CN111112105B - Sorting device and method for recognizing sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision - Google Patents

Sorting device and method for recognizing sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111112105B
CN111112105B CN201911357863.3A CN201911357863A CN111112105B CN 111112105 B CN111112105 B CN 111112105B CN 201911357863 A CN201911357863 A CN 201911357863A CN 111112105 B CN111112105 B CN 111112105B
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sorting
litchi
channel
litchis
machine vision
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CN111112105A (en
Inventor
郭嘉明
吕恩利
刘劲
吴丹楠
钟锡裕
曾志雄
郭瑾聪
张宗莹
谢梓颖
谢昕泽
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South China Agricultural University
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South China Agricultural University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B07SEPARATING SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS; SORTING
    • B07CPOSTAL SORTING; SORTING INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES, OR BULK MATERIAL FIT TO BE SORTED PIECE-MEAL, e.g. BY PICKING
    • B07C5/00Sorting according to a characteristic or feature of the articles or material being sorted, e.g. by control effected by devices which detect or measure such characteristic or feature; Sorting by manually actuated devices, e.g. switches
    • B07C5/02Measures preceding sorting, e.g. arranging articles in a stream orientating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B07SEPARATING SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS; SORTING
    • B07CPOSTAL SORTING; SORTING INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES, OR BULK MATERIAL FIT TO BE SORTED PIECE-MEAL, e.g. BY PICKING
    • B07C5/00Sorting according to a characteristic or feature of the articles or material being sorted, e.g. by control effected by devices which detect or measure such characteristic or feature; Sorting by manually actuated devices, e.g. switches
    • B07C5/04Sorting according to size
    • B07C5/08Sorting according to size measured electrically or electronically
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B07SEPARATING SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS; SORTING
    • B07CPOSTAL SORTING; SORTING INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES, OR BULK MATERIAL FIT TO BE SORTED PIECE-MEAL, e.g. BY PICKING
    • B07C5/00Sorting according to a characteristic or feature of the articles or material being sorted, e.g. by control effected by devices which detect or measure such characteristic or feature; Sorting by manually actuated devices, e.g. switches
    • B07C5/36Sorting apparatus characterised by the means used for distribution
    • B07C5/361Processing or control devices therefor, e.g. escort memory
    • B07C5/362Separating or distributor mechanisms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B07SEPARATING SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS; SORTING
    • B07CPOSTAL SORTING; SORTING INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES, OR BULK MATERIAL FIT TO BE SORTED PIECE-MEAL, e.g. BY PICKING
    • B07C5/00Sorting according to a characteristic or feature of the articles or material being sorted, e.g. by control effected by devices which detect or measure such characteristic or feature; Sorting by manually actuated devices, e.g. switches
    • B07C5/36Sorting apparatus characterised by the means used for distribution
    • B07C5/38Collecting or arranging articles in groups

Abstract

The application discloses a sorting device and a sorting method for recognizing the sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision, wherein the device comprises a rack, a conveying mechanism is distributed on the rack, a sample feeding mechanism is arranged above the rear end of the conveying mechanism, and a machine vision device is arranged on the conveying mechanism; the front end of the rack is provided with a sorting mechanism, an upper sorting channel and a lower sorting channel are arranged in the sorting mechanism, and the lower part of the sorting mechanism is provided with an adjusting mechanism; the litchi of waiting to sort gets into conveying mechanism in proper order from the sampling mechanism, carries every litchi in proper order for sorting mechanism through conveying mechanism, surveys the size of litchi kernel through machine vision device, sends the detection result for adjustment mechanism, waits that the litchi that corresponds arrives sorting mechanism after, and adjustment mechanism adjusts the position of letter sorting lower passageway according to the detection result to with the litchi through the letter sorting upper channel or the letter sorting lower channel leading-in to the collection box that corresponds. The fruit pulp cutter is simple in structure, convenient to operate, low in cost, free of damage to fruit pulp and suitable for production lines.

Description

Sorting device and method for recognizing sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision
Technical Field
The application relates to the field of mechanical automation, in particular to a sorting device and method for recognizing the sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision, which can be used for sorting the seeds of all varieties of litchi, longan or other fruits.
Background
China is a big litchi country, and according to the statistics of 12 months in 2018, the total litchi planting area in China is 813 ten thousand mu, and the annual output is 229.6 ten thousand tons. However, litchi is a typical seasonal fruit, the maturation period is concentrated, the preservation period is short, and the phenomenon of over supply and over demand easily occurs in the full production period of litchi, so that part of litchi is lost. Therefore, with the increase of the yield of the litchis, the products are necessarily more and more diversified, the sales ways are necessarily more and more extensive, the litchis are dependent on deep processing, and processing equipment related to the litchis is indispensable in the future. Therefore, advanced science and technology must be relied on at present, wherein the litchi sorting machine is an important subject in firmly researching and developing litchi processing lines.
