CN110559837A - Flue gas desulfurization tower and flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment process - Google Patents

Flue gas desulfurization tower and flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110559837A
CN110559837A CN201810569007.3A CN201810569007A CN110559837A CN 110559837 A CN110559837 A CN 110559837A CN 201810569007 A CN201810569007 A CN 201810569007A CN 110559837 A CN110559837 A CN 110559837A
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area
flue gas
clear liquid
tower
pipeline
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CN110559837B (en
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周建华
李磊
王明星
金平
刘忠生
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Sinopec Dalian Petrochemical Research Institute Co ltd
China Petroleum and Chemical Corp
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China Petrochemical Corp
Sinopec Dalian Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D47/00Separating dispersed particles from gases, air or vapours by liquid as separating agent
    • B01D47/06Spray cleaning
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D50/00Combinations of methods or devices for separating particles from gases or vapours
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/48Sulfur compounds
    • B01D53/50Sulfur oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/80Semi-solid phase processes, i.e. by using slurries
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F9/00Multistage treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2258/00Sources of waste gases
    • B01D2258/02Other waste gases
    • B01D2258/0283Flue gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/02Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by heating
    • C02F1/04Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by heating by distillation or evaporation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • C02F1/5236Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities using inorganic agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • C02F1/5281Installations for water purification using chemical agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • C02F1/54Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities using organic material
    • C02F1/56Macromolecular compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/72Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/72Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation
    • C02F1/74Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation with air
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/72Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation
    • C02F1/78Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation with ozone
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F2001/007Processes including a sedimentation step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/18Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated from the purification of gaseous effluents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/06Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment pH
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/08Chemical Oxygen Demand [COD]; Biological Oxygen Demand [BOD]

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  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Biomedical Technology (AREA)
  • Oil, Petroleum & Natural Gas (AREA)
  • General Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
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  • Water Supply & Treatment (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Treating Waste Gases (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a flue gas desulfurization tower and a flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment process. The flue gas desulfurization tower comprises a flue gas discharge area, a demisting area, a tower tray area, a spraying area, a quenching and cooling area and a wastewater treatment area; wherein the center of the wastewater treatment area is divided into an oxidation flocculation area and a circulating clear liquid area by a vertical partition plate I, and the top of the circulating clear liquid area completely separates the circulating clear liquid area from the oxidation flocculation area and the spraying area by a partition plate II; the oxidation flocculation area is provided with a stirring device; the vertical partition plate I is provided with a filter medium; the invention carries out flue gas dust removal, desulfurization, desalination and wastewater treatment in one tower, utilizes the flue gas to stir the wastewater to realize the operation of oxidation flocculation concentration, utilizes the liquid level difference at two sides of the vertical clapboard as a driving force to realize the filtration operation of the desulfurization wastewater, greatly reduces the floor area, and obviously reduces the cost required by the construction and the reconstruction of the device and the operation cost of the device.

Description

Flue gas desulfurization tower and flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment process
Technical Field
the invention belongs to the field of industrial waste gas purification, and relates to a flue gas desulfurization tower and a flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment process.
Background
The boiler flue gas and the flue gas discharged by a factory contain sulfur dioxide and dust, the sulfur dioxide and the dust are main component dust of atmospheric pollutants, the sulfur dioxide is a main reason for forming acid rain, and the dust with small particle size is one of the chief causes of haze formation.
The wet desulphurization has the advantages of high desulphurization rate, reliable device operation, simple operation and the like, so the existing flue gas desulphurization technology of various countries in the world mainly takes wet desulphurization as the main technology. The traditional wet desulphurization technology mainly comprises a limestone-gypsum method, a double alkali desulphurization method, a sodium alkali desulphurization method, an ammonia desulphurization method and the like. The flue gas desulfurization technology mainly adopts countercurrent spray, alkaline slurry is sprayed from the upper part of a desulfurization tower, and is free to settle under the action of gravity to be in countercurrent contact with flue gas to realize desulfurization reaction, but the diameter of sprayed liquid drops is relatively large, the contact area of single liquid drop and the flue gas is small, so that in order to improve the desulfurization efficiency, the number of times of circulating spray of the slurry needs to be increased, the liquid drops are in contact with the flue gas for many times to improve the absorption effect of the liquid drops on sulfur dioxide, the flow of a slurry circulating pump at the bottom of the tower is very large, the power of a motor is also very large, the power consumption of the slurry circulating pump is.
The dust particle size of the dust in the flue gas is small, most of the dust particle size is 0.1 ~ 200 mu m, the current flue gas dust removal technology mainly comprises a cloth bag type dust removal technology, an electrostatic dust removal technology and a wet dust removal technology, the flue gas contains moisture, the dust absorbs moisture on a filter bag of a cloth bag type dust remover, the dust blocks the pores of the filter bag, the filter bag needs to be cleaned or replaced frequently, the application of the cloth bag type dust remover is greatly limited, the electrostatic dust remover has the main defects of high manufacturing cost, strict installation, maintenance and management requirements, high voltage transformation and rectification control equipment, high power consumption and large floor area, the dust carried in the flue gas is removed mainly through spray water, and liquid drops with small particle sizes are combined with the dust and then still discharged out of a chimney along with the flue gas.
The desulfurization wastewater treatment processes disclosed in CN201110153423.3, CN201310338193.7 and CN201310421183.X are all provided with a flocculation tank and an oxidation tank, the flocculation tank and the oxidation tank are both provided with a stirrer, and slurry is conveyed by a pump. The dust removal and desulfurization wastewater treatment process disclosed by CN201310338193.7 and CN201310421183.X adopts a hydrocyclone to carry out solid-liquid separation. The desulfurization wastewater treatment process has the advantages of longer flow, more equipment and higher energy consumption.
Because the pollution emission index established by the state is more and more strict, enterprises with boilers and factories with flue gas emission need to modify newly-added flue gas dust removal and desulfurization devices or old devices so as to meet the standard emission of flue gas. Because most boilers and flue gas discharging devices are built according to old standards before, and the flue gas needs further deep dedusting and desulfurization when in construction, enough construction land is not reserved for flue gas dedusting and desulfurization modification during construction, and the flue gas dedusting and desulfurization devices or the old devices need to be newly built in the existing limited area. The wet desulphurization technology comprises flue gas desulphurization, desulphurization waste water oxidation treatment or regeneration units, the flow is long, the equipment is more, the occupied area is larger, the construction and upgrading reconstruction of the dust removal desulphurization device are seriously restricted, and partial devices and boilers cannot be upgraded and reconstructed due to the lack of enough space, so that the flue gas emission index cannot meet the current national standard and is forced to be shut down or destroyed and reconstructed. Therefore, the development of flue gas desulfurization technology with short flow, less equipment and less floor space is urgently needed.
In addition, because the wet desulphurization device adopts the circulating liquid containing a large amount of suspended solids and soluble salts as a working medium for flue gas quenching cooling and desulphurization, the circulating liquid is contacted with high-temperature flue gas to realize the flue gas quenching cooling process, a large amount of water is vaporized, and the soluble salts and the suspended solids enter the flue gas along with the vaporized water, so that the flue gas at the outlet of the wet desulphurization device contains more soluble salts (mainly sulfate and sulfite), the soluble salts form ultrafine particles after dehydration, the ultrafine particles can provide sufficient condensation nuclei for the formation of haze, and the wet desulphurization is also one of the causes of the haze.
With the large-scale popularization and application of the wet desulfurization technology in China, an obvious and difficult-to-overcome defect of the wet desulfurization technology gradually appears, and the defect is that the discharged flue gas can generate 'white smoke' at the opening of a chimney, even forms 'long white smoke' of kilometers, brings strong visual impact to people, and sometimes generates 'dust rain' on the ground. Therefore, how to eliminate the phenomenon of "white smoke" is a problem to be solved urgently.
disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides the flue gas desulfurization tower and the flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment process.
The flue gas desulfurization tower comprises a flue gas discharge area, a demisting area, a tower tray area, a spraying area, a quenching and cooling area and a wastewater treatment area from top to bottom in sequence; the central part of the wastewater treatment area is divided into an oxidation flocculation area and a circulating clear liquid area through a vertical partition plate I, wherein the oxidation flocculation area is communicated with the spraying area, and the top of the circulating clear liquid area is completely separated from the oxidation flocculation area and the spraying area through a partition plate II.
