CN110869156A - Welding method of large-sized cylinder section - Google Patents

Welding method of large-sized cylinder section Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110869156A
CN110869156A CN201780092976.8A CN201780092976A CN110869156A CN 110869156 A CN110869156 A CN 110869156A CN 201780092976 A CN201780092976 A CN 201780092976A CN 110869156 A CN110869156 A CN 110869156A
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China
Prior art keywords
welding
seam
welded
cylinder
welding method
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CN201780092976.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张东辉
吕军
谢桂芝
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Air Liquide SA
LAir Liquide SA pour lEtude et lExploitation des Procedes Georges Claude
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LAir Liquide SA pour lEtude et lExploitation des Procedes Georges Claude
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Application filed by LAir Liquide SA pour lEtude et lExploitation des Procedes Georges Claude filed Critical LAir Liquide SA pour lEtude et lExploitation des Procedes Georges Claude
Priority to PCT/CN2017/092191 priority Critical patent/WO2019006739A1/en
Publication of CN110869156A publication Critical patent/CN110869156A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/02Seam welding; Backing means; Inserts

Abstract

A welding method of large-scale cylinder section with simple operation, according to the preset inner diameter cutting of large-scale cylinder, groove machining, welding along the longitudinal weld seam, and pre-bending, rolling into cylinder sections, optionally, at least two cylinder sections are combined into cylinder sections, and circumferential welding is carried out along the circumferential weld seam; and calculating the welding shrinkage compensation length of the reserved longitudinal welding seam and adjusting the welding sequence of the circumferential welding seam through an empirical formula, and regulating and controlling the welding shrinkage deformation. According to different plate thicknesses, a unique welding sequence is adopted to weld the circumferential weld, the shrinkage of the inner diameter of the cylinder section caused by the circumferential weld is effectively reduced on the premise of ensuring the welding quality, the welded inner diameter of the large cylinder section meets the requirement of a set size, and the size deviation of the inner diameter of the cylinder section is effectively controlled.

