CN109738231B - Water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device and using method - Google Patents

Water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device and using method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109738231B
CN109738231B CN201910151193.3A CN201910151193A CN109738231B CN 109738231 B CN109738231 B CN 109738231B CN 201910151193 A CN201910151193 A CN 201910151193A CN 109738231 B CN109738231 B CN 109738231B
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water
sampling
heavy metal
rotating wheel
lifting rope
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CN109738231A (en
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谭秀慧
沈美芳
朱晓华
杨洪生
孟勇
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Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu Province
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Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu Province
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Abstract

The invention relates to a water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device, which comprises: the lifting rope, the winding drum, the connecting rod and the sampling piece; one end of the connecting rod is provided with a winding drum, the winding drum is connected with a lifting rope, one end of the lifting rope is connected with a sampling piece, the sampling element comprises a shell, a rotating wheel, a water inlet and a water outlet pipe, the rotating wheel is arranged in the shell, the water inlet and the water outlet pipe are arranged at corresponding positions on two sides of the shell, the rotating wheel is of a multi-layer fiber net structure, each layer of fiber net is formed by interweaving a plurality of warps and a plurality of wefts, an adsorbing material is arranged in a space surrounded by the warps and the wefts, the button controls the reel to rotate, the length of the lifting rope is adjusted, the depth of the sampling piece extending into water is judged according to the length of the lifting rope, the water pump controls the amount and the flow speed of water entering the sampling piece, the sampling sample is more accurate, the rotating wheel is taken out after sampling and is immersed into heavy metal detection solution, heavy metal precipitation extraction and detection analysis are carried out, and the invention also relates to a using method of the water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device.

Description

Water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device and using method
Technical Field
The invention relates to a sampling detection device, in particular to a water body heavy metal sampling detection device and a using method thereof.
Background
Industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and other wastes enter water bodies such as rivers, lakes and seas and exceed the pollution caused by the self-purification capacity of the water bodies, which can cause the change of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water bodies, thereby affecting the utilization value of water, harming human health or destroying ecological environment and causing the phenomenon of water quality deterioration.
Traditional water heavy metal sampling test device carries inconveniently, and the size is great, it uses to need to cooperate the analytical instrument of high accuracy, complex operation, it is troublesome to use, traditional heavy metal sampling test is not through the impurity adsorption that the multilayer fibre web contains heavy metal in carrying out the water, it does not set up adsorbing material in the space to surround between warp and the weft, the impurity adsorption effect who contains heavy metal is relatively poor, can adjust the flow and the velocity of flow of the water that passes the runner through the water pump, thereby be difficult to carry out quantitative analysis to aquatic heavy metal, the practicality is not strong.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention overcomes the defects of the prior art and provides a water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: water heavy metal sampling test device includes: the lifting rope, the winding drum, the connecting rod and the sampling piece; a winding drum is arranged at one end of the connecting rod, a lifting rope is wound on the outer side of the winding drum, one end of the lifting rope is connected with a sampling piece, the sampling piece comprises a shell and a rotating wheel, and the rotating wheel is arranged inside the shell; the rotating wheel can rotate, the rotating wheel is of a multi-layer fiber net structure, and each layer of fiber net is formed by interweaving a plurality of warps and a plurality of wefts; the sampling piece further comprises a water inlet and a water outlet pipe, the water inlet is arranged on one end face of the shell, the water outlet pipe is arranged on the other end face of the shell, and the water inlet is connected with a water pump.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the space surrounded by the warp and the weft is internally provided with an adsorbing material.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the wheel is driven to rotate by a motor.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a button is disposed at one end of the connecting rod.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the button can control the drum to rotate, thereby adjusting the depth of the lifting rope into the water.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a weight block is suspended at the bottom of the sampling member.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the fiber web is a web layer made of glass fibers, and the adsorption layer is activated carbon or a molecular sieve material.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the water inlet is a fan-shaped structure or a circular structure.
