CN108673464A - A kind of automatic pruning device of rose - Google Patents

A kind of automatic pruning device of rose Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108673464A
CN108673464A CN201810314921.3A CN201810314921A CN108673464A CN 108673464 A CN108673464 A CN 108673464A CN 201810314921 A CN201810314921 A CN 201810314921A CN 108673464 A CN108673464 A CN 108673464A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
servo motor
arm
rose
main shaft
executing agency
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201810314921.3A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
朱惠斌
安冉
白丽珍
郭子豪
王杰
曹科高
成习军
李学平
左玉坤
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
Original Assignee
Kunming University of Science and Technology
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
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Application filed by Kunming University of Science and Technology filed Critical Kunming University of Science and Technology
Priority to CN201810314921.3A priority Critical patent/CN108673464A/en
Publication of CN108673464A publication Critical patent/CN108673464A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J5/00Manipulators mounted on wheels or on carriages
    • B25J5/007Manipulators mounted on wheels or on carriages mounted on wheels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G3/00Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes; Delimbing standing trees
    • A01G3/02Secateurs; Flower or fruit shears
    • A01G3/033Secateurs; Flower or fruit shears having motor-driven blades
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J11/00Manipulators not otherwise provided for
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J13/00Controls for manipulators
    • B25J13/08Controls for manipulators by means of sensing devices, e.g. viewing or touching devices
    • B25J13/088Controls for manipulators by means of sensing devices, e.g. viewing or touching devices with position, velocity or acceleration sensors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/10Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by positioning means for manipulator elements
    • B25J9/12Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by positioning means for manipulator elements electric
    • B25J9/126Rotary actuators

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Robotics (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
  • Ecology (AREA)
  • Forests & Forestry (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Human Computer Interaction (AREA)
  • Harvester Elements (AREA)

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of automatic pruning devices of rose, belong to agricultural machinery technological field.The present invention includes vehicle frame, executing agency, cutting mechanism, walking mechanism;When work, the height range of rose plant is identified by surveying high probe and range finding probe, and these information are fed back into controller, controller controls the servo motor work in executing agency, servo motor, which drives, executes arm movement, and control the scissors hand progress shearing motion for executing arm front end, the present apparatus is whole across on alley, two cutting mechanisms can carry out trimming operation to the rose plant on two ridges simultaneously, by the trimming parameter for setting controller, it can be achieved to carry out stump trimming operation to the rose branch of different height, apparatus of the present invention are simple in structure, it is small, automatic identification rose plant can be achieved and operation is trimmed to it, complete machine structure reasonable design, operation quality is good, work efficiency is high, it reduces labor intensity, while improving working environment, reduce production cost.

