CN108397201A - The safe construction method of rock tunnel(ling) machine - Google Patents

The safe construction method of rock tunnel(ling) machine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108397201A
CN108397201A CN201810093168.XA CN201810093168A CN108397201A CN 108397201 A CN108397201 A CN 108397201A CN 201810093168 A CN201810093168 A CN 201810093168A CN 108397201 A CN108397201 A CN 108397201A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
tbm
tunnel
laser
jurisdiction
development machine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201810093168.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
费晓绅
刘继鹏
汤贵海
刘小东
庞前凤
张文明
徐小燕
王振泰
杨伟刚
张伟
许磊
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
First Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 22nd Bureau Group Co Ltd
China Railway 22nd Bureau Group Co Ltd
Original Assignee
First Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 22nd Bureau Group Co Ltd
China Railway 22nd Bureau Group Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Application filed by First Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 22nd Bureau Group Co Ltd, China Railway 22nd Bureau Group Co Ltd filed Critical First Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 22nd Bureau Group Co Ltd
Priority to CN201810093168.XA priority Critical patent/CN108397201A/en
Publication of CN108397201A publication Critical patent/CN108397201A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/08Lining with building materials with preformed concrete slabs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/003Arrangement of measuring or indicating devices for use during driving of tunnels, e.g. for guiding machines
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/0607Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining the shield being provided with devices for lining the tunnel, e.g. shuttering
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/08Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining with additional boring or cutting means other than the conventional cutting edge of the shield
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/093Control of the driving shield, e.g. of the hydraulic advancing cylinders

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of safe construction methods of rock tunnel(ling) machine.The construction method includes:Using two rock tunnel(ling) machine TBM, subregion carries out driving operation simultaneously, and the work progress of every TBM includes:Step 0:TBM originates driving, step 1:TBM sondages are into TBM boring parameters are grasped in the debugging of progress TBM loads;Step 2, TBM are formally tunneled, and building is worn under step 3, TBM.Using tunnel automatic guiding system and measure auxiliary progress development machine attitude monitoring, deviation and trend in development machine master control room Dynamic Announce development machine current location and Tunnel Design axis, adjustment control development machine tunneling direction accordingly, makes tunneling direction be maintained in the deviation range of permission.Using the method for the present invention, safe and effective special construction can be carried out to TBM section, avoid wearing the disturbance generated in the process under TBM and resident living is caused to influence, reduce the influence that the work progress of TBM generates house.