The other technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a use method of a heavy metal sampling detection device comprises the following steps:
(1) the sampling piece is thrown into a water body, the sampling piece can be driven to fall by the gravity of the balancing weight, and the length of the lifting rope can be adjusted by the button, so that the depth of the sampling piece in the water is controlled;
(2) the water pump pumps water into the sampling part through the water inlet, and after the water passes through the multiple layers of fiber nets, the adsorption material in the enclosed space of the warp threads and the weft threads of the fiber nets can adsorb solid impurities rich in heavy metals on the fiber nets;
(3) the rotating wheel rotates in the shell, and the water quantity and the flow rate entering the sampling piece can be controlled through the water pump, so that the content of heavy metal in a sample can be quantitatively analyzed, and the sampling precision of the sampling piece is improved;
(4) after sampling the heavy metal in the water body, lifting the sampling piece from the water by shortening the length of the lifting rope, taking out the multilayer fiber net, putting the multilayer fiber net into a detection solution for carrying out heavy metal precipitation extraction in solid impurities, and then carrying out detection analysis;
(5) after the impurities rich in heavy metals in the water body are detected and analyzed, the heavy metal content in the whole sewage pool or river is subjected to big data analysis through a sample estimation method, and then the whole sample detection and analysis is realized.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the rotation frequency of the sample in step (3) is 0.2-2 rpm.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the detection solution in step (4) is a lead solution with a concentration of 10 micrograms per milliliter.
The invention solves the defects in the background technology, and has the following beneficial effects:
(1) directly jettisoninging to the aquatic with sample, the balancing weight through sample piece bottom can prevent that the buoyancy of water from causing sample piece to be difficult to sink, and the sample effect is better, can control the reel rotation through the button to winding lifting rope length on the adjustment reel, and then the degree of depth in the control sample piece spys into the aquatic, and the sampling precision is higher.
(2) The sampling piece adopts a multilayer fiber net structure, the fiber net is formed by interweaving a plurality of warps and wefts, and an adsorption material is arranged in a space surrounded by the warps and the wefts, so that the adsorption effect of solid impurities rich in heavy metals in a water body can be improved, and the sampling precision is improved.
(3) Can take out the runner in the casing after the sample, with the fibre web dip in detect solution in, then through detecting the solid impurity precipitation that solution adsorbed rich in heavy metal on with the fibre web and appearing to carry out assay, detection effect is better.
(4) After the solid impurities rich in heavy metals adsorbed on the fiber net are analyzed, the large data analysis of the heavy metal content is carried out on the whole sewage pool or river through a sample estimation method, so that the full sample detection analysis of the heavy metal content is realized, the precision is higher, and the workload is lower.
(5) Can adjust the flow and the velocity of flow of the water that passes the runner through the water pump, thereby carry out quantitative analysis to aquatic heavy metal, but improve the reference value of sample, the runner is at slow rotatory in-process, the water pump constantly runs through the fibre web and the adsorption material of runner through the pump water, every unit interval runner just rotates a sector area in water inlet department corresponding position, the fibre web that each sector corresponds and the adsorption material time of crossing the water inlet alright accomplish the absorption to aquatic solid impurity, the adsorption process of every sector is dynamic process like this, and guarantee to adsorb the saturated adsorption state that is difficult to reach fibre web and adsorption material, in addition can also guarantee the homogeneity of fibre web and adsorption material adsorption solid impurity in the whole runner.
(6) The multilayer fiber net intercepts and attaches large-particle solid impurities through physical interception, activated carbon or molecular sieve materials arranged inside the multilayer fiber net adsorb small particles, the warp and weft linear densities of the multilayer fiber net are gradually increased from outside to inside, the solid impurities can be adsorbed step by step from outside to inside, and granular adsorbing materials can be wrapped inside the multilayer fiber net to form a complete adsorption system.
Drawings
The invention is further illustrated with reference to the following figures and examples.
FIG. 1 is a schematic partial structure view of a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the rotor configuration of the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the internal structure of the sampling member of the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a water inlet configuration of a further embodiment of the present invention;
in the figure:
1. connecting rod, 2, button, 3, water inlet, 4, casing, 5, reel, 6, lifting rope, 7, balancing weight, 8, runner, 9, pivot.