Description

A kind of automatic pruning device of rose
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of automatic pruning devices of rose, belong to agricultural machinery technological field.
Background technology
Rose can both be used for watching, can also be used to process food, and bringing for flower-grower can as a kind of industrial crops The income of sight.But annual rose will pick in fresh flower and carry out beta pruning later, to reach coming year rejuvenating, reinforce strain formula Purpose.Previous beta pruning is required for worker to enter field beta pruning, not only inefficiency, but also intensive rose branch often will Worker scratches.Since the topography of many roses growth is more complicated, many commonly-used pruning machine can not adapt to topography, thus can not Work.
Existing pruning machine type is more, but needs worker to hold pruning machine mostly and enter field progress shearing work for example The beta pruning equipment of " a kind of electric lopping device " one kind disclosed in CN102334421A patents of invention, although easy to operate, operation Effect is good, but needs worker to hold pruning machine and enter rose Tanaka progress beta pruning operation, not only working environment difference but also shearing effect Rate is low, therefore is not applied for the intensive rose branch of shearing plant strain growth.
Invention content
The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to:The present invention provides a kind of automatic pruning device of rose, to realize to complexity The rose plant of landform carries out automatic and preferably trims operation.
The technical scheme is that:A kind of automatic pruning device of rose, including vehicle frame 17, executing agency, cutting mechanism, row Walk mechanism;
The cutting mechanism is mounted on the front end of executing agency, and executing agency is mounted in 17 rear and front end of vehicle frame, and walking mechanism is used It walks in the automatic pruning device of rose;
The executing agency includes capstan head 1, column 2, executes arm I 3, execute arm II 4, servo motor I 6, servo motor II 7, watch It takes motor III 8, servo motor IV 9, survey high probe 12, range finding probe 13, controller 14;
The column 2 is mounted on capstan head 1, and 2 side of column is equipped with servo motor I 6, is executed arm I 3 and is led by servo motor I 6 Axis is mounted on column 2, and servo motor I 6 executes arm I 3 around the rotation of I 6 main shaft of servo motor, the servo motor II for controlling 7 are mounted on the front end for executing arm I 3, for driving the execution arm II 4 being connect with servo motor III 8 to turn around II 7 main shaft of servo motor Dynamic, the servo motor III 8 is mounted on respectively by main shaft with servo motor IV 9 and executes II 4 both sides of arm, the servo motor III 8 are mounted on II 7 main shaft of servo motor, and execute arm II 4 around III 8 main axis of servo motor, the cutter for driving Structure is fixed on servo motor IV 9, by IV 9 main axis of servo motor, cutting mechanism can be made to be rotated around arm II 4 is executed.
The high probe 12 of the survey is mounted on 14 top of controller with range finding probe 13, and controller 14, which is fixed on, executes arm I 3 On, turret motor is installed in the capstan head 1, for making column 2 around turret rotated.
The cutting mechanism includes shearing arm 5, servo motor V 10, servo motor VI 11, cutter 15, bottom knife 16;
The shearing arm 5 is fixed with servo motor IV 9, by turning mounted on IV 9 main shaft of servo motor executed on arm II 4 It is dynamic, drive shearing arm 5 to rotate, the servo motor V 10 is fixed on 5 front end of shearing arm, servo electricity with servo motor VI 11 Machine V 10 has gap above servo motor VI 11, the cutter 15 and bottom knife 16 be located at servo motor V 10 and In VI 11 gap of servo motor, cutter 15 is mounted on V 10 main shaft of servo motor, and bottom knife 16 is mounted on servo motor VI On 11 main shafts, rotated by servo motor band cutting blade, the cutter 15 fits closely together with bottom knife 16, and formation is cut The shearing hand of blade.
The walking mechanism includes 19, two four wheels 18, accumulator driving motors 20;
The accumulator 19 is mounted on vehicle frame 17, and for powering for the automatic pruning device of rose, four wheels 18 pass through Main shaft is mounted on vehicle frame 17, and two 20 main shafts of driving motor are connect with two 18 main shafts of front vehicle wheel, and drive its rotation.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
(1)Apparatus of the present invention lighter weight, small volume, energy automatic identification rose plant simultaneously trim operation to it.
(2)Apparatus of the present invention do not need worker and enter the progress beta pruning operation of rose field, avoid worker by dense rose Rare branch scratches, and improves working environment, alleviates labor intensity, improves work efficiency.
(3)Apparatus of the present invention are front and back to be equipped with Liang Zu executing agencies and cutting mechanism, can disposably realize the rose to two ridges Rare branch carries out trimming operation.