According to investigation and research, no equipment for sorting litchi before deep processing exists in markets and researches at home and abroad currently. The related longan, apple or small fruit sorting machine is basically a sorting machine which is required to distinguish the sizes of fruits and check the internal quality of the fruits through infrared rays in the market. The step of sorting the sizes of the litchi seeds in the deep processing field of litchi is very beneficial to subsequent peeling, denucleation and the like, so that the precise sorting of the sizes of the litchi seeds is greatly related to the smooth degree of a processing line, the processing cost and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
The application aims to provide a sorting device and method for recognizing the sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision, which are used for accurately sorting litchi seeds with large seeds and small seeds and are beneficial to the subsequent deep processing of the litchi.
In order to realize the task, the following technical scheme is adopted in the application:
a sorting device for identifying the size of litchi seeds based on machine vision comprises a rack, wherein a conveying mechanism is arranged on the rack from back to front, a sample injection mechanism is arranged above the rear end of the conveying mechanism, and a machine vision device is arranged on the conveying mechanism; the front end of the rack is provided with a sorting mechanism, an upper sorting channel and a lower sorting channel are arranged in the sorting mechanism, and the lower part of the sorting mechanism is provided with an adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the lower sorting channel;
the litchi to be sorted sequentially enters the conveying mechanism from the sampling mechanism, each litchi is sequentially conveyed to the sorting mechanism through the conveying mechanism, in the process, the size of a litchi kernel is detected through the machine vision device, the detection result is sent to the adjusting mechanism, and after the corresponding litchi reaches the sorting mechanism, the adjusting mechanism adjusts the position of the sorting lower channel according to the detection result so as to guide the litchi into the corresponding collecting box through the sorting upper channel or the sorting lower channel.
Furthermore, the sample feeding mechanism comprises a vibration disc, a guide outlet is formed in one side surface of the vibration disc, and a pair of guide-out plates with gradually reduced intervals are symmetrically mounted on the guide outlet;
an inclined sliding groove is formed between the outlet and the rear end of the conveying mechanism, a fixing frame is arranged on the sliding groove, a hairbrush is arranged on the fixing frame, and the hairbrush extends into the sliding groove; and a speed reducing plate is arranged in front of the lower end of the sliding chute.
Furthermore, the conveying mechanism comprises a bearing table arranged on the rack, a through cavity is formed in the bottom of the bearing table from the front end to the rear end, and a conveying belt driven by a motor is arranged on the bearing table; the upper part of the conveyor belt is arranged on the table surface of the bearing table, and the lower part of the conveyor belt passes through the through cavity;
the conveyor belt is provided with partition plates at intervals, and the bearing tables at the two sides of the conveyor belt are symmetrically provided with side plates; when the litchis fall from the lower end of the chute onto the conveyor belt, the litchis enter between two adjacent partition plates, and the two adjacent partition plates and the side plates jointly form a moving compartment for accommodating a single litchis.
Further, the machine vision device comprises an industrial camera arranged on one side of the bearing table, an opening is formed in a side plate where the industrial camera is arranged, when litchi between adjacent separation plates on the conveying belt reaches the opening, image data of the litchi are obtained through the industrial camera and are transmitted to a controller in the control box, and the controller judges the size of the litchi seeds according to the image data.
Further, the controller determines the size of the lychee seeds according to the image data, and comprises:
the controller stores diameter data of litchis with different known fruit pits, and sets different diameter data ranges of the sizes of the litchis, including a corresponding diameter data range when the litchis are large pits and a diameter data range when the litchis are small pits;
after the controller acquires image data acquired by the industrial camera, the maximum diameter of the litchi in the image data is obtained by analyzing the image data, the maximum diameter and the data range of different diameters are judged, the size of the litchi kernel corresponding to the diameter data range in which the maximum diameter falls is used as a judgment result, and the result is used as the detection result and sent to the adjusting mechanism.
Furthermore, an upper sorting channel in the sorting mechanism is obliquely arranged at the front end of the rack, and a laser counter is arranged at the upper end of the upper sorting channel; the lower sorting channel is movably and obliquely arranged at the front end of the upper sorting channel, and the collecting boxes are respectively arranged below the lower end of the upper sorting channel and below the lower end of the lower sorting channel;
the adjusting mechanism is used for driving the sorting lower channel to rotate according to the detection result so that the upper end of the sorting lower channel is aligned with or staggered with the lower end of the sorting upper channel, and therefore, the litchi can fall into a corresponding collecting box through the lower end of the sorting upper channel under the staggered condition, or fall into the corresponding collecting box from the lower end of the sorting lower channel after rolling into the sorting lower channel through the sorting upper channel under the aligned condition.
Further, adjustment mechanism is provided with flexible electro-magnet including setting up the mounting bracket in passageway below under the letter sorting on the mounting bracket, flexible electro-magnet's flexible end with the bottom of passageway is connected under the letter sorting, through flexible electro-magnet's flexible for the upper end of passageway aligns or staggers with the lower extreme of passageway on the letter sorting under the letter sorting.