Detailed Description
The invention will now be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples, which are simplified schematic drawings and illustrate only the basic structure of the invention in a schematic manner, and thus show only the constituents relevant to the invention.
As shown in fig. 1, fig. 2, fig. 3 and fig. 4, the sampling and detecting device for heavy metals in water body comprises: a lifting rope 6, a winding drum 5, a connecting rod 1 and a sampling piece; a winding drum 5 is arranged at one end of the connecting rod 1, a lifting rope 6 is wound on the outer side of the winding drum 5, one end of the lifting rope 6 is connected with a sampling piece, the sampling piece comprises a shell 4 and a rotating wheel 8, and the rotating wheel 8 is arranged inside the shell 4; the rotating wheel 8 can rotate, the rotating wheel 8 is of a multi-layer fiber net structure, each layer of fiber net is formed by interweaving a plurality of warps and a plurality of wefts, and adsorbing materials are arranged in the space surrounded by the warps and the wefts and can adsorb heavy metal-rich solid impurities in a water body.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the sampling member further comprises a water inlet 3 and a water outlet pipe, the water inlet 3 is arranged on the outer wall of the upper part of one side of the shell 4, the water outlet pipe is arranged on the outer wall of the lower part of the other side of the shell 4, the water inlet 3 is of a circular structure, the water pump is connected to the water inlet 3, one end of the connecting rod 1 is provided with a button 2, the sampling member adopts a multi-layer fiber mesh structure, the fiber mesh is formed by interweaving a plurality of warps and wefts, an adsorbing material is arranged in a space surrounded by the warps and the wefts, the adsorbing material is sepiolite, and the sepiolite is natural fibrous hydrated magnesium-containing silicate clay, and adsorbs impurities rich in heavy metals in wastewater, so that the adsorption effect on solid impurities containing the heavy metals can be improved, and the sampling precision is improved.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the water inlet 3 is in a fan-shaped structure, the contact area of the water body when entering the runner can be increased due to the fan-shaped water inlet, thereby improving the adsorption of the solid impurities rich in heavy metals in the water body on the rotating wheel, ensuring that the radian of one rotation of the rotating wheel is the same as that of the water inlet in the rotation process of the rotating wheel, in the process of rotating the rotating wheel, the solid impurities rich in heavy metals adsorbed on the whole rotating wheel are relatively uniform, the adsorption effect of the rotating wheel is improved, the button 2 can control the winding drum 5 to rotate, in the rotation process of the winding drum, the lifting rope can be driven to be tightened or lengthened, so that the depth of the lifting rope 6 entering water is adjusted, a balancing weight 7 is hung at the bottom of the sampling piece, the weight of the balancing weight can pull the sampling piece into the water body, prevent that the sample piece from floating on the water, influence the sample effect, the balancing weight selects to use glass or pottery that can not corroded by the heavy metal.
Specifically, the main factors determining the toxicity of the pollutants are the material properties, the content and the existing forms of the pollutants, for example, chromium has three forms of divalent, trivalent and hexavalent, wherein hexavalent chromium is very toxic, trivalent chromium is one of important elements of human metabolism, the toxicity range of common heavy metals in natural water is about 1-10mg/L, and heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium and the like with the toxicity range of 0.001-0.01mg/L flow along with water, which can cause serious pollution to water resources and air and great harm to human bodies, the heavy metal sampling device of the water body is used for sampling the solid impurities rich in heavy metals, the multilayer fiber net is taken down and soaked in a heavy metal detection solution after sampling, the solid impurities rich in heavy metals are analyzed, and then the difference of different heavy metal contents in different rivers can be detected, different purification treatment modes are flexibly selected, a sampling part is directly thrown into water, the balancing weight 7 at the bottom of the sampling part can prevent the water buoyancy from causing the sampling part to be difficult to sink, the sampling effect is good, the winding drum 5 can be controlled to rotate through the button 2, so that the length of a lifting rope 6 wound on the winding drum 5 is adjusted, the depth of the sampling part in water is controlled, the sampling precision is high, a rotating wheel 8 in the shell 4 can be taken out after sampling, the fiber net is immersed in a detection solution, then solid impurities rich in heavy metals adsorbed on the fiber net are precipitated through the detection solution, detection and analysis are carried out, the detection effect is good, the multilayer fiber net intercepts and attaches large-particle solid impurities through physical interception, activated carbon or molecular sieve materials arranged in the multilayer fiber net adsorb small particles, and in addition, the warp and weft linear density of the multilayer fiber net is gradually increased from outside to inside, the adsorption device can ensure that solid impurities are adsorbed step by step from outside to inside, and granular adsorption materials can be wrapped in the adsorption device to form a complete adsorption system.