(4)Apparatus of the present invention are reasonable in design, and operation quality is good, and work efficiency is high, and operation is reliable, reduces labor intensity While, production cost is reduced, is energized using accumulator, under the premise of time saving and energy saving province's work(, has accomplished greenization operation, It is adapted to carry out beta pruning operation to the rose branch of complicated landform.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the front view of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the side view of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the vertical view of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is apparatus of the present invention executing agency and cutting mechanism schematic diagram I;
Fig. 6 is apparatus of the present invention executing agency and cutting mechanism schematic diagram II;
Fig. 7 is apparatus of the present invention executing agency and cutting mechanism schematic diagram III;
Fig. 8 is apparatus of the present invention capstan head and pillar construction schematic diagram;
Fig. 9 is that apparatus of the present invention execute I structural schematic diagram of arm;
Figure 10 is that apparatus of the present invention execute II structural schematic diagram of arm;
Figure 11 is apparatus of the present invention probe and controller attachment structure schematic diagram.
Each label in Fig. 1-11:1- capstan heads, 2- columns, 3- execute arm I, 4- executes arm II, 5- shearings arm, 6- servo electricity Machine I, 7- servo motors II, 8- servo motors III, 9- servo motors IV, 10- servo motors V, 11- servo motors VI, 12- are surveyed High probe, 13- range finding probes, 14- controllers, 15- cutters, 16- bottom knife, 17- vehicle frames, 18- wheels, 19- accumulators, 20- driving motors.
Specific implementation mode
In the following with reference to the drawings and specific embodiments, the invention will be further described.
Embodiment 1:As shown in figs. 1-11, the automatic pruning device of a kind of rose, including vehicle frame 17, Liang Ge executing agencies, two A cutting mechanism, walking mechanism;The structure of Liang Ge executing agencies is identical, and the structure of two cutting mechanisms is identical;
The cutting mechanism is mounted on the front end of executing agency, and Liang Ge executing agencies are mounted in 17 rear and front end of vehicle frame, vehicle with walking machine Structure is walked for the automatic pruning device of rose;
The executing agency includes capstan head 1, column 2, executes arm I 3, execute arm II 4, servo motor I 6, servo motor II 7, watch It takes motor III 8, servo motor IV 9, survey high probe 12, range finding probe 13, controller 14;
The column 2 is mounted on capstan head 1, and 2 side of column is equipped with servo motor I 6, is executed arm I 3 and is led by servo motor I 6 Axis is mounted on column 2, and servo motor I 6 executes arm I 3 around the rotation of I 6 main shaft of servo motor, the servo motor II for controlling 7 are mounted on the front end for executing arm I 3, for driving the execution arm II 4 being connect with servo motor III 8 to turn around II 7 main shaft of servo motor Dynamic, the servo motor III 8 is mounted on respectively by main shaft with servo motor IV 9 and executes II 4 both sides of arm, the servo motor III 8 are mounted on II 7 main shaft of servo motor, and execute arm II 4 around III 8 main axis of servo motor, the cutter for driving Structure is fixed on servo motor IV 9, by IV 9 main axis of servo motor, cutting mechanism can be made to be rotated around arm II 4 is executed.
Further, the high probe 12 of the survey is mounted on 14 top of controller with range finding probe 13, and controller 14 is fixed on It executes on arm I 3, turret motor is installed in the capstan head 1, for making column 2 around turret rotated.
Further, the cutting mechanism includes shearing arm 5, servo motor V 10, servo motor VI 11, cutter 15, bottom knife 16;
The shearing arm 5 is fixed with servo motor IV 9, by turning mounted on IV 9 main shaft of servo motor executed on arm II 4 It is dynamic, drive shearing arm 5 to rotate, the servo motor V 10 is fixed on 5 front end of shearing arm, servo electricity with servo motor VI 11 Machine V 10 has gap above servo motor VI 11, the cutter 15 and bottom knife 16 be located at servo motor V 10 and In VI 11 gap of servo motor, cutter 15 is mounted on V 10 main shaft of servo motor, and bottom knife 16 is mounted on servo motor VI On 11 main shafts, rotated by servo motor band cutting blade, the cutter 15 fits closely together with bottom knife 16, and formation is cut The shearing hand of blade.
Further, the walking mechanism includes 19, two four wheels 18, accumulator driving motors 20;
The accumulator 19 is mounted on vehicle frame 17, and for powering for the automatic pruning device of rose, four wheels 18 pass through Main shaft is mounted on vehicle frame 17, and two 20 main shafts of driving motor are connect with two 18 main shafts of front vehicle wheel, and drive its rotation.
The present invention operation principle be:
When the present apparatus works, is energized for complete machine by accumulator 19, drive front wheel 18 to operate by driving motor 20, to make Complete machine is advanced, and the height for the plant of being cut roses back and row spacing parameter are input in controller 14 by worker, pass through executing agency On survey height probe 12 with range finding probe 13 acquire information(Figure including rose plant height and rose plant and present apparatus distance Piece information)And controller 14 is fed back to, controller 14 sends out the operating of servo motor in pulse signal control executing agency, to It drives executing agency to reach designated position, and the cutting mechanism of its front end is driven to trim rose plant.