Furthermore, a pair of upper fixing plates arranged at intervals and a pair of lower fixing plates arranged at intervals are sequentially arranged at the front end of the rack, wherein the upper fixing plates are arranged above the lower fixing plates and are shorter than the lower fixing plates, and an upper clamping groove and a lower clamping groove are respectively formed in the upper fixing plates and the lower fixing plates along the length direction;
the sorting upper channel is mounted on the upper fixing plate through the upper rotating shaft, an arc-shaped adjusting groove is formed in the side face of the sorting upper channel, a bolt is assembled in the adjusting groove, and a nut used for fastening the bolt is arranged on the upper clamping groove; the sorting lower channel is installed on a lower fixing plate through a lower rotating shaft, a sliding block is arranged on an installation frame in the adjusting mechanism, and the sliding block is assembled in the lower clamping groove.
Furthermore, a human-computer interaction interface is arranged on the control box and used for opening and closing the conveyor belt, setting the conveying speed of the conveyor belt, controlling the opening and closing and the vibration frequency of the vibration disc and setting the diameter data range; meanwhile, the image data and the counting result of the litchi are displayed on a human-computer interaction interface.
A sorting method for recognizing the sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision comprises the following steps:
s1, setting the transmission speed of a conveyor belt and the vibration frequency of a vibration disc on a human-computer interaction interface of a control box by an operator, setting the diameter data ranges corresponding to large fruit stones and small fruit stones, then starting the conveyor belt and the vibration disc, and then pouring litchis to be sorted into the vibration disc;
s2, enabling the litchis in the vibration disc to sequentially enter the sliding grooves from the space between the guide-out plates under the action of vibration, controlling the sliding speed through the brushes on the sliding grooves, touching the speed reduction plate after reaching the lower end of the sliding grooves, enabling the litchis to fall onto the conveying belt from the lower end of the sliding grooves, enabling the litchis to enter the space between the adjacent separation plates, and enabling the industrial camera to acquire image data of the litchis and transmit the image data to the controller through the industrial camera in the process that the litchis are conveyed to the sorting mechanism along with the movement of the conveying belt;
s3, analyzing the image data of the litchi by the controller to obtain the maximum diameter of the litchi, comparing the maximum diameter with the diameter data range corresponding to the set large fruit stone and small fruit stone to obtain the detection result of whether the litchi is the large fruit stone or the small fruit stone, and sending the detection result to the adjusting mechanism;
s4, when a litchi reaches the front end of the rack, if the litchi detection result is a big kernel, the telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet in the adjusting mechanism contracts to drive the lower sorting channel to rotate, so that the upper end of the lower sorting channel is aligned with the lower end of the upper sorting channel, and the litchi falls into the lower sorting channel from the upper sorting channel and finally falls into a corresponding collecting box from the lower sorting channel; if the litchi detection result is a small kernel, the telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet in the adjusting mechanism extends to enable the upper end of the lower sorting channel to be staggered with the lower end of the upper sorting channel, and the litchi finally falls into the corresponding collecting box from the lower end of the upper sorting channel after entering the upper sorting channel;
and displaying the image data and the counting result of the litchis on a human-computer interaction interface in real time during sorting.
The application has the following technical characteristics:
1. the litchi dropping speed is controlled through the simple brush, so that the litchi precisely drops into each moving compartment of the conveying belt; through the cooperation of industrial camera recognition and the electromagnet, the litchi that is screened out is guaranteed to be collected fast and accurately, and the success rate of follow-up step and the utilization ratio of litchi are improved.
2. The device has no damage to pulp, is simple and quick to sort, small in size, high in precision, low in cost, easy to clean and maintain, suitable for scale application of the litchi processing industry and favorable for solving the problem of litchi late selling.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the overall structure of the apparatus;
fig. 2 is an enlarged schematic view of the structure of the sorting mechanism part.
The reference numbers in the figures illustrate: the device comprises a rack 1, a sample introduction mechanism 2, a vibration disc 21, a guide outlet 22, a guide plate 23, a fixing frame 24, a brush 25, a sliding chute 26, a speed reducing plate 27, a conveying mechanism 3, a bearing table 31, a cavity 32, a conveying belt 33, a partition plate 34, a side plate 35, a movable partition 36, a 37 opening, a machine vision device 4, a sorting mechanism 5, an upper sorting channel 51, a lower sorting channel 52, a laser counter 53, an adjusting groove 54, an adjusting mechanism 6, a telescopic electromagnet 61, a lower fixing plate 62, an upper fixing plate 63, a lower clamping groove 64, an upper clamping groove 65, a mounting frame 66, a lower rotating shaft 67, an upper rotating shaft 68, a screw cap 69, a collecting box 7, a control box 8 and a human-computer interaction interface 81.