After the solid impurity that is rich in heavy metal that adsorbs on the fibre web carries out the analysis, carry out heavy metal content's big data analysis to whole effluent water sump or river through sample estimation algorithm, and then realize heavy metal content's full sample detection and analysis, the precision is higher, and the work load is lower, can adjust the flow and the velocity of flow of the water that passes runner 8 through the water pump, runner 8 is through the inside of pivot 9 swing joint at casing 4 to carry out quantitative analysis to heavy metal content in the aquatic, but improve the reference value of sample.
The runner is at slow rotatory in-process, the water pump constantly runs through the fibre web and the adsorption material of runner through the pump water, every unit interval runner just rotates a sector area in water inlet department corresponding position, the fibre web that each sector corresponds and the adsorption material time of rotating the water inlet alright accomplish the absorption to aquatic solid impurity, the adsorption process of every sector is dynamic process like this, and guarantee to adsorb the saturated adsorption state that is difficult to reach fibre web and adsorption material, in addition can also guarantee the homogeneity of fibre web and the adsorption material adsorption solid impurity in the whole runner.
The other technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a use method of a heavy metal sampling detection device comprises the following steps:
(1) the sampling piece is thrown into a water body, the sampling piece can be driven to fall by the gravity of the balancing weight 7, the length of the lifting rope 6 can be adjusted through the button 2, and therefore the depth of the sampling piece in the water is controlled;
(2) the water pump pumps water into the sampling part through the water inlet 3, and after the water passes through the multiple layers of fiber nets, the heavy metal ions can be adsorbed on the fiber nets by the adsorbing materials in the enclosed space of the warp threads and the weft threads of the fiber nets;
(3) the rotating wheel 8 rotates in the shell 4, and the water quantity and the flow rate entering the sampling piece can be controlled through the water pump, so that heavy metals in a sample can be quantitatively analyzed, and the sampling precision of the sampling piece is improved;
(4) after sampling the heavy metals in the water body, lifting the sampling piece from the water by shortening the length of the lifting rope 6, taking out the multilayer fiber net, putting the multilayer fiber net into a detection solution, precipitating and extracting impurities rich in the heavy metals in the water body, and then carrying out detection analysis;
(5) after the heavy metal solid impurities in the water body are detected and analyzed, the heavy metals in the whole sewage pool or river are subjected to big data analysis through a sample estimation method, and then the full sample detection and analysis are realized.
And (3) the rotation frequency of the sampling piece in the step (3) is 0.2-2 revolutions per minute, and the detection solution in the step (4) is a lead solution with the concentration of 10 micrograms per milliliter.
In the step (5), after the multilayer fiber net is sampled for the solid impurities rich in heavy metals, the multilayer fiber net is taken down, then the heavy metal solid impurities on the surface layer or the subsurface layer of the fiber net with the thickness of 1-3 mm are taken down by a plastic knife, 3-4 analysis samples are respectively taken from each layer, the sampling amount is determined according to the research projects aiming at different heavy metal solid impurities, the sampled samples are quickly put into a beaker, the samples are put on a clean polyethylene plate, gravel in the solid impurities is extracted, then an agate pot is added into the beaker and ground on a ball mill, the ground samples are fully and uniformly mixed, the samples with the weight of 10-20 g are divided by a quartering method, the samples are put into sample bags and sent into a laboratory for analysis and determination, different analysis methods are used aiming at different heavy metal solid impurities, for total mercury analysis, for example, an atomic fluorescence method is used for analysis, the samples are in a nitric acid-hydrochloric acid system, putting the river into a boiling water bath for digestion, enabling mercury to enter a solution in an ion state in full amount, converting ionic mercury in the solution into mercury vapor, enabling the atomic mercury vapor to enter an atomizer of an atomic fluorescence photometer by taking hydrogen as carrier gas, measuring the fluorescence intensity of the mercury ions by taking a special mercury hollow cathode lamp as an excitation light source, sampling and analyzing samples in different areas and different depths in the whole river, and estimating the total mercury content in the whole river by using an estimation method according to the analysis result of the samples.