Description

Welding method of large-sized cylinder section Technical Field
The invention relates to a welding method of a large-sized cylinder section, in particular to a welding method capable of regulating and controlling welding shrinkage deformation. The method is suitable for the preparation process with higher requirement on the uniformity of the inner diameter size of the cylinder section.
Background
Modern welding structures are becoming larger and more complicated, and the specifications required by various components are becoming larger and more strict. During the welding process, each part of the large-scale component is deformed due to the technological processes of preheating, welding and the like, and the relative position and form relationship among the parts are changed. In order to ensure the design requirements of the product, the detection and regulation must be carried out in the welding manufacturing process. The welding deformation monitoring and correction of large thick-wall pipelines are more and more difficult, and the method becomes a main reason for influencing the stability of welding components, reducing the service life of weldments and causing the damage of welding structures. The traditional welding deformation monitoring method generally adopts devices such as a dial indicator and a reference contrast or a displacement sensor, and has a plurality of defects in actual measurement, particularly when deformation detection is carried out on a large component. In the assembly process of large components with high precision, the requirement of installation precision is generally met by adopting a measuring method of optical centering. The optical centering needs to manufacture a center tool, the accuracy requirement is met by establishing the sectional installation of the central axis, and the cost is inevitably increased by manufacturing and installing the center tool.
The welding process is actually a thermal process of heating and cooling and solidifying a local area of a weldment, but due to an uneven temperature field, the weldment is unevenly expanded and contracted, so that welding stress is generated in the weldment, factors for controlling the contraction and deformation degree mainly include the restraint action of ① external clamps, the internal restraint of ② large-sized weldment, the rigidity of ③ weldment, the welding heat input and welding speed of ④ and the cooling speed of ⑤, the interaction of the factors is very complex, the contraction and deformation of the simplest welding seam are difficult to calculate and predict, but some measures and process steps can be adopted to control the contraction and deformation, and common welding deformation comprises (1) longitudinal contraction deformation, (2) transverse contraction deformation, (3) angular deformation, (4) bending deformation, (5) twisting deformation and (6) wave deformation.
At present, the manufacturing process of the large cylinder section is generally as follows: the method comprises the following steps of steel plate marking, cutting and machining, beveling machine machining, pre-bending, arc-shaped steel plate rolling, tile correction, tile platform group rounding, longitudinal seam welding, deformation correction, stiffening ring installation, welding, cylinder section group pairing to form a cylinder section, circular seam welding, inspection, corrosion prevention and the like. Limited by the size of the steel plate and transportation conditions, the large cylinder is often required to be welded for many times in the manufacturing process, and when the diameter of the cylinder section is larger, more than one longitudinal welding line is possible; when the length of the cylinder section is large, the longitudinally welded cylinder sections are often required to be corrected, and then two or more cylinder sections are assembled and welded into the cylinder section on the roller frame through the circular seams of the cylinder wall. In the welding connection of thick steel plates, the weld seam needs to be welded in multiple layers. Thus, in addition to the longitudinal and transverse welding stresses, there are also welding stresses in the thickness direction of the steel sheet, which three-dimensional stresses will greatly reduce the plasticity of the connection. During welding, uneven heating and cooling, and shrinkage of the weld zone in the longitudinal and transverse directions, results in local bulging, bending, distortion, torsion, etc. of the components. Welding deformation includes longitudinal and transverse shrinkage, bending deformation, angular deformation, twisting deformation, etc., and is usually a combination of several kinds of deformation. Especially for thick steel plates, the depth of a welding seam is very deep, a multi-pass welding method is adopted for welding, and in the welding process, because each pass of welding generates certain angular deformation, transverse shrinkage deformation is continuously accumulated through multi-pass welding, and large angular deformation of the welded steel plates is caused. In order to reduce the shrinkage deformation of the tank wall plate in the welding process, certain technological measures are adopted to reduce the shrinkage of the welding seam. Under the existing conditions, the most effective process is rigid fixation, i.e. the local rigidity of the structure is increased to limit the shrinkage of the weld and heat affected zone of the tank wall panel.
In order to reduce welding stress and welding deformation, a reasonable welding sequence is adopted, and thick welding seams are welded in a layered mode along the thickness direction. The welding sequence should be selected so that each weld seam has the possibility of freely shrinking during assembly welding. The weld with the largest length compensated for by shrinkage should be welded first because the rigidity of the structure is gradually increased during the welding process, so that the resistance to the weld with the largest length is smaller during shrinkage, and the stress after welding is smaller.
In several common welding methods for welding engineering equipment and steel structures, except electric slag, submerged arc welding has the largest heat input, and under the same conditions of other conditions such as the area of the section of a welding seam, the shrinkage deformation is the largest. However, submerged arc welding has been widely used so far because of its stable welding quality, high welding productivity, no arc light, and little smoke.