When executing agency works, turret motor is installed in capstan head 1, the watching in turret rotated, column of column 2 can be made Taking motor I 6 can drive execution arm I 3 to rotate, to make the opposite column 2 of execution arm I 3 around I 6 main shaft of servo motor in certain angle Degree rotation, servo motor II 7 are mounted on the front end for executing arm I 3, are watched by servo motor II 7 main shaft and execution II 4 one end of arm The connection of motor III 8 is taken, to which II 7 main shaft of servo motor drives the execution arm II 4 on servo motor III 8 to be done relative to arm I 3 is executed Axial rotation, servo motor III 8 are connect with the main shaft of servo motor IV 9 with II 4 both ends of arm are executed, and servo motor III 8 drives again It executes arm II 4 to rotate relative to the execution arm I 3 on servo motor II 7 around III 8 main shaft of servo motor, on the cutting mechanism Arm 5 is sheared by being fixed on servo motor IV 9 to realize the connection of cutting mechanism and executing agency, passes through servo motor IV 9 rotations can be such that shearing arm 5 is rotated around IV 9 main shaft of motor relative to arm II 4 is executed, when cutting mechanism works, servo electricity Machine V 10 and servo motor VI 11 are fixed on 5 front end of shearing arm, and servo motor V 10 is above servo motor VI 11, and two There is certain interval between person, for installing bottom knife, cutter 15 is mounted on V 10 main shaft of servo motor, and bottom knife 16 is installed On VI 11 main shaft of servo motor, two blades are located in gap and fit closely, and pass through servo motor V 10 and servo motor VI Main shaft on 11 does reciprocating opposite direction rotating by certain angle and moves, to drive two blades progress shearing motions up and down.
Specific embodiments of the present invention are explained in detail above in conjunction with attached drawing, but the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned realities Example is applied, it within the knowledge of a person skilled in the art, can also be without departing from the purpose of the present invention Various changes can be made.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of automatic pruning device of rose, it is characterised in that:Including vehicle frame(17), executing agency, cutting mechanism, vehicle with walking machine Structure;
The cutting mechanism is mounted on the front end of executing agency, and executing agency is mounted in vehicle frame(17)Rear and front end, walking mechanism It walks for the automatic pruning device of rose;
The executing agency includes capstan head(1), column(2), execute arm I(3), execute arm II(4), servo motor I(6), servo Motor II(7), servo motor III(8), servo motor IV(9), survey high probe(12), range finding probe(13), controller(14);
The column(2)Mounted on capstan head(1)On, column(2)Side is equipped with servo motor I(6), execute arm I(3)By watching Take motor I(6)Main shaft is mounted on column(2)On, servo motor I(6)Arm I is executed for controlling(3)Around servo motor I(6)It is main Axis rotates, the servo motor II(7)Mounted on execution arm I(3)Front end, for drive with servo motor III(8)Connection Execute arm II(4)Around servo motor II(7)Main axis, the servo motor III(8)With servo motor IV(9)Pass through master respectively Axis, which is mounted on, executes arm II(4)Both sides, the servo motor III(8)Mounted on servo motor II(7)On main shaft, and for driving Execute arm II(4)Around servo motor III(8)Main axis, the cutting mechanism are fixed on servo motor IV(9)On, pass through servo Motor IV(9)Main axis can make cutting mechanism around execution arm II(4)Rotation.
2. the automatic pruning device of rose according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The high probe of the survey(12)It is visited with ranging Head(13)Mounted on controller(14)Top, controller(14)It is fixed on and executes arm I(3)On, the capstan head(1)It is inside equipped with and turns Tower motor, for making column(2)Around turret rotated.
3. the automatic pruning device of rose according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The cutting mechanism includes shearing arm (5), servo motor V(10), servo motor VI(11), cutter(15), bottom knife(16);
The shearing arm(5)With servo motor IV(9)It is fixed, execute arm II by being mounted on(4)On servo motor IV(9) Main axis drives shearing arm(5)Rotation, the servo motor V(10)With servo motor VI(11)It is fixed on shearing arm (5)Front end, servo motor V(10)In servo motor VI(11)Top, and have gap, the cutter(15)With bottom knife (16)Positioned at servo motor V(10)With servo motor VI(11)In gap, cutter(15)Mounted on servo motor V(10)It is main On axis, bottom knife(16)Mounted on servo motor VI(11)On main shaft, rotated by servo motor band cutting blade, the cutter (15)With bottom knife(16)It fits closely and forms scissor shearing hand together.
4. the automatic pruning device of rose according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The walking mechanism includes four wheels (18), accumulator(19), two driving motors(20);
The accumulator(19)Mounted on vehicle frame(17)On, for powering for the automatic pruning device of rose, four wheels (18)It is mounted on vehicle frame by main shaft(17)On, two driving motors(20)Main shaft and two front vehicle wheels(18)Main shaft connects, and Drive its rotation.
CN201810314921.3A 2018-04-10 2018-04-10 A kind of automatic pruning device of rose Pending CN108673464A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201810314921.3A CN108673464A (en) 2018-04-10 2018-04-10 A kind of automatic pruning device of rose