In light of the foregoing description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is to be understood that various changes and modifications may be made by one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The technical scope of the present invention is not limited to the content of the specification, and must be determined according to the scope of the claims.

Claims (9)

1. Water heavy metal sampling test device includes: the lifting rope, the winding drum, the connecting rod and the sampling piece; it is characterized in that the preparation method is characterized in that,
a winding drum is arranged at one end of the connecting rod, a lifting rope is wound on the outer side of the winding drum, one end of the lifting rope is connected with a sampling piece, the sampling piece comprises a shell and a rotating wheel, and the rotating wheel is arranged inside the shell;
the rotating wheel can rotate, the rotating wheel is of a multi-layer fiber net structure, and each layer of fiber net is formed by interweaving a plurality of warps and a plurality of wefts;
the sampling piece further comprises a water inlet and a water outlet pipe, the water inlet is arranged on one end face of the shell, the water outlet pipe is arranged on the other end face of the shell, and the water inlet is connected with a water pump;
the water pump can adjust the flow and the flow speed of water passing through the rotating wheel;
the water inlet is of a fan-shaped structure, and the radian of each rotation of the rotating wheel in the rotation process is the same as that of the water inlet;
and an adsorption material is arranged in the space surrounded by the warps and the wefts.
2. The water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device of claim 1, wherein: the rotating wheel is driven to rotate by a motor.
3. The water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device of claim 1, wherein: one end of the connecting rod is provided with a button.
4. The water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device of claim 3, wherein: the button can control the drum to rotate, so that the depth of the lifting rope entering water is adjusted.
5. The device for sampling and detecting the heavy metals in the water body according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein: and a balancing weight is hung at the bottom of the sampling part.
6. The water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device of claim 1, wherein: the fiber net is a net layer made of glass fibers, and the adsorption material is activated carbon or a molecular sieve material.
7. The use method of the heavy metal sampling and detecting device according to claim 1, characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) the sampling piece is thrown into a water body, the sampling piece can be driven to fall by the gravity of the balancing weight, and the length of the lifting rope can be adjusted by the button, so that the depth of the sampling piece in the water is controlled;
(2) the water pump pumps water into the sampling part through the water inlet, and after the water passes through the multiple layers of fiber nets, the adsorption material in the enclosed space of the warp threads and the weft threads of the fiber nets can adsorb solid impurities rich in heavy metals on the fiber nets;
(3) the rotating wheel rotates in the shell, and the flow speed entering the sampling piece can be controlled by the water pump;
(4) after sampling impurities rich in heavy metals in the water body, lifting the sampling piece from the water by shortening the length of the lifting rope, taking out the multilayer fiber net, putting the multilayer fiber net into a detection solution, precipitating and extracting the impurities rich in heavy metals in the water body, and then carrying out detection analysis;
(5) after the impurities rich in heavy metals in the water body are detected and analyzed, the heavy metals in the whole sewage pool or river are subjected to big data analysis through a sample estimation method, and then the full sample detection and analysis are realized.
8. A method of use according to claim 7, wherein: and (4) in the step (3), the rotating frequency of the sampling piece is 0.2-2 revolutions per minute.
9. A method of use according to claim 7 or 8, characterised in that: the test solution in step (4) was a lead solution with a concentration of 10 micrograms per milliliter.
CN201910151193.3A 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 Water body heavy metal sampling and detecting device and using method Active CN109738231B (en)

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CN110208037A (en) * 2019-05-20 2019-09-06 力合科技(湖南)股份有限公司 Stratified Sampling device and analysis system

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