The chinese invention patent CN104148773B discloses a method for controlling tailor-welding deformation of a large-scale metal tube sheet, wherein the diameter of the large-scale metal tube sheet is 5000 mm-10000 mm, and the thickness is 60 mm-400 mm; the material is the tailor welding of GB150.2 steel plates; the pipe plate blank is welded by 2-3 steel plates in a splicing mode, and an asymmetric narrow-gap U-shaped groove is adopted in a welding groove type. The invention controls the tailor-welding deformation of the tube plate and reduces the metal consumption of the tube plate blank.
Disclosure of the invention
The invention aims to provide a large-scale cylinder section welding method which is simple to operate, the reserved welding shrinkage compensation length is calculated through an empirical formula, the welding sequence is adjusted, the welding shrinkage deformation is regulated, the welding deformation of a circumferential weld and a longitudinal weld is reduced on the premise of ensuring the welding quality, the size deviation of the inner diameter of a cylinder section is reduced, and the design requirement of the cylinder section is met.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a welding method of a large-scale cylinder section, wherein the large-scale cylinder section is formed by welding a plurality of plates, is characterized by sequentially comprising the following steps of: according to the preset inner diameter D of the large cylinderiCutting, groove machining, welding along a longitudinal welding seam, pre-bending and rolling to form a cylinder section, wherein the plate length L is (Di + △ D + T) pi + S N, △ D is the diameter size tolerance, T is the plate thickness, N is the number of the longitudinal welding seams, S is the shrinkage compensation length, and S is more than or equal to 1.0mm and less than or equal to 2.0mm, and optionally, forming at least two cylinder sections into a cylinder section and performing circumferential welding along a circumferential welding seam.
Preferably, when the thickness of the plate is more than or equal to 5mm and less than 12mm, the outer circular seam is welded firstly, and then the inner circular seam is welded.
Preferably, when the thickness of the plate is greater than or equal to 12mm to less than or equal to 20mm, the inner circular seam is welded, then the outer circular seam is welded, and finally the inner circular seam is welded.
Preferably, the welding method is submerged arc welding.
Preferably, the shrinkage compensation length S is preferably 1.5 mm.
Preferably, the material of the large cylinder segment includes, but is not limited to, carbon structural steel, austenitic stainless steel, low alloy structural steel, heat resistant steel, composite steel, nickel-based alloy, and copper-based alloy.
Preferably, the material of the large cylindrical section is austenitic stainless steel.
The invention has the following beneficial effects: the welding shrinkage compensation length of the reserved longitudinal welding line and the welding sequence of the adjusting circumferential welding line are calculated through an empirical formula, the welding shrinkage deformation is regulated and controlled, and the welding quality is guaranteed.
The method is simple and convenient to operate, and utilizes an original empirical formula that the integral length L of the plate is (Di + △ D + T) pi + S N (wherein △ D is the dimensional tolerance of the diameter, T is the plate thickness, N is the number of longitudinal welding seams, S is the shrinkage compensation length, S is more than or equal to 1.0mm and less than or equal to 2.0mm, preferably, the inner diameter of the prepared large-scale cylindrical section is adjusted for submerged arc welding, and S is 1.5mm), so that the influence of the welding shrinkage of the longitudinal welding seams on the inner diameter of the cylindrical section is adjusted.
The invention has wide application, adopts a unique welding sequence to weld the circumferential weld according to different plate thicknesses, effectively reduces the inner diameter shrinkage of the cylinder section caused by the circumferential weld, ensures that the inner diameter of the large-sized cylinder section after welding meets the requirement of a set size, and effectively controls the size deviation of the inner diameter of the cylinder section.
Brief description of the drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a cylindrical segment with an annular weld.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention.
1-cylinder section, 2-cylinder section, 3-longitudinal welding line, 4-circumferential welding line, 5-measuring tape measuring point, 6-circumferential welding line contraction measuring point, 7-pie filling material and T-plate thickness.
Best mode for carrying out the invention
The welding method of a large cylinder according to the present invention will be described with reference to examples.
The ring piece is widely used in the industries of large-scale chemical industry, metallurgy, aerospace and the like. The low-pressure tower, the medium-pressure tower, the high-pressure tower and other fractionating towers in the air separation device, various adsorption towers in the HYCO hydrogen production device, the liquid nitrogen washing device and the chemical plant device, and the barrels of the fractionating towers and the like are common large cylindrical rings. As shown in fig. 1, the large cylinder is mostly formed by welding a plurality of plates, and the plate material includes, but is not limited to, carbon structural steel, austenitic stainless steel, low alloy structural steel, heat resistant steel, composite steel, nickel-based alloy, and copper-based alloy. According to a normal procedure, after the longitudinal welding seam (3) is welded, measuring the outer circumference of the cylinder section at a measuring point (5) of a measuring tape, finding that the outer circumference of the cylinder section is shrunk compared with the plate length before welding, and if the welding shrinkage length is not reserved, reducing the inner diameter of the cylinder by shrinkage of the longitudinal welding seam; after the circumferential weld is welded, the outer circumference of the cylindrical section is measured at a circumferential weld contraction measuring point (6) by using a measuring tape, and the welding contraction is found to cause bottleneck-shaped deformation near the circumferential weld (4), so that the inner diameter of the cylindrical section is locally reduced. In the subsequent preparation process, the fractionating tower needs to be filled with the cake-shaped filler (7), so that the inner diameter of the welded cylinder section is required to be uniform. The shrinkage of the longitudinal weld and the bottleneck-like shrinkage deformation near the circumferential weld make the inner diameter of the cylindrical section difficult to control and uneven, which makes the installation of the cake-shaped packing (7) in the fractionating tower difficult. Therefore, the deformation needs to be corrected, which causes unnecessary loss of man-hours and reduces the production efficiency. Due to the complexity of the welding stress and deformation problems, the law is often mastered by a method of combining experimental testing with theoretical analysis and numerical calculation in engineering practice, so that the aims of predicting, controlling and adjusting the welding stress and deformation can be fulfilled.