Detailed Description
The technical solution in the embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings of the embodiment of the present invention. It is to be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not limiting of the invention. It should be further noted that, for the convenience of description, only some but not all of the relevant aspects of the present invention are shown in the drawings.
As shown in fig. 1, the application provides a sorting device for identifying the size of litchi seeds based on machine vision, which comprises a rack 1, wherein a conveying mechanism 3 is arranged on the rack 1 from back to front, a sample injection mechanism 2 is arranged above the rear end of the conveying mechanism 3, and a machine vision device 4 is arranged on the conveying mechanism 3; the front end of the rack 1 is provided with a sorting mechanism 5, the sorting mechanism 5 is internally provided with an upper sorting channel 51 and a lower sorting channel 52, and the lower part of the sorting mechanism 5 is provided with an adjusting mechanism 6 for adjusting the position of the lower sorting channel 52;
the litchi to be sorted sequentially enters the conveying mechanism 3 from the sampling mechanism 2, each litchi is sequentially conveyed to the sorting mechanism 5 through the conveying mechanism 3, in the process, the size of a litchi kernel is detected through the machine vision device 4, a detection result is sent to the adjusting mechanism 6, and after the corresponding litchi reaches the sorting mechanism 5, the adjusting mechanism 6 adjusts the position of the sorting lower channel 52 according to the detection result so as to guide the litchi into the corresponding collecting box 7 through the sorting upper channel 51 or the sorting lower channel 52.
In one embodiment of the application, as shown in fig. 1, the sample feeding mechanism 2 includes a vibration disc 21, a lead-out port 22 is provided on one side surface of the vibration disc 21, and a pair of lead-out plates 23 with gradually decreasing intervals are symmetrically installed on the lead-out port 22; a vibrator is installed below the vibration plate 21, and the vibration plate 21 is vibrated by the vibrator, so that the litchi fruits to be sorted added therein are continuously guided into the chute 26 from between the guide plates 23 on the guide outlet 22, and the litchi fruits are prevented from being blocked at the guide outlet 22. The pair of leading-out plates 23 simultaneously allow only one litchi to pass through, namely, the distance between the ends of the leading-out plates 23 is larger than the maximum outer diameter of the litchi but smaller than twice the minimum outer diameter of the litchi. The maximum outer diameter and the minimum outer diameter can be set empirically or by measurement.
An inclined sliding groove 26 is formed between the outlet 22 and the rear end of the conveying mechanism 3, a fixed frame 24 is arranged on the sliding groove 26, a brush 25 is arranged on the fixed frame 24, and the brush 25 extends into the sliding groove 26; a speed reduction plate 27 is arranged in front of the lower end of the chute 26. The brush 25 is used for decelerating the litchis falling into the chute 26, and simultaneously, the adjacent litchis can be separated by a certain distance. At the lowest end of the chute 26, in order to avoid the litchi from rushing out of the chute 26 too far and being difficult to control, the speed reducing plate 27 is arranged in front of the lower end of the chute 26, the litchi is rolled down to the lower end of the chute 26, then the litchi is sharply reduced after touching the speed reducing plate 27 in front, and then the litchi falls down to the conveyor belt 33 of the conveying mechanism 3 from the gap between the speed reducing plate 27 and the lower end of the chute 26.
As shown in fig. 1, the conveying mechanism 3 includes a bearing table 31 mounted on the frame 1, a through cavity 32 is formed in the bottom of the bearing table 31 from the front end to the rear end, a driving roller driven by a motor is mounted at the front end of the bearing table 31, a driven roller is mounted at the rear end of the bearing table, and a conveying belt 33 is arranged between the driving roller and the driven roller; wherein the upper part of the conveyor belt 33 is on the top of the bearing table 31, and the lower part thereof passes through the through cavity 32. The conveyor belt 33 is provided with partition plates 34 at intervals, and the partition plates 34 are vertical to the moving direction of the conveyor belt 33; the bearing tables 31 at two sides of the conveyor belt 33 are symmetrically provided with side plates 35; when the litchis fall from the lower end of the chute 26 onto the conveyor 33, they enter between two adjacent partitions 34, and the two adjacent partitions 34 and the side plates 35 together form a moving compartment 36 for accommodating individual litchis.