The partition plate I is provided with at least one opening, preferably 1 ~ 20, more preferably 1 ~ 4, the opening area is 10% ~ 90% of the area of the partition plate I, preferably 50% ~ 70%, a filter medium is fixed on the opening of the partition plate I, the filter medium is of a net structure, the mesh size is 0.1 ~ 1000 mu m, preferably 5 ~ 100 mu m, and the filter medium can be natural fibers, synthetic fibers, glass fibers or metal wires.
The two ends of the partition plate II are respectively connected with the partition plate I and the tower wall of the circulating clear liquid area, the included angle of the joint of the partition plate I and the partition plate II is generally 45 ~ 165 degrees, preferably 120 ~ 150 degrees.
The flue gas emission area and the demisting area are preferably connected through cone-shaped reducing, the tower diameter ratio of the demisting area to the flue gas emission area is 1.2 ~ 5, the tray area and the spraying area are preferably connected through inverted cone-shaped reducing, the quenching and cooling area is arranged below the spraying area, the wastewater treatment area is arranged below the quenching and cooling area, and the tower diameter ratio of the tray area to the spraying area is 1.2 ~ 3.
The smoke discharging area is generally a chimney structure in a conventional smoke wet desulphurization process, the bottom of the chimney is connected with the demisting area tower body, the demisting area tower body is preferably connected with the demisting area tower body through a conical reducing hole, a smoke outlet is arranged at the top of the chimney, an outer sleeve is preferably arranged at the top of the chimney, the outer sleeve is of a cylindrical structure with an upper opening and a lower opening, and can be cylindrical or conical, the upper edge of the outer sleeve is higher than the top of the chimney by a certain distance, generally 0.2-10 m, preferably 0.5-5 m, the lower edge of the outer sleeve is lower than the upper edge of the chimney, preferably lower than the upper edge of the chimney by 0.5 ~ 5m, an annular space is formed between the outer sleeve and the chimney, preferably the diameter of the bottom opening is 1.01-1.2 times of the diameter of the opening at the top of the chimney, the smoke enters from the top of the chimney and is discharged from the top of the outer sleeve, the smoke velocity is high, negative pressure is generated between the chimney and the outer sleeve when the smoke flows through the annular space between the chimney and the outer sleeve, the air flows through the annular space between the chimney and the outer sleeve under the suction effect of the outer.
The demisting zone is provided with demisting equipment for removing liquid drops carried by the flue gas, and the demisting equipment can be one or more of a cyclone demister, a wet electrostatic demister, a wire mesh demister or a baffling demister.
The tower tray can be one type of tower tray or multiple types of combined tower trays, including a float valve tower tray, a sieve tray, a guide sieve tray, a tongue fixing tower tray, a tongue floating tower tray or a three-dimensional mass transfer tower tray and the like, is used for gas-liquid full contact enhanced mass transfer to realize deep desulfurization of flue gas, captures micro dust particles between 0.1 mu m ~ mu m in the flue gas to realize deep dust removal of the flue gas, and captures a large number of micro fog drops carried by the flue gas to reduce the separation load of a demisting area.
And a liquid distributor is arranged between the tower tray area and the demisting area, and is connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline I and used for uniformly distributing circulating clear liquid on the tower tray.
The spraying area is provided with one or more layers of spraying pipelines, when the plurality of layers of spraying pipelines are arranged, the distance between the spraying pipelines is 0.5 ~ 5m, preferably 1 ~ 2.5.5 m, the spraying pipelines are connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline II, a plurality of atomizing nozzles are arranged on the spraying pipelines, the spraying area is used for atomizing the circulating clear liquid, and the atomized small liquid drops are in countercurrent contact with the flue gas to remove dust and sulfur dioxide carried in the flue gas.
the high-temperature flue gas cooling device comprises a quenching and cooling area, a main water main pipe, a quenching and cooling area, a plurality of large-caliber atomizing nozzles with upward or downward openings, a plurality of quenching and cooling area upper parts, a plurality of large-caliber atomizing nozzles with upward or downward openings, a plurality of large-caliber atomizing nozzles, a plurality of quenching and cooling area upper parts, a plurality of large-caliber atomizing nozzles with upward or downward openings, a plurality of large-caliber atomizing nozzles, a tower diameter ratio of tower diameter of the large-caliber.
One side of the oxidation flocculation area, which is close to the tower wall, is respectively connected with an alkaline solution pipeline I, a flocculating agent pipeline and a liquid level meter I; the alkaline solution pipeline I is provided with a flow regulating valve for adding an alkaline solution into the desulfurization wastewater to regulate the pH value of the desulfurization wastewater; the flocculant pipeline is used for injecting a flocculant into the desulfurization wastewater, so that small-particle dust in the desulfurization wastewater is coagulated into large particles.
The bottom of the oxidation flocculation area is connected with a flue gas pipeline II and an outer discharging slurry pipeline; the part of the flue gas pipeline II extending to the oxidation flocculation area is provided with a plurality of nozzles for heating, concentrating and stirring the serous fluid in the oxidation flocculation area; the external slurry discharge pipeline is used for discharging the slurry after oxidation and flocculation to a subsequent treatment unit, and a flow regulating valve and a pH meter are arranged on the external slurry discharge pipeline; the flow regulating valve regulates the flow of the discharged slurry according to a signal fed back by the liquid level meter I and is used for controlling the liquid level of the liquefaction flocculation area; the pH meter is used for measuring the pH value of the discharged slurry and feeding back a signal to the flow regulating valve on the alkaline solution pipeline I through the controller.
The device comprises a gas flow guiding device, a stirring device, a rotating shaft, a rotating impeller, a gas guiding plate and a stirring paddle, wherein the gas flow guiding device is arranged at the bottom of an oxidation flocculation area, the stirring device is connected to the bottom of a flue gas desulfurization tower through a fixing piece, the upper portion of the fixing piece is of a hollow cylindrical structure, the bottom of the fixing piece is fixed at the bottom of the flue gas desulfurization tower, the rotating shaft of the stirring device is vertically inserted into the cylindrical structure of the fixing piece and can rotate around the center line of the fixing piece, the rotating impeller, the gas guiding plate and the stirring paddle are sequentially fixed from top to bottom, the rotating impeller, the gas guiding plate and the stirring paddle are symmetrically distributed by taking the rotating shaft as the center, the rotating impeller is composed of a plurality of blades, the blades are uniformly distributed in the horizontal direction, the included angle between the plane where the blades are located and the horizontal plane is 15 ~ degrees, preferably 30 ~ degrees, the gas guiding plate is of an inverted cone-shaped structure, the top of the inverted cone-shaped is of an open structure, a gap is arranged between the bottom of the gas flow guiding plate and the rotating shaft, the guide plate is generally located above the liquid level of the oxidation flocculation area, the gas flow guiding device is used for guiding the gas flow to the two sides of the rotating impeller.
One side of the circulating clear liquid zone, which is close to the tower wall, is connected with a fresh water pipeline, an alkaline solution pipeline II, an oxidizing gas pipeline and a liquid level meter II; the fresh water pipeline is provided with a flow regulating valve which is used for regulating the flow of fresh water according to a signal fed back by the liquid level meter II and controlling the liquid level of the circulating clear liquid area; the alkaline solution pipeline II is provided with a flow regulating valve for regulating the flow of the alkaline solution filled into the circulating clear liquid area; the oxidizing gas pipeline is connected with the fan, extends to one side of the partition plate I of the circulating clear liquid zone and is connected with the oxidizing gas distribution pipe; the oxidizing gas distribution pipe is provided with a plurality of nozzles, the nozzles are opposite to the filter medium on the partition plate I, the oxidizing gas is sprayed out from the nozzles and penetrates through the filter medium to blow up dust particles on the filter medium in the oxidation flocculation area, the blown-up dust and the oxidizing gas are taken away by the rotary desulfurization slurry, the dust and a flocculating agent are coagulated into large particles to be deposited at the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area under the action of gravity, and sulfite in the slurry is oxidized into sulfate by the oxidizing gas, so that the COD of the desulfurization wastewater reaches the standard.