According to the welding method of the large cylindrical section in the embodiment, the contraction of a longitudinal welding line and a circumferential welding line can be effectively regulated, the ring with a uniform inner diameter is prepared, as shown in fig. 2, the preset inner diameter Di + △ D of the large cylindrical ring (1) is 4900mm, the height of the cylindrical section is 4000mm, the thickness T is 14mm, △ D is the diameter size tolerance and is determined by the allowable error of a cylinder in practical application, the range of the preset inner diameter Di + △ D is generally from one millimeter to tens of millimeters, when the disc-shaped filler is placed in the cylinder, △ D is determined by the allowable size difference of the inner diameter of the cylinder and the disc-shaped filler to be contained in the cylinder, the steel plate material to be rolled is S30408, T is 14mm, the maximum length of each cylinder is 8000mm, the maximum width is 2000mm, the finished cylindrical ring is composed of two cylinder sections (2), each cylinder section (2) has 2 longitudinal welding lines (3), the whole finished cylindrical ring is also composed of 1 welding line (4), the maximum width is 2000mm, the maximum width of each cylinder is 2000mm, the length of the longitudinal welding line is measured by the longitudinal welding line, the longitudinal welding line length of the longitudinal welding line, the longitudinal welding line is measured by the longitudinal welding line, the longitudinal welding line is measured by the longitudinal welding line, the longitudinal welding line length of the longitudinal welding line, the longitudinal welding line is measured by the longitudinal welding line, the longitudinal line is measured by the longitudinal line, the longitudinal line.
According to the original empirical formula, the length L of the integral plate is (Di + △ D + T) × pi + S × N, pi is 3.1415926, N is the number of longitudinal welds, S is the shrinkage compensation length, where S is 1.5mm, N is 2, and the empirical formula is substituted, so that the length L of the integral plate is 15441mm, for example, the size of two steel plates of each cylinder section can be 8000X, 2000mm in width, and 7441mm (after cutting), X, 2000mm in width, the subsequent processes are identical, after welding, the external circumference (5) of the welded cylinder section is measured, the shrinkage compensation length S reserved during cutting is 1.5mm × N (N is the number of longitudinal welds), so that the welding shrinkage of the longitudinal welds can be counteracted, and the actual internal diameter and the preset internal diameter D of the welded cylinder section after shrinkage compensation are identicaliThe difference is within the diameter size tolerance △ D, and meets the installation requirement, whether groove processing is needed before welding is determined according to the thickness of the plate, and the details are shown in the national standard GB/T985.2-2008 buriedRecommended groove for arc welding. The chemical components of the austenitic stainless steel are detailed in national standard GB 24511-2009 stainless steel plate and steel strip for pressure-bearing equipment.
When two cylinder sections are combined into a cylinder section, welding is required to be carried out along a circumferential weld, and for plates with different thicknesses, the inner circumferential weld is welded firstly in the sequence of originally welding the circumferential weld, generally one or two; the outer circular seam is welded, generally in one pass, sequentially from inside to outside. According to the invention, when the thickness of the plate is 5-12mm (12 mm is not contained), the side to be welded of the steel plate does not need to be processed into a V-shaped groove, namely an outer circular seam is welded firstly, and an inner circular seam is welded secondly; when the thickness of the plate is 12-20mm, a V-shaped groove needs to be processed on the side to be welded of the steel plate, an inner circular seam is welded firstly, an outer circular seam is welded secondly, and finally the inner circular seam is welded thirdly. In the embodiment, when the annular seam (4) is welded, because the thickness T of the plate is 14mm, a V-shaped groove needs to be processed on the side to be welded of the steel plate, the welding sequence adopts that the first inner annular seam is welded but not welded completely, the current is 400-. The loss of the outer circumference of the cylinder section at the position caused by the contraction of the girth weld is only 1mm when the measurement is carried out at the girth weld contraction measuring point (6), so that the contraction of the girth weld is effectively controlled, and the size uniformity of the inner diameter of the cylinder is ensured. Under the same submerged arc welding conditions, using the original inside-out girth welding sequence, for a 14mm thick plate, the loss of the outer circumference of the cylindrical section due to girth weld shrinkage was measured to be about 11mm at the girth weld shrinkage measurement point.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention, and all simple modifications, changes and equivalent structural changes made according to the technical spirit of the present invention are still within the protection scope of the technical solution of the present invention. In addition, the terms "upper", "lower", "left", "right" and "one" used in the present specification are for clarity of description, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and the relative relationship between the terms and the terms is not to be construed as a scope of the present invention unless otherwise specified.