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109588137A (en) * 2018-12-22 2019-04-09 沈建国 Material special purpose engineering automobile is cut down at a kind of cutter and the small-sized forest scene for being equipped with cutter
CN110014410A (en) * 2019-05-14 2019-07-16 襄阳金美科林农业开发有限公司 A kind of fast-growing woods quickly pruning robot and its control method
CN110405785A (en) * 2019-07-30 2019-11-05 南京禹智智能科技有限公司 Six axis trimming machine cuts people of one kind and working method

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CN102657037A (en) * 2012-04-13 2012-09-12 浙江工业大学 Pruning robot system for grape vines
CN104221732A (en) * 2014-09-29 2014-12-24 华南理工大学 Robot and method for pruning and crushing twigs
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WO2016099335A1 (en) * 2014-12-15 2016-06-23 Акционерное общество "Квантум Системс" Robotic device for shaping greenery, and shaping method
CN105746198A (en) * 2016-04-22 2016-07-13 泉州智勇达电气有限责任公司 Pruning system of automatic branch pruning robot for overhead transmission line
CN106613399A (en) * 2016-10-13 2017-05-10 青岛佳春生态园艺有限公司 Fruit tree pruning device
CN106718158A (en) * 2017-01-14 2017-05-31 许建芹 A kind of garden management robot
CN106718168A (en) * 2017-03-10 2017-05-31 重庆交通大学 Bionical snake hedge trimming device
CN107047086A (en) * 2017-06-20 2017-08-18 山西省农业科学院旱地农业研究中心 Branch equipment is received in the full-automatic beta pruning of tomato
CN206423195U (en) * 2017-01-10 2017-08-22 马金锁 A kind of forestry trees clipping device
CN206542742U (en) * 2016-12-22 2017-10-10 山东省林木种苗和花卉站 A kind of shrub and hedge trimmer for Chinese herbaceous peony side spray
CN107251767A (en) * 2017-06-28 2017-10-17 江苏师范大学 A kind of Multifunctional trimming robot
CN207040242U (en) * 2017-08-11 2018-02-27 博湖县红多多蕃茄制品有限公司 A kind of tomato intelligence picker based on machine vision
US20180092304A1 (en) * 2016-09-15 2018-04-05 Francis Wilson Moore Methods for Pruning Fruit Plants and Methods for Harvesting Fruit

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102657037A (en) * 2012-04-13 2012-09-12 浙江工业大学 Pruning robot system for grape vines
CN105075688A (en) * 2014-05-21 2015-11-25 新昌县康泓机械科技有限公司 A cutting tool capable of intelligently judging closing and providing assistance
CN104221732A (en) * 2014-09-29 2014-12-24 华南理工大学 Robot and method for pruning and crushing twigs
WO2016099335A1 (en) * 2014-12-15 2016-06-23 Акционерное общество "Квантум Системс" Robotic device for shaping greenery, and shaping method
CN105746198A (en) * 2016-04-22 2016-07-13 泉州智勇达电气有限责任公司 Pruning system of automatic branch pruning robot for overhead transmission line
US20180092304A1 (en) * 2016-09-15 2018-04-05 Francis Wilson Moore Methods for Pruning Fruit Plants and Methods for Harvesting Fruit
CN106613399A (en) * 2016-10-13 2017-05-10 青岛佳春生态园艺有限公司 Fruit tree pruning device
CN206542742U (en) * 2016-12-22 2017-10-10 山东省林木种苗和花卉站 A kind of shrub and hedge trimmer for Chinese herbaceous peony side spray
CN206423195U (en) * 2017-01-10 2017-08-22 马金锁 A kind of forestry trees clipping device
CN106718158A (en) * 2017-01-14 2017-05-31 许建芹 A kind of garden management robot
CN106718168A (en) * 2017-03-10 2017-05-31 重庆交通大学 Bionical snake hedge trimming device
CN107047086A (en) * 2017-06-20 2017-08-18 山西省农业科学院旱地农业研究中心 Branch equipment is received in the full-automatic beta pruning of tomato
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CN207040242U (en) * 2017-08-11 2018-02-27 博湖县红多多蕃茄制品有限公司 A kind of tomato intelligence picker based on machine vision

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109588137A (en) * 2018-12-22 2019-04-09 沈建国 Material special purpose engineering automobile is cut down at a kind of cutter and the small-sized forest scene for being equipped with cutter
CN110014410A (en) * 2019-05-14 2019-07-16 襄阳金美科林农业开发有限公司 A kind of fast-growing woods quickly pruning robot and its control method
CN110405785A (en) * 2019-07-30 2019-11-05 南京禹智智能科技有限公司 Six axis trimming machine cuts people of one kind and working method

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Application publication date: 20181019