In this embodiment, the racks 1 are provided in a pair, and the bearing platform 31 is a rectangular platform and is erected on the pair of racks 1. Because the partition plate 34 is arranged on the conveyor belt 33 in the application, a certain space is needed on the lower portion of the conveyor belt 33, the through cavity 32 is formed in the bottom of the bearing table 31, and the lower portion of the conveyor belt 33 cannot be affected when passing through the through cavity 32. The upper part of the conveyor belt 33 passes through the surface of the bearing table 31, and every two adjacent partition plates 34 on the conveyor belt 33 are used for accommodating litchis. Since the outlet plate 23 of the outlet 22 of the vibration plate 21 is designed to allow only one litchi to fall at a time, only one litchi is located between the adjacent partition plates 34. After the litchis fall between the partition plates 34, the litchis are driven to be conveyed from the rear end of the rack 1 to the front end of the rack 1 along with the movement of the conveyor belt 33 and are supplied to the sorting mechanism 5. During the moving process, because the side plates 35 on the two sides limit, the litchis can be limited in the moving compartment 36 and cannot fall off from the two sides of the conveyor belt 33. The conveyor belt 33 is driven by a motor through a driving roller, the motor is a variable frequency motor, the motor is connected to a controller, the controller adjusts the moving speed of the conveyor belt 33 by controlling the rotating speed of the motor, and the speed can be adjusted through a man-machine interaction interface 81.
Referring to fig. 1, in the embodiment, the machine vision device 4 includes an industrial camera installed on one side of the bearing table 31, an opening 37 is opened on a side plate 35 where the industrial camera is installed, when a litchi on the conveyor belt 33 between adjacent partition plates 34 reaches the opening 37, image data of the litchi is acquired by the industrial camera and transmitted to the controller in the control box 8, and the controller determines the size of the litchi kernel according to the image data. In practical application, the frequency of the image data collected by the industrial camera should be consistent with the frequency of the moving partition 36 passing through the opening 37 of the side plate 35, so that the image data including the litchi can be accurately collected by the industrial camera every time the litchi between adjacent partition plates 34 passes through the opening 37 of the industrial camera.
In this embodiment, the determining, by the controller, the size of the lychee seed according to the image data includes:
the controller stores diameter data of litchis with different known fruit pits, and sets different diameter data ranges of the sizes of the litchis, including a corresponding diameter data range when the litchis are large pits and a diameter data range when the litchis are small pits; after the controller acquires the image data acquired by the industrial camera, the maximum diameter of the litchi in the image data is obtained by analyzing the image data, the maximum diameter and the data range of different diameters are judged, the size of the litchi kernel corresponding to the diameter data range in which the maximum diameter falls is used as a judgment result, and the result is used as the detection result and is sent to the adjusting mechanism 6.
After image data of a litchi is collected, firstly extracting the outline of the litchi image through image analysis, for example, in MATLAB software, and finding out the distance between two points with the largest interval on the outline as the maximum diameter of the litchi, wherein if the maximum diameter falls in the corresponding diameter data range when the maximum diameter is in a large kernel, the litchi is a large-kernel litchi; otherwise, the litchi is small-kernel litchi. The judgment result of the controller is finally sent to the adjusting mechanism 6 as the actuating basis of the sorting mechanism 5. In this application, the processor may be, for example, a single chip microcomputer, or an industrial PLC controller, or the like.
In the application, the sorting upper channel 51 in the sorting mechanism 5 is obliquely arranged at the front end of the rack 1, and the upper end of the sorting upper channel 51 is provided with a laser counter 53 for counting the passing litchis; the lower sorting channel 52 is movably and obliquely arranged at the front end of the upper sorting channel 51, and the collecting boxes 7 are respectively arranged below the lower end of the upper sorting channel 51 and below the lower end of the lower sorting channel 52; the adjusting mechanism 6 is used for driving the sorting lower channel 52 to rotate according to the detection result, so that the upper end of the sorting lower channel 52 is aligned with or staggered with the lower end of the sorting upper channel 51, thereby enabling the litchi to fall into the corresponding collecting box 7 through the lower end of the sorting upper channel 51 under the staggered condition, or fall into the corresponding collecting box 7 from the lower end of the sorting lower channel 52 after rolling into the sorting lower channel 52 by the sorting upper channel 51 under the aligned condition.
That is, if the detection result is a large-kernel litchi chinensis fruit, the adjusting mechanism 6 is used to align the lower end of the upper sorting channel 51 and the lower sorting channel 52, and the litchi chinensis fruit sequentially rolls down the upper sorting channel 51 and the lower sorting channel 52 to the corresponding large-kernel litchi fruit collecting box 7 below the lower sorting channel 52. If the detection result is a small fruit stone, the sorting lower lane 52 is rotated by the adjusting mechanism 6 to stagger the two sorting lanes. After staggering, when the litchis roll to the lower end of the upper sorting channel 51 and cannot continuously roll to the lower sorting channel 52, the litchis roll to the lower end of the upper sorting channel 51 to fall out of the upper sorting channel 51 and fall into the small-kernel litchis collecting box 7 below.
Specifically, since the moving speed of the conveyor belt 33 is fixed, the time T at which the litchi is conveyed from the position of the industrial camera to the front end of the rack 1 is fixed. Therefore, after a certain litchi passes through the industrial camera to acquire image data, and then the litchi is considered to reach the front end of the rack 1 after the time T, according to the judgment result, the detection result is sent at the time T after the industrial camera acquires the certain litchi image data, so that if the judgment result is a large fruit core, the lower sorting channel 52 can be staggered in advance, and the litchi can be sorted accurately and correspondingly. Then, if the detection result is large-kernel litchi, the counting result of the laser counter 53 at time T is added by 1 to the number of large-kernel litchi, otherwise, the number of small-kernel litchi is added by 1, and the counting result and the image data of litchi can be displayed on the human-computer interaction interface 81 in real time.