The tower wall at the top of the circulating clear liquid area is provided with an air vent for ensuring the stable pressure of the circulating clear liquid area and avoiding the damage to the filter medium caused by overlarge pressure fluctuation.
The bottom of the circulating clear liquid zone is connected with a clear liquid leading-out pipeline, the leading-out pipeline is divided into two paths, one path of pipeline is connected with an external clear liquid discharging pipeline, the other path of pipeline is connected with a circulating clear liquid pump, a pH meter is arranged on the pipeline, and the circulating clear liquid pump is connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline I and a circulating clear liquid pipeline II through a cooler; the pH meter is used for measuring the pH value of the circulating clear liquid and feeding back a measurement signal to the regulating valve of the alkaline solution pipeline II through the controller.
The flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment process comprises the following steps:
(1) Flue gas enters a flue gas desulfurization tower in two paths, one path of flue gas enters from the lower part of a quenching and cooling area of the flue gas desulfurization tower through a flue gas pipeline I, the other path of flue gas enters from the bottom of an oxidation and flocculation area of the flue gas desulfurization tower through a flue gas pipeline II after being pressurized and passes through slurry in the oxidation and flocculation area, the two paths of flue gas are converged and then contact with clean water atomized by the quenching and cooling area to carry out quenching and cooling, the quenched and cooled flue gas enters a spraying area to be in countercurrent contact with circulating clear liquid in the spraying area to remove most of dust and sulfur dioxide carried in the flue gas, the flue gas passing through the spraying area enters a tower panel area, deep dedusting and desulfurization are carried out on the tower panel area and the circulating clear liquid, the purified flue gas enters a flue gas discharge area after being demisted by a demisting area, enters an;
(2) The desulfurization slurry absorbing dust and sulfur dioxide flows through the rotary impeller from the spraying area to enter the oxidation flocculation area from the liquid descending port at the lower part of the guide plate, when the desulfurization slurry flows down from the spraying area and passes through the rotary impeller, horizontal force is generated on blades of the rotary impeller, the gravitational potential energy of the desulfurization slurry is converted into kinetic energy, the rotary impeller is pushed to rotate around the rotary shaft and drives the stirring paddle fixed on the rotary shaft to rotate to stir the desulfurization slurry, the desulfurization slurry is fully mixed with oxidizing gas, flocculating agent and alkaline solution under the stirring action of the stirring paddle, sulfite in the desulfurization slurry is oxidized into sulfate, small particle dust in the desulfurization slurry is flocculated into large particles, and meanwhile, flue gas with certain temperature from a flue gas pipeline II enables moisture in the desulfurization slurry to be continuously volatilized, and the salt concentration is gradually increased;
(3) The desulfurization slurry flows through a filter medium on a partition plate I to realize solid-liquid separation under the action of liquid level difference on two sides of the partition plate I, dust particles in the desulfurization slurry are filtered and left in an oxidation flocculation area, clear liquid enters a circulating clear liquid area, and the slurry after oxidation flocculation is led out from the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area and enters a subsequent treatment unit through an external discharge pipeline;
(4) oxidizing gas enters from the circulating clear liquid zone, is sprayed out from a nozzle of the oxidizing gas distribution pipe and penetrates through the filter medium, dust particles on the filter medium of the oxidation flocculation zone are blown up, the blown-up dust and the oxidizing gas are taken away by the rotating slurry, the dust and a flocculating agent are aggregated into large particles under the action of gravity and are deposited at the bottom of the oxidation flocculation zone, sulfite in the slurry is oxidized into sulfate by the oxidizing gas, and COD of the desulfurization wastewater reaches the standard;
(5) The clean liquid which enters the circulating clear liquid area after being filtered by the filter medium is mixed with fresh water and alkaline solution and then is led out from the bottom of the circulating clear liquid area, a small amount of the clean liquid is directly discharged to reduce the salt concentration of the circulating clear liquid, the rest clear liquid enters the cooler after being pressurized by the circulating clear liquid pump, one part of the clean liquid cooled by the cooler enters the spraying area, is atomized by the atomizing nozzle and then is in countercurrent contact with the flue gas to remove dust and sulfur, the other part of the clean liquid flows through the liquid distributor and enters the tower panel area, the mass transfer effect is fully contacted with the flue gas on the tower tray to strengthen the mass transfer effect to realize the deep sulfur removal of the flue gas, and micro dust particles between 0.1 mu m ~ 5 mu m in the flue gas are captured, so that the deep dust removal of the flue gas is realized, a large amount of micro fog drops carried by the spraying area are captured by the clean liquid on the tower tray.
In the process, the flue gas is coal-fired boiler flue gas, coal-fired power plant flue gas, catalytic cracking catalyst regeneration flue gas, process heating furnace flue gas, coking flue gas or steel sintering flue gas and the like, the ratio of the amount of flue gas entering the flue gas pipeline I to the amount of flue gas entering the flue gas pipeline II is 20 ~ 500, and the ratio of clean water to the flue gas in a quenching and cooling zone is 0.05 ~ 2.5.5L/Nm3preferably 0.1 ~ 1.5.5L/Nm3The ratio of circulating clear liquid and smoke in the spraying area is 5 ~ 50L/Nm3The preferred ratio is 8 ~ 25L/Nm3The ratio of the circulating clear liquid to the flue gas in the tower tray area is 3 ~ 15L/Nm3
In the process, the content of soluble salt (total soluble solid) in the clean water is less than or equal to 30g/L, preferably less than or equal to 5 g/L; the clean water is one or more selected from fresh water, desalted water, softened water, deoxidized water or distilled water, and the fresh water is selected from tap water, river water, sea water or well water. Clean water enters the quenching and cooling area through a clean water pipeline.
In the process, the alkaline solution is selected from one or more of sodium hydroxide solution, calcium hydroxide solution, magnesium hydroxide solution, sodium carbonate solution, sodium sulfite solution, sodium citrate solution, limestone slurry, ammonia water or seawater and the like.
In the process of the invention, the oxidizing gas is one or more of air, oxygen, ozone and the like, and is preferably air.
In the process, the flow of the oxidizing gas is adjusted according to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the slurry after flocculation concentration, and the COD control index is not more than 60 mg/L.
In the process, the flocculating agent is one or more of aluminum sulfate, alum, sodium aluminate, ferric trichloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum sulfate, polyaluminum phosphate, polyaluminum chloride, polyferric sulfate, polyaluminum phosphate, polyphosphazene chloride, polyaluminum chloride, polysilicate iron, polysilicate ferric sulfate, polyaluminum ferric sulfate chloride, polyaluminum ferric silicate flocculant, aluminum-iron copolymerization composite flocculating agent, polysilicate flocculating agent, polyacrylamide flocculating agent and the like, and the adding amount of the flocculating agent is 0.05 ~ 2kg/m3
In the process, the pH value of the slurry after oxidation and flocculation is controlled to be 7 ~ 9, the pH online detector is positioned on a slurry external discharge pipeline, and the pH value of the desulfurized slurry is controlled by adjusting the adjusting valve on the alkaline solution pipeline I.
in the process, the liquid level difference between two sides of the partition board I is 0.5 ~ 6m, and the liquid level of the oxidation flocculation area is higher than that of the circulating clear liquid area.
in the process, the liquid level height of the oxidation flocculation area is controlled by an adjusting valve on an external slurry discharge pipeline.
In the process, the liquid level height of the circulating clear liquid area is controlled by an adjusting valve on a fresh water pipeline.
In the process, the pH value of the circulating clear liquid zone is controlled to be 6 ~ 11, preferably the pH value is controlled to be 7 ~ 8, the pH on-line detector is positioned on an inlet pipeline of a circulating pump at the bottom of the tower, and the pH value of the circulating clear liquid is controlled by adjusting an adjusting valve on an alkaline solution pipeline II.
