with normal data to ensure the judgment accuracy. Meanwhile, the service life of the bolt can be analyzed, calculated and predicted by combining a bolt stress load spectrum, and the key function related to the reduction of fan fault loss caused by bolt failure is realized.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a force sensor of the present invention mounted on a bolt, wherein 1 is a stud, 2 is a force sensor, and 3 is a nut;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the force sensor of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention, in which 2 is a force sensor, 4 is a data acquisition device, 5 is a data storage device, 51 is a local data storage device, 52 is a remote data storage device, 6 is a data transmission device, 7 is a remote data monitoring device, and 8 is a remote status monitoring device.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are some, not all, embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without any inventive step based on the embodiments of the present invention, shall fall within the scope of protection of the present invention.
The specific implementation mode of the invention is that the original lining is replaced by the gasket type force sensor on the bolt connected with the hub and the variable-pitch bearing, and the basic principle is that when the fan works, the pulling pressure on the bolt can be received by the annular force sensor, and is acquired by the data acquisition device and stored by the data storage device.
The gasket type force sensor is of a hollow structure. The size of the inner diameter is selected according to the diameter of the bolt which is actually used, the outer diameter is selected to ensure that no interference occurs, and the height is selected according to the allowable maximum height range of the bolt under the actual installation condition.
The specific installation is explained with reference to fig. 1. In the figure, a screw 1 having a diameter of 36mm and a length of 250mm is fitted with a nut 3 of M36, and the washer-type force sensor 2 described above is mounted in place, that is, the hardware is mounted. The method is simple and rapid, does not damage the structure of the bolt, and has higher measurement accuracy and robustness.
The monitoring device is explained with reference to fig. 3. The whole system consists of a force sensor 2, a data acquisition device 4, a data storage device 5, a data transmission device 6, a remote data monitoring device 7 and a remote state monitoring device 8, wherein the data storage device 5 comprises a local data storage 51 and a remote data storage 52. The force sensor 2 is the above-mentioned washer type force sensor, the data acquisition device 4 converts the analog signal acquired by the force sensor 2 into a digital signal, and the digital signal is stored by the data storage device 5 by using different signal transmission modes. The signal transmission method can be divided into wired transmission and wireless transmission. Wireless transmission needs to be configured with wireless nodes, the wireless signal transmission distance is limited by selected software and hardware, but the requirement of the ground for high-altitude data acquisition needs to be met. The wired transmission mode needs to solve the problems of signal wire winding and signal attenuation caused by too long signal wire. The remote data monitoring device 7 collects and draws data actually measured by the sensor into a load spectrum, the real-time load change of the bolt is observed, the working state of the bolt is monitored on the local ground by adopting a corresponding bolt stress monitoring technology, and the remote state monitoring device can meet the monitoring requirement under the remote non-local condition and finally provides a data base for analyzing the bolt failure reason.
The force sensor is connected with the data acquisition device. The type of the sensor is correspondingly selected according to the position to be measured, and a gasket type force sensor is selected for measuring the force applied to the bolt in the working process, so that the structure of the bolt is not changed, and the measuring accuracy can be guaranteed.
The data transfer device 6 mainly refers to a wireless data transfer device and a memory card transfer device. The data transmission device 6 transmits the acquired data from the data acquisition device located at the high altitude to the remote data storage device through wireless data transmission signals such as WiFi. The memory card transmission device obtains data storage by storing data to the memory card and using a manual transfer mode.
The remote data storage device comprises a local data storage 51 and a remote data storage 52. The solution of the local data storage is as follows: the signal acquisition card is arranged in the hub, the storage card is arranged, data is stored in the storage card in a certain storage mode, and working condition data storage is realized in a mode of manually and periodically retrieving the data of the storage card to the local ground, so that the signal acquisition card has the advantage of low cost; the solution of wireless transmission remote storage is as follows: the data collected by the data collecting device is stored on the local ground in a wireless transmission mode, and the real-time monitoring of the bolt state can be realized, but the cost is higher.
In the storage mode of the memory card data, namely the signal data comprises time and pressure, the sampling frequency of the embodiment is 1Hz, the data is stored once in 30 seconds, the sliding average value is calculated according to the set time and is stored in the memory card, and the problem that the memory card is not enough in space and is frequently taken down due to overlarge data volume is solved. The memory card data can be read monthly for analysis.
According to the remote data monitoring device, the bolt actual working condition data in the remote data storage device is transmitted to the computer, and the bolt actual working condition data is analyzed by using the state analysis system based on the computer. If the data transmission mode is manual transfer, monitoring of the stress condition of the bolt within a period of time can be achieved, but real-time monitoring cannot be achieved; if the data transmission mode is wireless network transmission, real-time monitoring of the stress condition of the bolt can be realized.
The state analysis system adopts a time-frequency domain analysis method, and the time-frequency domain analysis result adopts a threshold comparison method to judge the state.
The time-frequency domain analysis method adopts a wavelet packet analysis method, namely, on the basis of wavelet transformation, the high-frequency part which is not subdivided in the wavelet transformation is further decomposed, and optimal basis selection is introduced. The invention utilizes a wavelet packet analysis method to carry out multi-layer wavelet packet transformation on an original signal to obtain a plurality of groups of decomposed signals of different frequency bands.
The threshold comparison method is a method that result data under a normal condition is used as base data, upper and lower 20% floating domains are set as normal domains on the basis of the base data according to an actual condition, and finally result data from other sources are compared with the normal domains, and if the result data exceeds the range of the normal domains, the result data are abnormal data; if the result data does not exceed the range of the normal field, it is normal data.
The remote state monitoring device receives data monitoring information sent by the remote data monitoring device through modes such as Ethernet and the like, and performs remote data analysis and state monitoring on the stress state of the variable-pitch bearing bolt.
The monitoring method for the stress of the bolt is used for acquiring force signals in real time and analyzing data to obtain load spectrums of the bolt in different working condition environments and provide boundary condition data for predicting the service life of the bolt. The working state diagnosis method of the bolt carries out time domain and frequency domain comparison analysis and trend analysis on the collected data and the data in the normal range, and judges whether fault hidden danger exists.
While the invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, the invention is not limited thereto, and various equivalent modifications and substitutions can be easily made by those skilled in the art within the technical scope of the invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the claims.