Alternatively, as shown in fig. 2, in one embodiment, the adjusting mechanism 6 includes a mounting bracket 66 disposed below the sorting lower channel 52, a telescopic electromagnet 61 is disposed on the mounting bracket 66, a telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet 61 is connected with a bottom of the sorting lower channel 52, and an upper end of the sorting lower channel 52 is aligned with or staggered with a lower end of the sorting upper channel 51 by the telescopic electromagnet 61.
Specifically, a pair of upper fixing plates 63 arranged at intervals and a pair of lower fixing plates 62 arranged at intervals are sequentially arranged at the front end of the rack 1, wherein the upper fixing plates 63 are above the lower fixing plates 62 and have a length smaller than that of the lower fixing plates 62, and an upper clamping groove 65 and a lower clamping groove 64 are respectively formed in the upper fixing plates 63 and the lower fixing plates 62 along the length direction.
The sorting upper channel 51 is mounted on the upper fixing plate 63 through an upper rotating shaft 68, an arc-shaped adjusting groove 54 is formed in the side surface of the sorting upper channel 51, a bolt is assembled in the adjusting groove 54, and a nut 69 for fastening the bolt is arranged on the upper clamping groove 65. The purpose of the upper rotating shaft 68 is to facilitate debugging during installation, and after the sorting upper channel 51 is rotationally adjusted to a proper angle, the upper channel 51 is locked by the nut 69 to fix the sorting upper channel 51, so that the upper channel can be correspondingly adjusted according to different batches of litchis, the positions of the collecting boxes 7 and the like.
The lower sorting channel 52 is mounted on the lower fixing plate 62 through a lower rotating shaft 67, and a slide block is arranged on a mounting frame 66 in the adjusting mechanism 6 and is assembled in the lower clamping groove 64; after passageway 51 installation is fixed in the letter sorting, the position of debugging flexible electro-magnet 61 can promote mounting bracket 66 and utilize the slider to slide to suitable position in draw-in groove 64 down for flexible electro-magnet 61 extends the back, and the letter sorting passageway 52 can stagger enough big interval through pivot 67 rotation down between the rotatory time and the letter sorting passageway 51 lower extreme down, makes the litchis can drop in the collecting box 7 that corresponds through this interval.
Referring to fig. 1, in the present application, the control box 8 is disposed on a side surface of the rack 1, and mainly includes a related control circuit, a switch circuit, a controller, a human-computer interface 81, and the like. The human-computer interaction interface 81 is used for opening and closing the conveyor belt 33, setting the conveying speed of the conveyor belt 33, controlling the opening and closing of the vibration disc 21 and the vibration frequency, and setting the diameter data range; meanwhile, the image data of the litchis and the counting result are displayed on a human-computer interaction interface 81.
On the basis of the technical scheme, the application also provides a sorting method for identifying the size of the litchi seeds based on machine vision, which comprises the following steps:
s1, the operator sets the transmission speed of the conveyor belt 33 and the vibration frequency of the vibration disc 21 on the human-computer interface 81 of the control box 8, sets the diameter data ranges corresponding to the large and small fruit stones by taking the diameter data of the litchi fruits with known fruit stone size pre-stored in the controller as reference and combining the general size of the litchi fruits to be sorted in the current batch, then opens the conveyor belt 33 and the vibration disc 21, and then pours the litchi fruits to be sorted into the vibration disc 21.
S2, the litchi in the vibrating tray sequentially enters the sliding groove 26 from the position between the guide plates 23 under the action of vibration, the sliding speed is controlled by the hairbrush 25 on the sliding groove 26, the litchi reaches the lower end of the sliding groove 26, then touches the speed reduction plate 27, falls onto the conveying belt 33 from the lower end of the sliding groove 26, enters the position between the adjacent separation plates 34, and along with the movement of the conveying belt 33, in the process of conveying the litchi to the sorting mechanism 5, the litchi passes through the industrial camera, and the industrial camera acquires image data of the litchi and transmits the image data to the controller.
And S3, analyzing the image data of the litchi by the controller to obtain the maximum diameter of the litchi, comparing the maximum diameter with the diameter data range corresponding to the set large fruit stone and small fruit stone, obtaining the detection result of whether the litchi is the large fruit stone or the small fruit stone, and sending the detection result to the adjusting mechanism 6.