In the process, the discharged slurry in the step (3) and the discharged clear liquid in the step (5) enter a subsequent treatment unit, can be used for preparing or producing products such as gypsum, sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, magnesium sulfite, magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, sodium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate and the like, and can also be discharged after being filtered to reach the standard.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
1. The invention arranges a wastewater treatment area at the lower part of the flue gas desulfurization tower, divides the wastewater treatment area into an oxidation flocculation area and a circulating clear liquid area through two clapboards, and realizes the oxidation, flocculation and concentration of the desulfurization wastewater in the oxidation flocculation area; the vertical clapboard in the center of the wastewater treatment area is provided with a filter medium, and the filtration operation of the desulfurization slurry is realized by using the liquid level difference at the two sides of the vertical clapboard as a driving force. The circulating clear liquid obtained by filtering is used as a circulating medium for dust removal and desulfurization, and because the circulating clear liquid does not contain dust or has low dust content, compared with the prior art that slurry containing dust is used as the circulating medium for dust removal and desulfurization, the process has high dust removal efficiency. The stirring device is arranged in the oxidation flocculation area, the energy of the falling desulfurization slurry is recovered by adopting the rotary impeller, the gravitational potential energy of the desulfurization slurry is converted into kinetic energy, the stirring paddle is driven to stir the desulfurization slurry, the materials in the oxidation flocculation area are fully mixed and contacted, and the oxidation flocculation reaction is favorably carried out. The invention divides the inlet flue gas into two paths, wherein the high-temperature flue gas entering from the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area is fully contacted with the desulfurization slurry under the stirring action of the stirring paddle, so that dust and sulfur-containing oxides in the flue gas are absorbed to a certain extent, and simultaneously, the waste heat of the high-temperature flue gas is fully utilized, so that a large amount of moisture in the dedusting and desulfurization wastewater is vaporized, the preliminary concentration of the desulfurization wastewater is realized in the oxidation flocculation area, and the energy consumption of subsequent units is reduced. Meanwhile, the oxidizing gas is introduced from the circulating clear liquid zone instead of directly entering the oxidation flocculation zone, and the oxidizing gas is used for washing the filter medium, so that washing equipment is omitted. The invention saves conventional stirring equipment and filtering equipment, does not need to consume additional energy in the wastewater treatment process, and greatly reduces the device investment and the operation cost.
2. The large-caliber atomizing nozzles with opposite openings are arranged in the rapid cooling and cooling area, two conical surfaces sprayed by each pair of large-caliber atomizing nozzles with opposite openings mutually collide to form a plane covering the whole tower diameter, the plane comprehensively and effectively intercepts flue gas, rapid cooling and cooling of the flue gas are realized, and dust and sulfur dioxide carried in the flue gas are removed.
3. According to the invention, clean water with low soluble salt (total soluble solid) content is adopted in the quenching and cooling zone to replace circulating liquid containing a large amount of suspended matters and soluble salts as a high-temperature flue gas quenching and cooling medium, the content of soluble salts in vaporized water vapor in the flue gas quenching and cooling process is very low, the content of soluble salts in discharged flue gas is greatly reduced, and the generation amount of haze is favorably reduced.
4. According to the invention, the inverted cone-shaped reducing is arranged between the tray area and the spraying area, so that the gas velocity of the tray area is favorably reduced, the gas-liquid mass transfer effect is enhanced, the dust removal efficiency and the desulfurization efficiency of flue gas in the tray area are improved, and entrainment is reduced, so that the load of the demisting area is reduced; the smoke discharging area and the demisting area are provided with the cone-shaped reducing areas, so that the flow speed of smoke is improved, the higher the gas speed of the smoke is, the higher the lifting height of the smoke after the smoke leaves the smoke discharging area is, the more the smoke is favorably diffused, and smoke plumes are shorter.
5. The smoke discharging area of the smoke desulfurizing tower adopts a structure of a chimney and an outer sleeve, after smoke is accelerated by a demisting area and a cone-shaped reducing area, negative pressure is generated when the smoke flows through the outer sleeve to suck outside air, the smoke and the air are fully mixed in the outer sleeve and then are discharged from the top of the outer sleeve, and the generation amount of white smoke is greatly reduced.
6. The invention completes flue gas dust removal, flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment in one tower, realizes triple functions of deep flue gas dust removal, desulfurization and standard-reaching wastewater COD discharge, and has the advantages of cooperative and cooperative function of all functional areas, mutual promotion, short process flow, great reduction of occupied area, and remarkable reduction of the cost required by device construction and transformation.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a flue gas desulfurization tower according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the structure of the separator in the direction of A.
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of a stirring device according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a B-direction structural schematic view of the stirring device of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of the process of the present invention.
in the figure: 1-a flue gas discharge zone; 2-conical reducing; 3-a demisting area; 4-tower disc area; 5-inverted cone-shaped reducing; 6-spraying area; 6-1-circulating clear liquid line II; 7-a wastewater treatment zone; 8-an oxidative flocculation zone; 8-1-level gauge I; 8-2-alkaline solution line I; 8-3-flocculant line; 8-4-an efflux slurry line; 8-5-flue gas pipeline II; 9-circulating clear liquid area; 9-1-level gauge II; 9-2-fresh water line; 9-3-alkaline solution line II; 9-4-oxidizing gas line; 9-5-clear liquid outlet line; 9-6-an efflux supernatant line; 10-a flue gas inlet; 11-a demister; 12-a liquid distributor; 12-1-recycle serum line I; 13-trays; 14-a spray line; 15-an atomizing nozzle; 16-a vent; 17-a stirring device; 18-oxidizing gas shower; 19-separator II; 20-a separator I; 21-a filter medium; 22-a sealing strip; 23-a fastening screw; 24-a rotating impeller; 25-blades; 26-a baffle; 27-a fluid-lowering port; 28-stirring paddle; 29-a fixing member; 30-a rotation axis; 31-a fan; 32-a cooler; 33-circulating clear liquid pump; 34-a chimney; 35-an outer sleeve; 36-a quenching and cooling zone; 36-1-clean water main; 36-2-flue gas line I; 37-large caliber atomizing nozzle; 38-clean water branch pipes; 39-supercharger.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings and examples.
The flue gas desulfurization tower comprises a flue gas discharge area 1, a demisting area 3, a tower tray area 4, a spraying area 6, a quenching and cooling area 36 and a wastewater treatment area 7 from top to bottom in sequence; waste water treatment district 7 central authorities divide into oxidation flocculation district 8 and circulation clear solution district 9 through a vertical baffle I20, wherein oxidation flocculation district 8 and spraying district 6 intercommunication, circulation clear solution district 9 top is separated circulation clear solution district 9 and oxidation flocculation district 8 and spraying district 6 completely through baffle II 19.
The partition I20 is provided with at least one opening, preferably 1 ~ 20, more preferably 1 ~ 4, the opening area is 10% ~ 90% of the area of the partition I20, preferably 50% ~ 70%, a filter medium 21 is fixed on the opening of the partition I20, the filter medium 21 is of a net structure, the mesh size is 0.1 ~ 1000 [ mu ] m, preferably 5 ~ 100 [ mu ] m, and the filter medium can be natural fibers, synthetic fibers, glass fibers, metal wires or the like.
Two ends of the partition plate II 19 are respectively connected with the partition plate I20 and the tower wall of the circulating clear liquid zone 9, the included angle of the joint of the partition plate I20 and the partition plate II 19 is generally 45 ~ 165 degrees, preferably 120 ~ 150 degrees, and the partition plate I20 and the partition plate II 19 are sealed with the tower wall to avoid short circuit of gas and liquid at two sides of the partition plate.
The flue gas emission area 1 and the demisting area 3 are preferably connected through a cone-shaped reducing area 2, the tower diameter ratio of the demisting area 3 to the flue gas emission area 1 is 1.2 ~ 5, the tray area 4 and the spraying area 6 are preferably connected through an inverted cone-shaped reducing area 5, a quenching and cooling area 36 is arranged below the spraying area 4, a wastewater treatment area 7 is arranged below the quenching and cooling area 36, and the tower diameter ratio of the tray area 4 to the spraying area 6 is 1.2 ~ 3.