Claims (7)

  1. A welding method of a large-scale cylinder section, wherein the large-scale cylinder section is formed by welding a plurality of plates, is characterized by sequentially comprising the following steps of:
    a) according to the preset inner diameter D of the large cylinderiCutting, processing by a beveling machine, welding along a longitudinal welding seam, pre-bending and rolling to form a cylindrical section, wherein the length L of a plate is (Di + △ D + T) pi + S N, wherein △ D is the diameter size tolerance, T is the thickness of the plate, N is the number of the longitudinal welding seam, S is the shrinkage compensation length, and S is more than or equal to 1.0mm and less than or equal to 2.0 mm;
    b) optionally, at least two shell sections are combined into a shell section, and girth welding is performed along the girth.
  2. The welding method of claim 1, wherein the outer annular seam is welded and then the inner annular seam is welded when the plate thickness is greater than or equal to 5mm to less than 12 mm.
  3. The welding method according to claim 1, wherein when the plate thickness is greater than or equal to 12mm to less than or equal to 20mm, the inner circular seam is welded, the outer circular seam is welded, and finally the inner circular seam is welded.
  4. Welding method according to any one of claims 1-3, characterized in that the welding method is submerged arc welding.
  5. Welding method according to claim 4, wherein said shrinkage compensation length S is preferably 1.5 mm.
  6. The welding method of claim 4, wherein the material of the large cylindrical section includes, but is not limited to, carbon structural steel, austenitic stainless steel, low alloy structural steel, heat resistant steel, composite steel, nickel based alloy, copper based alloy.
  7. Welding method according to claim 6, characterized in that the material of the large cylindrical section is preferably austenitic stainless steel.
CN201780092976.8A 2017-07-07 2017-07-07 Welding method of large-sized cylinder section Pending CN110869156A (en)

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PCT/CN2017/092191 WO2019006739A1 (en) 2017-07-07 2017-07-07 Welding method for large cylinder segment

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CN112453639B (en) * 2020-10-27 2022-05-10 成都飞机工业(集团)有限责任公司 Method for efficiently repairing airplane welding guide pipe on clamp by adopting special device
CN113600976A (en) * 2021-07-16 2021-11-05 渤海造船厂集团有限公司 DN650 metal flexible connecting pipe installation size control method
CN113941833A (en) * 2021-11-12 2022-01-18 荆门宏图特种飞行器制造有限公司 Manufacturing process of high manganese steel material shell ring
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