S4, when a litchi reaches the front end of the rack 1, if the litchi detection result is a big kernel, the telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet 61 in the adjusting mechanism 6 contracts to drive the lower sorting channel 52 to rotate, so that the upper end of the lower sorting channel 52 is aligned with the lower end of the upper sorting channel 51, and the litchi falls into the lower sorting channel 52 from the upper sorting channel 51 and finally falls into the corresponding collection box 7 from the lower end of the lower sorting channel 52; if the detection result of the litchi is a small kernel, the telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet 61 in the adjusting mechanism 6 extends to enable the upper end of the lower sorting channel 52 to be staggered with the lower end of the upper sorting channel 51, and the litchi finally falls into the corresponding collection box 7 from the lower end of the upper sorting channel 51 after entering the upper sorting channel 51; and displaying the image data of the litchis and the counting result on the human-computer interaction interface 81 in real time while sorting.
The above embodiments are only used to illustrate the technical solutions of the present application, and not to limit the same; although the present application has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it should be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments may still be modified, or some technical features may be equivalently replaced; such modifications and substitutions do not substantially depart from the spirit and scope of the embodiments of the present application and are intended to be included within the scope of the present application.

Claims (6)

1. A sorting device for identifying the size of a litchi kernel based on machine vision is characterized by comprising a rack (1), wherein a conveying mechanism (3) is arranged on the rack (1) from back to front, a sample injection mechanism (2) is arranged above the rear end of the conveying mechanism (3), and a machine vision device (4) is arranged on the conveying mechanism (3); the front end of the rack (1) is provided with a sorting mechanism (5), an upper sorting channel (51) and a lower sorting channel (52) are arranged in the sorting mechanism (5), and the lower part of the sorting mechanism (5) is provided with an adjusting mechanism (6) for adjusting the position of the lower sorting channel (52);
litchi to be sorted sequentially enters the conveying mechanism (3) from the sampling mechanism (2), each litchi is sequentially conveyed to the sorting mechanism (5) through the conveying mechanism (3), in the process, the size of a litchi kernel is detected through the machine vision device (4), a detection result is sent to the adjusting mechanism (6), and after the corresponding litchi reaches the sorting mechanism (5), the adjusting mechanism (6) adjusts the position of the sorting lower channel (52) according to the detection result so as to guide the litchi into the corresponding collecting box (7) through the sorting upper channel (51) or the sorting lower channel (52);
the sample feeding mechanism (2) comprises a vibration disc (21), a guide outlet (22) is formed in one side face of the vibration disc (21), and a pair of guide plates (23) with gradually reduced intervals are symmetrically mounted on the guide outlet (22);
an inclined sliding groove (26) is formed between the outlet (22) and the rear end of the conveying mechanism (3), a fixed frame (24) is arranged on the sliding groove (26), a brush (25) is arranged on the fixed frame (24), and the brush (25) extends into the sliding groove (26); a speed reducing plate (27) is arranged in front of the lower end of the sliding chute (26);
the conveying mechanism (3) comprises a bearing table (31) arranged on the rack (1), a through cavity (32) is formed in the bottom of the bearing table (31) from the front end to the rear end, and a conveying belt (33) driven by a motor is arranged on the bearing table (31); wherein the upper part of the conveyor belt (33) is arranged on the table surface of the bearing table (31), and the lower part of the conveyor belt passes through the through cavity (32);
partition plates (34) are arranged on the conveyor belt (33) at intervals, and side plates (35) are symmetrically arranged on the bearing tables (31) on the two sides of the conveyor belt (33); when the litchis fall from the lower end of the chute (26) onto the conveyor belt (33), the litchis enter between two adjacent partition plates (34), and the two adjacent partition plates (34) and the side plate (35) jointly form a moving compartment (36) for accommodating single litchis;
the machine vision device (4) comprises an industrial camera arranged on one side of the bearing table (31), an opening (37) is formed in a side plate (35) where the industrial camera is arranged, when litchi between adjacent separation plates (34) on the conveying belt (33) reaches the opening (37), image data of the litchi are obtained through the industrial camera and transmitted to a controller in the control box (8), and the controller judges the size of a litchi kernel according to the image data;
the controller judges the size of the litchi kernel according to the image data, and the method comprises the following steps:
the controller stores diameter data of litchis with different known fruit pits, and sets different diameter data ranges of the sizes of the litchis, including a corresponding diameter data range when the litchis are large pits and a diameter data range when the litchis are small pits;
after the controller acquires image data acquired by the industrial camera, the maximum diameter of the litchi in the image data is obtained by analyzing the image data, the maximum diameter and the data range of different diameters are judged, the size of the litchi kernel corresponding to the diameter data range in which the maximum diameter falls is used as a judgment result, and the result is used as the detection result and sent to the adjusting mechanism (6).