The smoke discharge area 1 is generally a chimney 34 structure in a conventional wet smoke desulphurization process, the bottom of the chimney 34 is connected with a demisting area 3 tower body, the demisting area 3 tower body is preferably connected with the demisting area 3 tower body through a conical reducing pipe 2, a smoke outlet is arranged at the top of the chimney 34, an outer sleeve 35 is preferably arranged at the top of the chimney 34, the outer sleeve 35 is of a cylindrical structure with an upper opening and a lower opening, the upper edge of the outer sleeve 35 is higher than the top of the chimney 34 by a certain distance, generally 0.2-10 m, preferably 0.5-5 m, the lower edge of the outer sleeve 35 is lower than the upper edge of the chimney 34, preferably 0.5 ~ 5m lower than the upper edge of the chimney 34, the diameter of the opening at the bottom of the outer sleeve 35 is larger than the diameter of the opening at the top of the chimney 34, preferably 1.01-1.2 times of the diameter of the opening at the top of the chimney 34, the smoke enters the outer sleeve 35 from the top of the chimney 34 and is discharged from the top of the outer sleeve 35, the smoke velocity is high, negative pressure is generated between the outer sleeve 34 and air flows into an annular space between the outer sleeve 35 and is fully mixed with the smoke discharged from the outer sleeve 35, and the top of the smoke is reduced before the smoke is discharged.
Demisting zone 3 set up demisting equipment for detach the liquid drop that the flue gas carried, demisting equipment can be for one or several kinds among whirl defroster, wet-type electrostatic demister, silk screen defroster or baffling formula defroster etc. preferably adopt CN201621043983.8 the defroster.
The tower tray area 4 can be provided with one or more layers of tower trays 13, the number of the preferable tower tray layers is 2 ~ 6, the tower trays can be one type of tower tray or various types of combined tower trays, and the tower trays comprise a float valve tower tray, a sieve tray, a guide sieve tray, a tongue fixing tower tray, a tongue floating tower tray or a three-dimensional mass transfer tower tray and the like, and are used for fully contacting gas and liquid to strengthen mass transfer to realize deep desulfurization of flue gas, capture micro dust particles between 0.1 mu m ~ 5 mu m in the flue gas to realize deep dust removal of the flue gas, and capture a large number of micro fog drops carried by the flue gas to reduce the separation load of the demisting area 3.
And a liquid distributor 12 is arranged between the tray area 4 and the demisting area 3, and the liquid distributor 12 is connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline I12-1 and is used for uniformly distributing circulating clear liquid on a tray 13.
The spraying area 6 is provided with one or more layers of spraying pipelines 14, when the plurality of layers of spraying pipelines 14 are arranged, the distance between the spraying pipelines 14 is 0.5 ~ 5m, preferably 1 ~ 2.5.5 m, the spraying pipelines 14 are connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline II 6-1, a plurality of atomizing nozzles 15 are arranged on the spraying pipelines 14, the spraying area 6 is used for atomizing the circulating clear liquid, and atomized small liquid drops are in countercurrent contact with flue gas to remove dust and sulfur dioxide carried in the flue gas.
The spray angle of the large-caliber atomizing nozzles 37 is 60 ~ degrees and the preferred angle is 120 ~ degrees, sprayed water mist is in a solid cone shape, the diameter of the conical bottom surface is larger than the tower diameter of the rapid cooling and cooling area 36, the spray angle preferably comprises at least one pair of large-caliber atomizing nozzles 37 with opposite openings (one opening is downward and the other opening is upward), more preferably 2 ~ pairs, two conical surfaces sprayed by each pair of large-caliber atomizing nozzles 37 with opposite openings collide with each other to form a plane covering the whole tower diameter, the plane can fully and effectively intercept flue gas, realize rapid cooling of the flue gas, remove dust carried in the flue gas, remove sulfur dioxide and dry gas in the flue gas, and are connected with 1 large-caliber atomizing nozzle 37 with upward openings, the inlet pipe diameter of each large-caliber atomizing nozzle 37 is connected with a clean water branch pipe 38, the tower diameter ratio of the inlet joint pipe diameter of each large-caliber atomizing nozzle 37 to the rapid cooling and the clean water branch pipe 38 is 0.005 ~.1, preferably 0.01.7.06, the spray angle is 0.1, the tower diameter of the large-caliber atomizing nozzles 37, the tower diameter is preferably 2, the inlet pipe diameter of the large-diameter atomizing nozzles 37 with opposite openings of the rapid cooling area 36, the inlet pipe diameter of the rapid cooling area 36, and the inlet of the large-36, the inlet of the large-1, and the large-orifice are connected with the.
One side of the oxidation flocculation area 8, which is close to the tower wall, is respectively connected with an alkaline solution pipeline I8-2, a flocculant pipeline 8-3 and a liquid level meter I8-1; the alkaline solution pipeline I8-2 is provided with a flow regulating valve for adding an alkaline solution into the desulfurization wastewater to regulate the pH value of the desulfurization wastewater; and the flocculant pipeline 8-3 is used for injecting a flocculant into the desulfurization wastewater so as to coagulate small-particle dust in the desulfurization wastewater into large particles.
The bottom of the oxidation flocculation area 8 is connected with a flue gas pipeline II 8-5 and an outer discharge slurry pipeline 8-4; the part of the flue gas pipeline II 8-5 extending to the oxidation flocculation area 8 is provided with a plurality of nozzles for heating, concentrating and stirring the serous fluid in the oxidation flocculation area 8; the external slurry discharge pipeline 8-4 is used for discharging oxidized and flocculated slurry to a subsequent treatment unit, and a flow regulating valve and a pH meter are arranged on the external slurry discharge pipeline 8-4; the flow regulating valve regulates the flow of the discharged slurry according to a signal fed back by the liquid level meter I8-1 and is used for controlling the liquid level of the liquefaction flocculation area; the pH meter is used for measuring the pH value of the discharged slurry and feeding back a signal to the flow regulating valve on the alkaline solution pipeline I8-2 through the controller.
The slurry desulfurization device comprises an oxidation flocculation area 8, wherein the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area 8 is provided with a stirring device 17, the stirring device 17 is connected to the bottom of a flue gas desulfurization tower through a fixing part 29, the upper part of the fixing part 29 is of a hollow cylindrical structure, the bottom of the fixing part 29 is fixed to the bottom of the flue gas desulfurization tower, a rotating shaft 30 of the stirring device is vertically inserted into the cylindrical structure of the fixing part 29, the rotating shaft 30 can rotate around the central line of the fixing part, the stirring device 17 sequentially fixes a rotating impeller 24, a guide plate 26 and a stirring paddle 28 from top to bottom, the rotating impeller 24 is composed of a plurality of blades 25, the blades 25 are uniformly distributed in the horizontal direction, the included angle between the plane where the blades 25 are located and the horizontal plane is 15 ~ degrees, preferably 30 ~ degrees, the guide plate 26 is of an open-shaped structure, the top of an inverted cone is of an open structure, a gap is formed between the bottom of the inverted cone 26 and the rotating shaft 30, the guide plate 26 is generally located above the liquid level of the oxidation flocculation area 8, is used for guiding airflow to two sides of the rotating impeller 24, the slurry passing through the rotating impeller 24 enters the oxidation flocculation area 8 through the gap between the guide plate 26 and the rotating impeller 24, a plurality of groups 632 are horizontally arranged along the axial direction, preferably, and the rotating impeller 24, when the rotating impeller 24, the slurry flows around the rotating shaft.
One side of the circulating clear liquid zone 9, which is close to the tower wall, is connected with a fresh water pipeline 9-2, an alkaline solution pipeline II9-3, an oxidizing gas pipeline 9-4 and a liquid level meter II 9-1; a flow regulating valve is arranged on the fresh water pipeline 9-2, and the flow of the fresh water is regulated according to a signal fed back by the liquid level meter II9-1, so as to control the liquid level of the circulating clear water area 9; the alkaline solution pipeline II9-3 is provided with a flow regulating valve for regulating the flow of the alkaline solution filled into the circulating clear liquid zone 9; the oxidizing gas pipeline 9-4 is connected with a fan 31, extends to one side of the partition plate I20 of the circulating clear liquid zone 9 and is connected with an oxidizing gas spray pipe 18; the oxidizing gas spraying pipe 18 is provided with a plurality of nozzles, the nozzles are opposite to the filter medium 21 on the partition plate I20, the oxidizing gas is sprayed out from the nozzles and penetrates through the filter medium 21 to blow up dust particles on the filter medium 21 of the oxidation flocculation zone 8, the blown-up dust and the oxidizing gas are taken away by the rotating slurry, the dust and a flocculating agent are aggregated into large particles under the action of gravity to be deposited at the bottom of the oxidation flocculation zone 8, and sulfite in the slurry is oxidized into sulfate by the oxidizing gas, so that the COD of the desulfurization wastewater reaches the standard.