Claims (10)

1. A stress monitoring device for a connecting bolt of a variable-pitch bearing is characterized by comprising a force sensor, a data acquisition device, a data storage device, a data transmission device, a remote data monitoring device and a remote state monitoring device, wherein the force sensor is connected with the input side of the data acquisition device, the output side of the data acquisition device is respectively connected with the data storage device and the data transmission device, the data transmission device is connected with the remote data monitoring device, and the remote data monitoring device is connected with the remote state monitoring device;
the force sensor measures force data received by the bolt in the working process and transmits the force data to the data acquisition device, the data acquisition device transmits acquired data to the data storage device and transmits the acquired data to the remote data monitoring device through the data transmission device, and the remote data monitoring device compares the received data with prestored data and transmits a comparison result to the remote state monitoring device.
2. The device for monitoring the stress of the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing according to claim 1, wherein the force sensor is a washer-type force sensor.
3. The device for monitoring the stress of the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing according to claim 1, wherein an analog-to-digital conversion circuit for converting an analog signal obtained by the force sensor into a digital signal is arranged in the data acquisition device.
4. The device for monitoring the stress on the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing according to claim 1, wherein the data storage device comprises a local data storage and a remote data storage, wherein the local data storage is directly connected with the data acquisition device, and the remote data storage is connected with the data acquisition device through a data transmission device.
5. The device for monitoring the stress of the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing according to claim 4, wherein the data transmission device comprises a wireless data transmission device and a memory card transmission device which are respectively connected with the data acquisition device, and the wireless data transmission device is connected with a remote data storage;
the wireless data transmission device transmits the acquired data from the data acquisition device positioned at the high altitude to the remote data memory in a wireless transmission mode; the storage card transmission device obtains data storage by storing data to the storage card and using a manual transfer mode.
6. The pitch bearing attachment bolt force monitoring device of claim 4 wherein the remote data storage device is a ground storage device and the local data storage device manually transfers data to the remote data storage device.
7. The device for monitoring the stress on the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing according to claim 4, wherein the remote data monitoring device is a ground data monitoring device, which is a comparator, and compares the real-time stress condition of the bolt with the pre-stored stress condition under the healthy condition, and outputs a comparison result for determining the abnormal state of the bolt of the pitch bearing, and specifically comprises: and when the real-time stress is obviously larger than the pre-stored stress, determining that the bolt is in an abnormal state, and transmitting the result to a remote state monitoring device.
8. The device for monitoring the stress of the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing according to claim 4, wherein the remote state monitoring device is connected with the remote data monitoring device through Ethernet;
the remote state monitoring device receives data monitoring information sent by the remote data monitoring device in an Ethernet mode, and performs remote data analysis and state monitoring on the stress state of the variable-pitch bearing bolt.
9. A monitoring method adopting the device for monitoring the stress of the coupling bolt of the pitch bearing, which is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) storing and analyzing the force signal acquired in real time to obtain a load spectrum under the working environment of the bolt;
2) meanwhile, a time-frequency domain analysis method and a threshold comparison analysis method are adopted, stress data of the bolt under normal conditions are used as mother data, and an upper threshold and a lower threshold are set;
3) and comparing the bolt data serving as subdata with the parent data in the working process, and sending a pre-alarm signal if the subdata exceeds the threshold range of the parent data.
10. The monitoring method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the method for diagnosing the working state of the bolt comprises the step of carrying out time domain and frequency domain comparison analysis and trend analysis on the collected stress data of the bolt and the data in the normal range to judge whether fault hidden danger exists.
CN201811346959.5A 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 Device and method for monitoring stress of connecting bolt of variable-pitch bearing Pending CN111174963A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811346959.5A CN111174963A (en) 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 Device and method for monitoring stress of connecting bolt of variable-pitch bearing

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811346959.5A CN111174963A (en) 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 Device and method for monitoring stress of connecting bolt of variable-pitch bearing

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Publication Number Publication Date
CN111174963A true CN111174963A (en) 2020-05-19

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111678627A (en) * 2020-05-21 2020-09-18 北京交通大学 Stress test method for shield tunnel segment connecting bolt
CN111780910A (en) * 2020-06-28 2020-10-16 缪新建 Wind turbine bolt fastener pressure detection device and abnormality detection method

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111678627A (en) * 2020-05-21 2020-09-18 北京交通大学 Stress test method for shield tunnel segment connecting bolt
CN111780910A (en) * 2020-06-28 2020-10-16 缪新建 Wind turbine bolt fastener pressure detection device and abnormality detection method

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