2. The litchi kernel size sorting device based on machine vision identification according to claim 1, wherein the upper sorting channel (51) in the sorting mechanism (5) is obliquely arranged at the front end of the rack (1), and the upper end of the upper sorting channel (51) is provided with a laser counter (53); the lower sorting channel (52) is movably and obliquely arranged at the front end of the upper sorting channel (51), and the collecting boxes (7) are respectively arranged below the lower end of the upper sorting channel (51) and below the lower end of the lower sorting channel (52);
the adjusting mechanism (6) is used for driving the sorting lower channel (52) to rotate according to the detection result so that the upper end of the sorting lower channel (52) is aligned or staggered with the lower end of the sorting upper channel (51), and therefore, the litchi can fall into the corresponding collecting box (7) through the lower end of the sorting upper channel (51) under the staggered condition, or fall into the corresponding collecting box (7) from the lower end of the sorting lower channel (52) after rolling into the sorting lower channel (52) from the sorting upper channel (51) under the aligned condition.
3. The litchi kernel size sorting device based on machine vision recognition according to claim 2, wherein the adjusting mechanism (6) comprises a mounting frame (66) arranged below the sorting lower channel (52), a telescopic electromagnet (61) is arranged on the mounting frame (66), a telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet (61) is connected with the bottom of the sorting lower channel (52), and the telescopic electromagnet (61) is used for stretching so that the upper end of the sorting lower channel (52) is aligned with or staggered with the lower end of the sorting upper channel (51).
4. The sorting device for identifying the sizes of the lychee seeds based on the machine vision as claimed in claim 3, wherein a pair of upper fixing plates (63) arranged at intervals and a pair of lower fixing plates (62) arranged at intervals are sequentially arranged at the front end of the rack (1), wherein the upper fixing plates (63) are arranged above the lower fixing plates (62) and have lengths smaller than that of the lower fixing plates (62), and upper clamping grooves (65) and lower clamping grooves (64) are respectively arranged on the upper fixing plates (63) and the lower fixing plates (62) along the length direction;
the sorting upper channel (51) is mounted on the upper fixing plate (63) through an upper rotating shaft (68), an arc-shaped adjusting groove (54) is formed in the side face of the sorting upper channel (51), a bolt is assembled in the adjusting groove (54), and a nut (69) used for fastening the bolt is arranged on the upper clamping groove (65); the sorting lower channel (52) is installed on a lower fixing plate (62) through a lower rotating shaft (67), a sliding block is arranged on an installation frame (66) in the adjusting mechanism (6), and the sliding block is assembled in the lower clamping groove (64).
5. The sorting device for identifying the size of the lychee seeds based on the machine vision as claimed in claim 1, wherein the control box (8) is provided with a human-computer interface (81), the human-computer interface (81) is used for opening and closing the conveyor belt (33) and setting the conveying speed of the conveyor belt (33), controlling the opening and closing and the vibration frequency of the vibration disc (21) and setting the diameter data range; meanwhile, the image data and the counting result of the litchi are displayed on a human-computer interaction interface (81).
6. A sorting method for recognizing the sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision by using the sorting device as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5 is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1, setting the transmission speed of a conveyor belt and the vibration frequency of a vibration disc on a human-computer interaction interface of a control box by an operator, setting the diameter data ranges corresponding to large fruit stones and small fruit stones, then starting the conveyor belt and the vibration disc, and then pouring litchis to be sorted into the vibration disc;
s2, enabling the litchis in the vibration disc to sequentially enter the sliding grooves from the space between the guide-out plates under the action of vibration, controlling the sliding speed through the brushes on the sliding grooves, touching the speed reduction plate after reaching the lower end of the sliding grooves, enabling the litchis to fall onto the conveying belt from the lower end of the sliding grooves, enabling the litchis to enter the space between the adjacent separation plates, and enabling the industrial camera to acquire image data of the litchis and transmit the image data to the controller through the industrial camera in the process that the litchis are conveyed to the sorting mechanism along with the movement of the conveying belt;
s3, analyzing the image data of the litchi by the controller to obtain the maximum diameter of the litchi, comparing the maximum diameter with the diameter data range corresponding to the set large fruit stone and small fruit stone to obtain the detection result of whether the litchi is the large fruit stone or the small fruit stone, and sending the detection result to the adjusting mechanism;
s4, when a litchi reaches the front end of the rack, if the litchi detection result is a big kernel, the telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet in the adjusting mechanism contracts to drive the lower sorting channel to rotate, so that the upper end of the lower sorting channel is aligned with the lower end of the upper sorting channel, and the litchi falls into the lower sorting channel from the upper sorting channel and finally falls into a corresponding collecting box from the lower sorting channel; if the litchi detection result is a small kernel, the telescopic end of the telescopic electromagnet in the adjusting mechanism extends to enable the upper end of the lower sorting channel to be staggered with the lower end of the upper sorting channel, and the litchi finally falls into the corresponding collecting box from the lower end of the upper sorting channel after entering the upper sorting channel;
and displaying the image data and the counting result of the litchis on a human-computer interaction interface in real time during sorting.
CN201911357863.3A 2019-12-25 2019-12-25 Sorting device and method for recognizing sizes of litchi seeds based on machine vision Active CN111112105B (en)

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