And the tower wall at the top of the circulating clear liquid area 9 is provided with an air vent 16 for ensuring the stable pressure of the circulating clear liquid area 9 and avoiding the damage to the filter medium 21 caused by overlarge pressure fluctuation.
The bottom of the circulating clear liquid zone 9 is connected with a clear liquid outlet pipeline 9-5, the outlet pipeline is divided into two paths, one path of pipeline is connected with an externally-discharged clear liquid pipeline 9-6, the other path of pipeline is connected with a circulating clear liquid pump 33, a pH meter is arranged on the pipeline, and the circulating clear liquid pump 33 is connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline I12-1 and a circulating clear liquid pipeline II 6-1 through a cooler 32; the pH meter is used for measuring the pH value of the circulating clear liquid and feeding back a measurement signal to the regulating valve of the alkaline solution pipeline II9-3 through the controller.
Example 1
the utility model provides a flue gas desulfurization tower, from top to bottom is flue gas discharge area 1, defogging district 3, tower tray district 4, spray district 6, rapid cooling district 36 and waste water treatment district 7 in proper order, and flue gas discharge area 1 links to each other through the cone form reducing 2 with defogging district 3, and defogging district 3 below is tower tray district 4, and tower tray district 4 links to each other through the inverted cone form reducing 5 with spray district 6, and spray district 6 below is rapid cooling district 36, and rapid cooling district 36 below is waste water treatment district 7.
The flue gas emission area 1 is provided with a chimney 34 structure in a conventional flue gas wet desulphurization process, the bottom of the chimney 34 is connected with a demisting area 3 tower body through a cone-shaped reducing pipe 2, the top of the chimney 34 is provided with an outer sleeve 35, the outer sleeve 35 is of a cylindrical structure with an upper opening and a lower opening, the upper edge of the outer sleeve 35 is 5m higher than the top of the chimney 34, and the lower edge of the outer sleeve 35 is 1m lower than the upper edge of the chimney 34.
A demister 11 described in CN201621043983.8 is arranged in the demisting zone 3, a liquid distributor 12 is arranged below the wet electrostatic demister 11, a tray zone 4 is arranged below the liquid distributor 12, the tray zone 4 is provided with 4 layers of trays in total, and sieve trays are selected; the spraying area 6 is provided with 3 layers of spraying pipelines 14, the distance between the spraying pipelines 14 is 2m, and the atomizing nozzles 15 are uniformly arranged on the spraying pipelines 14.
Waste water treatment district 7 central authorities divide into oxidation flocculation district 8 and circulation clear solution district 9 through a vertical baffle I20, and wherein oxidation flocculation district 8 and spraying district 6 intercommunication, circulation clear solution district 9 top is separated circulation clear solution district 9 and oxidation flocculation district 8 and spraying district 6 completely through baffle II 19, and baffle I20 links to each other through welding mode with baffle II 19, and baffle I20, baffle II 19 link to each other through welding mode between with the tower wall. An opening is formed in the partition plate I20, a metal net 21 with the aperture of 100 mu m is fixed in the opening area on one side of the oxidation flocculation area 8, and the metal net 21 is fixed on the partition plate I20 through a sealing strip 22 and a fastening screw 23; a flue gas pipeline II 8-5 is arranged at the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area 8, and a plurality of nozzles are arranged on the part of the flue gas pipeline II 8-5 extending to the oxidation flocculation area 8; the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area 8 is welded with a fixing part 29, and the fixing part 29 is connected with the stirring device 17; agitating unit 17 from the top down fixes rotatory impeller 24 in proper order, guide plate 26, stirring rake 28, rotatory impeller 24 is fixed in on the rotation axis 30, rotatory impeller 24 comprises a plurality of blades 25, all blades 25 are the same with the contained angle homogeneous phase of vertical direction, the plane at blade 25 place is 45 with the contained angle of horizontal plane, guide plate 26 is the back taper structure, the back taper top is uncovered structure, set up the gap between the back taper bottom of guide plate 26 and the rotation axis 30, guide plate 26 is located above 8 liquid levels in oxidation flocculation district, the stirring rake sets up 3 groups along the axial level, stirring rake 28 is located below 8 liquid levels in oxidation flocculation district.
An oxidizing gas pipeline 9-4 is arranged on one side of the circulating clear liquid zone 9 close to the tower wall, and the oxidizing gas pipeline 9-4 extends to one side of a partition plate I20 of the circulating clear liquid zone 9 and is connected with an oxidizing gas spray pipe 18; the oxidizing gas spray pipe 18 is provided with a plurality of nozzles which are opposite to the filter medium 21 on the partition plate I20; the tower wall at the upper part of the circulating clear liquid zone 9 is provided with an air vent 16.
The flue gas treated by the process is regenerated flue gas of a catalytic cracking catalyst containing dust and sulfur dioxide, but the process is not limited to the flue gas. The flue gas dust removal, desulfurization and wastewater treatment process of the embodiment specifically comprises the following contents:
(1) Flue gas enters a flue gas desulfurization tower in two paths, one path enters from the lower part of a quenching and cooling area 36 of the flue gas desulfurization tower through a flue gas pipeline I36-2, the other path enters from the bottom of an oxidation and flocculation area 8 of the flue gas desulfurization tower through a flue gas pipeline II 8-5 through a supercharger 39 and passes through slurry in the oxidation and flocculation area 8, wherein the flow ratio of the flue gas in the flue gas pipeline I36-2 to the flue gas pipeline II 8-5 is 15, the two paths of flue gas are converged and then contact with clean water atomized by the quenching and cooling area 27 for quenching and cooling, the quenched and cooled flue gas enters a spraying area 6 and is in countercurrent contact with circulating clear liquid of the spraying area 6 to remove most of dust and sulfur dioxide carried in the flue gas, the flue gas passing through the spraying area 6 enters a tower disc area 4 and is subjected to deep dust removal and desulfurization with the circulating clear liquid in the tower disc area 4, the purified flue gas enters a flue gas discharge, enters the outer sleeve 35 from the top of the chimney 34 and is fully mixed with air and then is discharged from the top of the smoke discharge area 1;
(2) The desulfurization slurry absorbing dust and sulfur dioxide flows from the spraying area 6 through the rotary impeller 24 and enters the oxidation flocculation area 8 from the liquid descending port 27 at the lower part of the guide plate 26, when the desulfurization slurry flows down from the spraying area 6 and passes through the rotary impeller 24, horizontal force is generated on the blades 25 of the rotary impeller 24, the gravitational potential energy of the desulfurization slurry is converted into kinetic energy to push the rotary impeller 24 to rotate around the rotary shaft 30 and drive the stirring paddle 28 fixed on the rotary shaft 30 to rotate to stir the desulfurization slurry, the desulfurization slurry is fully mixed with air, a polysilicic acid flocculating agent and a sodium hydroxide solution under the stirring action of the stirring paddle 28, sulfite in the desulfurization slurry is oxidized into sulfate, small particle dust in the desulfurization slurry is flocculated into large particles, meanwhile, smoke with a certain temperature enables moisture in the desulfurization slurry to be volatilized continuously, the salt concentration is increased gradually, and the pH value of the desulfurization wastewater in the oxidation flocculation area 8 is controlled to be 7.5 ~ 8 by adjusting the flow rate of the sodium hydroxide solution (;
(3) The liquid level height of an oxidation flocculation area 8 is controlled by adjusting the flow of discharged slurry 8-6, the liquid level difference between the liquid level of the oxidation flocculation area 8 and the liquid level difference between the liquid level of a circulating clear liquid area 9 is kept at 1.0 ~ 2.0.0 m by adjusting the liquid level height of the flow control circulating clear liquid area 9 of fresh water 9-2, the desulfurization slurry flows through a metal net 21 on a partition plate I20 under the action of the liquid level difference at two sides of a partition plate I20 to realize solid-liquid separation, dust particles in the desulfurization slurry are filtered and left in the oxidation flocculation area 8, clear liquid enters the circulating clear liquid area 9, and the slurry after oxidation flocculation is led out from the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area 8 and enters a subsequent treatment unit through a discharge pipeline;
(4) Oxidizing gas from a fan 31 enters from the circulating clear liquid zone 9, is sprayed out from a nozzle of the oxidizing gas spray pipe 18 and penetrates through the metal mesh 21, dust particles on the metal mesh 21 of the oxidation flocculation zone 8 are blown up, the blown-up dust and the oxidizing gas are taken away by the rotating slurry, the dust and the flocculating agent are aggregated into large particles to be deposited at the bottom of the oxidation flocculation zone under the action of gravity, sulfite in the slurry is oxidized into sulfate by the oxidizing gas, and the COD of the desulfurization wastewater reaches the standard;
(5) The pH value of the desulfurization wastewater in the circulating clear liquid zone 9 is controlled to be 7.0 ~ 7.5.5 by adjusting the flow rate of a sodium hydroxide solution (32 wt%) entering the circulating clear liquid zone 9, a clear liquid entering the circulating clear liquid zone 9 after being filtered by a metal mesh 21 is mixed with fresh water and the sodium hydroxide solution in the circulating clear liquid zone 9 and then is led out from the bottom of the circulating clear liquid zone 9, a small amount of the clear liquid is directly discharged to reduce the sodium sulfate content of the circulating clear liquid, the rest clear liquid enters a cooler 32 after being pressurized by a circulating clear liquid pump 33 and is cooled to 42 ℃, a part of the clear liquid cooled by the cooler 32 enters a spray zone 6, is atomized by an atomizing nozzle 15 and then is in countercurrent contact with flue gas to carry out dust removal and desulfurization, the other part of the clear liquid flows through a liquid distributor 12 and enters a tower tray zone 4, is in full contact with the flue gas on the tower tray 13 to enhance the mass transfer effect to realize the deep desulfurization of the flue gas, and capture the tiny dust particles between 0.1 mu m ~ 5 mu m and 13 mu m in the flue gas, so that the load of the clear liquid is separated by 3.
Example 2
The flue gas temperature of a boiler of a certain enterprise is 152 ℃, wherein SO2The concentration is 1000mg/Nm3The dust concentration was 260mg/Nm3By adopting the flue gas desulfurization tower, the diameter of a chimney 27 is4m, the diameter of the outer sleeve is 5m, the diameters of the tower bodies of the demisting area 3 and the tower tray area 4 are 10m, the diameters of the tower bodies of the spraying area 6, the quenching and cooling area 36 and the wastewater treatment area 7 are 8m, and the clean water flow of the quenching and cooling area is 80m3H is used as the reference value. SO in the externally discharged flue gas2The content is measured by a German Degraph flue gas analyzer (model Testo-350), the dust content is measured according to GB/T16157 and 1996 sampling method for particulate matters and gaseous pollutants in exhaust gas of fixed pollution sources, the content of soluble salt is obtained by filtering the flue gas, dissolving the flue gas by water and measuring the content of the soluble salt according to HJ/T51-1999 gravimetric method for measuring total salt content of water, and the measured and calculated result shows that the temperature of the flue gas discharged from the flue gas discharge area 1 is 50 ℃, and the dust content is 8.5mg/Nm3,SO2The content is 10mg/Nm3Soluble salt content of 1.8 mg/Nm3(ii) a Under the conditions that the ambient temperature is 25 ℃, the ambient wind speed is 4m/s and the ambient humidity is 70 percent, the length of the white smoke at the opening of the chimney is 45 m.
Example 3
In contrast, the flue gas desulfurization tower was not provided with the outer sleeve 28, and the length of the "white smoke" at the chimney port was 80m as in example 2.
Example 4
In contrast, the valve on the clean water line entering the quench cooling zone 36 is closed and the clean water flow is adjusted to 0m3The rest of the same procedure as in example 2, the temperature of the flue gas discharged into the chimney was 51 ℃ and SO2The content is 11.2mg/Nm3The dust content was 22.5mg/Nm3The content of soluble salt is 12.4 mg/Nm3

Claims (28)

1. A flue gas desulfurization tower comprises a flue gas discharge area, a demisting area, a tower tray area, a spray area, a quenching cooling area and a wastewater treatment area which are sequentially arranged from top to bottom, wherein the flue gas discharge area is of a chimney structure, the bottom of a chimney is connected with a tower body of the demisting area, a flue gas outlet is formed in the top of the chimney, an outer sleeve is arranged at the top of the chimney and is of a cylindrical structure with an upper opening and a lower opening, the upper edge of the outer sleeve is higher than the top of the chimney by a certain distance, the lower edge of the outer sleeve is lower than the upper edge of the chimney, an annular space is formed between the outer sleeve and the chimney, demisting equipment is arranged in the demisting area, one or more layers of tower trays are arranged in the tower tray area, the center of the wastewater treatment area is divided into an oxidation flocculation area and a circulating clear liquid area through a vertical baffle plate I, the oxidation flocculation area is communicated with the spraying area and the spraying area through a baffle II, the top of the circulating clear liquid area is completely separated from the oxidation flocculation area and the spraying area through a baffle II, an air vent is arranged in the tower wall of the circulating clear liquid area, the baffle I is provided with at least one opening, the baffle I is provided with an opening, the opening of the baffle I, the baffle I is formed by a rotating shaft of a rotating shaft, the rotating shaft is formed by a rotating shaft, the baffle plate II, the rotating shaft of the baffle plate II, the rotating impeller, the baffle plate II is formed by a rotating impeller, the rotating impeller is formed by rotating impeller, the rotating impeller is formed by the rotating impeller, the rotating impeller is formed by the rotating.
2. The flue gas desulfurization tower according to claim 1, wherein the upper edge of the outer sleeve is 0.2-10 m higher than the top of the chimney, the lower edge of the outer sleeve is 0.5 ~ 5m lower than the upper edge of the chimney, and the diameter of the bottom opening of the outer sleeve is 1.01-1.2 times of the diameter of the top opening of the chimney.
3. The flue gas desulfurization tower according to claim 1, characterized in that the filter medium is of a net structure, the mesh size is 0.1 ~ 1000 μm, and the filter medium is made of natural fibers, synthetic fibers, glass fibers or metal wires.
4. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein both ends of the partition plate II are respectively connected with the partition plate I and the tower wall of the circulating clear liquid zone, and the included angle between the joints of the partition plate I and the partition plate II is 45 ~ 165 degrees.
5. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein the flue gas discharge area is connected with the demisting area through a tapered reducing pipe, and the tower diameter ratio of the demisting area to the flue gas discharge area is 1.2 ~ 5.
6. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein the tray area and the spray area are connected by an inverted cone-shaped reducing unit, and the ratio of the tray area to the spray area is 1.2 ~ 3.
7. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: the demisting device is one or more of a cyclone demister, a wet electrostatic demister, a wire mesh demister or a baffling demister.
8. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: the tray is one or a combination of a plurality of float valve trays, sieve tray, guide sieve tray, tongue fixing tray, floating tongue tray or three-dimensional mass transfer tray.
9. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: and a liquid distributor is arranged between the tower tray area and the demisting area, and is connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline I and used for uniformly distributing circulating clear liquid on the tower tray.
10. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein the spraying area is provided with one or more layers of spraying pipelines, the distance between the spraying pipelines is 0.5 ~ 5m when the plurality of layers of spraying pipelines are arranged, the spraying pipelines are connected with the circulating clear liquid pipeline II, and the spraying pipelines are provided with a plurality of atomizing nozzles.
11. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: the rapid cooling and cooling zone at least comprises a pair of large-caliber atomizing nozzles with opposite openings.
12. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: one side of the oxidation flocculation area, which is close to the tower wall, is respectively connected with an alkaline solution pipeline I, a flocculating agent pipeline and a liquid level meter I; and the alkaline solution pipeline I is provided with a flow regulating valve.
13. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: one side of the circulating clear liquid zone, which is close to the tower wall, is connected with a fresh water pipeline, an alkaline solution pipeline II, an oxidizing gas pipeline and a liquid level meter II; a flow regulating valve is arranged on the fresh water pipeline; and the alkaline solution pipeline II is provided with a flow regulating valve for regulating the flow of the alkaline solution filled into the circulating clear liquid area.
14. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: the oxidizing gas pipeline is connected with the fan, extends to one side of the partition plate I of the circulating clear liquid zone and is connected with the oxidizing gas distribution pipe; the oxidizing gas distribution pipe is provided with a plurality of nozzles, and the nozzles are opposite to the filter medium on the partition plate I.
15. The flue gas desulfurization tower of claim 1, wherein: the bottom of the circulating clear liquid zone is connected with a clear liquid leading-out pipeline, the leading-out pipeline is divided into two paths, one path of pipeline is connected with an external clear liquid discharging pipeline, the other path of pipeline is connected with a circulating clear liquid pump, a pH meter is arranged on the pipeline, and the circulating clear liquid pump is connected with a circulating clear liquid pipeline I and a circulating clear liquid pipeline II through a cooler; the pH meter is used for measuring the pH value of the circulating clear liquid and feeding back a measurement signal to the regulating valve of the alkaline solution pipeline II through the controller.
16. A process for flue gas desulfurization and wastewater treatment is characterized by comprising the following steps: (1) flue gas enters a flue gas desulfurization tower in two paths, one path of flue gas enters from the lower part of a quenching and cooling area of the flue gas desulfurization tower through a flue gas pipeline I, the other path of flue gas enters from the bottom of an oxidation and flocculation area of the flue gas desulfurization tower through a flue gas pipeline II after being pressurized and passes through slurry in the oxidation and flocculation area, the two paths of flue gas are converged and then contact with clean water atomized by the quenching and cooling area to carry out quenching and cooling, the quenched and cooled flue gas enters a spraying area to be in countercurrent contact with circulating clear liquid in the spraying area to remove most of dust and sulfur dioxide carried in the flue gas, the flue gas passing through the spraying area enters a tower panel area, deep dedusting and desulfurization are carried out on the tower panel area and the circulating clear liquid, the purified flue gas enters a flue gas discharge area after being demisted by a demisting area, enters an; (2) the desulfurization slurry absorbing dust and sulfur dioxide flows through the rotary impeller from the spraying area to enter the oxidation flocculation area from the liquid descending port at the lower part of the guide plate, when the desulfurization slurry flows down from the spraying area and passes through the rotary impeller, horizontal force is generated on blades of the rotary impeller, the gravitational potential energy of the desulfurization slurry is converted into kinetic energy, the rotary impeller is pushed to rotate around the rotary shaft and drives the stirring paddle fixed on the rotary shaft to rotate to stir the desulfurization slurry, the desulfurization slurry is fully mixed with oxidizing gas, flocculating agent and alkaline solution under the stirring action of the stirring paddle, sulfite in the desulfurization slurry is oxidized into sulfate, small particle dust in the desulfurization slurry is flocculated into large particles, and meanwhile, flue gas with certain temperature from a flue gas pipeline II enables moisture in the desulfurization slurry to be continuously volatilized, and the salt concentration is gradually increased; (3) the desulfurization slurry flows through a filter medium on a partition plate I to realize solid-liquid separation under the action of liquid level difference on two sides of the partition plate I, dust particles in the desulfurization slurry are filtered and left in an oxidation flocculation area, clear liquid enters a circulating clear liquid area, and the slurry after oxidation flocculation is led out from the bottom of the oxidation flocculation area and enters a subsequent treatment unit through an external discharge pipeline; (4) oxidizing gas enters from the circulating clear liquid zone, is sprayed out from a nozzle of the oxidizing gas distribution pipe and penetrates through the filter medium, dust particles on the filter medium of the oxidation flocculation zone are blown up, the blown-up dust and the oxidizing gas are taken away by the rotating slurry, the dust and a flocculating agent are aggregated into large particles under the action of gravity and are deposited at the bottom of the oxidation flocculation zone, sulfite in the slurry is oxidized into sulfate by the oxidizing gas, and COD of the desulfurization wastewater reaches the standard; (5) the clear liquid which is filtered by the filter medium and enters the circulating clear liquid area is mixed with fresh water and alkaline solution in the circulating clear liquid area and then is led out from the bottom of the circulating clear liquid area, a small amount of clear liquid is directly discharged to reduce the salt concentration of the circulating clear liquid, the rest clear liquid enters the cooler after being pressurized by the circulating clear liquid pump, one part of the clear liquid cooled by the cooler enters the spraying area, is atomized by the atomizing nozzle and then is in countercurrent contact with the flue gas to remove dust and sulfur, the other part of the clear liquid flows through the liquid distributor and enters the tower disc area to be in full contact with the flue gas on the tower disc, and a large amount of micro fog drops carried by the spraying area are captured by the micro dust particles and the flue gas.
17. The process of claim 16, wherein: the flue gas in the step (1) is one or more of flue gas of a coal-fired boiler, flue gas of a coal-fired power plant, regenerated flue gas of a catalytic cracking catalyst, flue gas of a process heating furnace, coking flue gas or steel sintering flue gas.
18. the process according to claim 16, wherein the ratio of the amount of the flue gas entering the flue gas pipeline I to the amount of the flue gas entering the flue gas pipeline II is 20 ~ 500, and the ratio of clean water to the flue gas in the quenching and cooling zone is 0.05 ~ 2.5.5L/Nm3The ratio of the circulating clear liquid to the flue gas in the spraying area is 5 ~ 50L/Nm3, and the ratio of the circulating clear liquid to the flue gas in the tower tray area is 3 ~ 15L/Nm3
19. The process of claim 16, wherein: the content of soluble salt in the clean water is less than or equal to 30 g/L.
20. The process of claim 16, wherein: the alkaline solution is selected from one or more of sodium hydroxide solution, calcium hydroxide solution, magnesium hydroxide solution, sodium carbonate solution, sodium sulfite solution, sodium citrate solution, limestone slurry, ammonia water or seawater.
21. The process of claim 16, wherein: the oxidizing gas is one or more of air, oxygen or ozone.
22. The process of claim 16, wherein: the flocculating agent is one or more of aluminum sulfate, alum, sodium aluminate, ferric trichloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum sulfate, polyaluminum phosphate, polyaluminum chloride, polyferric sulfate, polyaluminum phosphate, polyphosphazene chloride, polyaluminum phosphate chloride, polysilicate iron, polysilicate ferric sulfate, polyaluminum sulfate silicate, polyaluminum ferric sulfate chloride, polyaluminum ferric silicate flocculating agent, aluminum-iron copolymerization composite flocculating agent, polysilicate flocculating agent or polyacrylamide flocculating agent.
23. The process of claim 16, wherein the pH value of the slurry after flocculation concentration is controlled to be 7 ~ 9, the pH on-line detector is positioned on the slurry discharge line, and the pH value of the desulfurized slurry is controlled by adjusting the adjusting valve on the alkaline solution line I.
24. The process as claimed in claim 16, wherein the liquid level difference between the two sides of the partition board I is 0.5 ~ 6m, and the liquid level of the oxidation flocculation zone is higher than that of the circulating clear liquid zone.
25. the process of claim 16, wherein: the liquid level height of the oxidation flocculation area is controlled by an adjusting valve on an external slurry discharge pipeline.
26. The process as set forth in claim 16, wherein the rinsing water spray pipes of the oxidative flocculation zone periodically rinse the filter medium on the partition plate I for 0.5 ~ 2 h.
27. The process of claim 16, wherein: the liquid level height of the circulating clear liquid area is controlled by an adjusting valve on a fresh water pipeline.
28. The process as set forth in claim 16, wherein the pH value of said circulating clear liquid zone is controlled to 6 ~ 11, and said pH on-line measuring instrument is located on the inlet line of said bottom circulating pump, and the pH value of said circulating clear liquid is controlled by adjusting the adjusting valve on the alkaline solution line II.
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