Description

The safe construction method of rock tunnel(ling) machine
Technical field
The present invention relates to tunnel piercing technical field more particularly to a kind of safe construction methods of rock tunnel(ling) machine.
Background technology
TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine, rock tunnel(ling) machine) can be tunneled, supporting, the working procedures such as slag tap It works continuously parallel, is the batch production assembly line constructing tunnel equipment of the system integrations such as mechanical, electrical, liquid, light, gas, there is driving speed Degree is soon, conducive to the advantages that environmentally friendly, comprehensive benefit is high, it can be achieved that the complicated geographical relief deep-long tunnel that traditional drilling and blasting method is difficult to realize The construction in hole increases in the tunnel engineerings such as Chinese railway, water power, traffic, mine, municipal administration using swift and violent.
The Qingdao City village subway Line 1 Wa Wu station~Guizhou way station section is risen from the Huangdao District village Wa Wu station, and circuit is along existing glue After Jiaozhou Bay mouth marine site is northwards worn down in state gulf tunnel east side, access main city zone Guizhou, Qingdao way station, total track length about 8.1km, Wherein marine site segment length about 3.49km.To meet construction period, 3 construction inclined shafts (2, Huang Island end, 1, Qingdao end) are set altogether. According to operation needs, underground Ventilator Room and air shaft at 3 are set altogether, waste water pumping plant at 3, traction substation at 2, independent drop at 2 Buckling electricity is so and other related auxiliary facilities.
Watt your section Qingdao end land-based area section uses 2 DSUC double-shielded TBMs, left line start-stop mileage be ZK30+466~ 681.2 long 1215.2m;Right line YK30+467~681.2, long 1214.2m.Section is each at K30+324.593 and K31+300 Service channel one is set.
Running tunnel pipe-plate lining internal diameter is φ 5400mm, and section of jurisdiction thickness is 300mm thick, and section of jurisdiction width is 1500mm's C50/P12 precasting steel frame concrete pipe sheets.Shield duct piece uses six piecemeals:Three calibrated bolck B, two adjacent block L, one bind Block F.Section of jurisdiction interannular erection method is staggered joint erection, and 2 rings are using straight joint splicing at service channel.The block that binds using being inserted radially into and It is longitudinally inserted into the inserted mode being combined, i.e., radial push to is longitudinally inserted into again.Section of jurisdiction connection is bolted using curved.Section YK30 + 800~YK31+030, ZK30+802~ZK31+033 be common damping section, YK30+467~YK30+800, YK31+030~ YK31+681.2, ZK30+466~ZK30+802, ZK31+033~ZK31+681.2 section is high or special damping section.Commonly subtract Rail level is shaken apart from tunnel segment structure inside wall height 890mm, and high damping section, special damping section rail level are apart from tunnel segment structure inside wall height For 940mm.
TBM starting wells are that watt your section 3 is ventilating shaft, starting well long 15m, wide 8m, well depth about 53m.Starting well is located at tunnel Main track east side 25m is in 12 ° of angles of level with main track;Transverse passage-way long 25m, high 14m.Island portion team of the group of wearing uses under circuit logs in behind an island Ground, to avoid Jiaozhou Bay's vcehicular tunnel, circuit is turned right with the curve of radius 700, is crossed after Xilin col below the branch of Red Hill gorge Laying crosses the Qutang Gorge road and is followed by the right-hand rotation curve of radius 1000, under wear access after bright moon gorge, the numerous residential buildings of kwan-yin gorge cell it is expensive State way station.Wear many places residential area down on the way, on the ground present road relatively narrower, underground pipe network is intensive along the line, crisscross, very It is complicated.
Geologic aspects
1) Rock And Soil character
Place the 4th is coating based on artificial earth fill's layer (Q4ml), Holocene series terrestrial facies flood alluviation, and thickness is insufficient 10m, many position exposed bedrocks, basement rock are mainly Lower Cretaceous blueness Group volcanic rock and the intrusion of Late Yanshanian Laoshan hyperelement Rock.According to Qingdao City's universal stratigraphic scale, in conjunction with the place Rock And Soil origin cause of formation and engineering characteristic, the stratum of place is described below:
(1) coating
<1-0>Plain fill:Grey is made of rubble, block stone, gravel etc., and composition is single, and structure is of uneven density, Xue Jiadao Section side thickness about 1.1~6.4m rolls into a ball Jiaozhou Bay's constructing tunnel slag thickness on the outside of island portion team and is no more than 5 up to 11m, accumulation time Year;Ground construction work is classified as III grade.<1-1>Miscellaneous fill:The colors such as grey, greyish black, reddish brown, by cinder, sand, cohesive soil, The compositions such as brickbat, rubble, composition is mixed and disorderly, and structure is of uneven density, the group's of being distributed mainly on island bank, maximum gauge about 8.9m.It bankets The accumulation time is generally higher than 10 years.
<6-0>Mud:Littoral facies deposits;Grey, taupe gray, stream modeling shape has fishy smell, presss from both sides shell fragment, mulling grain.Mainly Fragmentary to be distributed in marine site surface layer, distribution is discontinuous, this exploration discloses maximum gauge 4.4m.
<6-1>Extra-fine sand:It is grey, taupe gray;Saturation, loose~slightly close shape, grain is equal, main component be quartz, feldspar and Mica;Fragmentary to be distributed in the sides Tuan Dao land-based area, distribution is discontinuous, and there are announcement, maximum gauge 2.2m in the hole GK7, M1Z3-TWG-G20.
<8-0>Medium coarse sand:Littoral facies deposits;Lark, grey, fluffy~slightly close shape, grain is uneven, and local segment contains 1cm Following gravel, content about 10% or so.It is distributed in marine site stratum exterior portion, 2.4~3.9m of thickness in lenticular body shape.
<11-0>Silty clay:The residual slide rock origin cause of formation;Lark, plastic shape, local hard plastic, matter is more equal, containing a small amount of quartz Grain meets water softening.
(2) basement rock
<On 16-0->Strong weathered granite:Protolith is middle coarse-grained granite, based on ash~sallow, part brown, absolutely mostly Number Mineral Weathering variation, mineral structure construction is basic to be destroyed, and the weathering of rock major part is uneven, and part Mineral Weathering is clay, Interparticle cohesion is lost seriously, and rock mass is in native burning into sand psephitic more, meets water softening;Uneven thickness is developed, depth capacity reaches 27m.
<Under 16-0->Strong weathered granite:Protolith be middle coarse-grained granite, it is isabelline based on, most Mineral Weatherings Variation, protolith mineral are still distinguishable, and the weathering of rock major part is uneven, most of Mineral Weathering angulation psephitic, interparticle cohesion base This forfeiture, rock mass are in that dust presss from both sides the soft or hard sillar shape not waited more;General thickness is little, and Local topography buried depth is very big, M1Z3-TWG- W25-1 discloses depth capacity 41.5m.
<17-0>Middle weathered granite:Middle coarse grained texture, massive structure, 60 °, 75 ° of development and nearly vertical crack are multigroup, split General 40cm of gap spacing or so, along crack, mineral slightly have weathering, and rock mass is generally in rubble mosaic texture, more complete~complete, rock Matter is hard;Two sides land-based area major part location is distributed, and group's island section buried depth is more than 24m.
<18-0>Light weathered granite:Based on canescence, miscellaneous brown greyness, middle coarse grain granitic texture, massive structure, development 60 °, 75 ° and nearly vertical crack it is multigroup, the general 0.6~1m of crack spacing, crack is mostly calcite filling, and rock mass is generally in block stone Mosaic texture, more complete~complete, rock matter is harder~hard, the group's of being distributed mainly on island bank land-based area.
<18-5>Gentle breeze orthophyre:Light gray, flesh pink, porphyritic texture, massive structure is more complete~complete, rock matter It is harder~hard, it is in veiny output.
<16-6>Severely-weathered diabase:Isabelline, lark, most Mineral Weathering variations, mineral structure construct base This destruction, rock major part weathering are clay, and interparticle cohesion is lost seriously, and rock mass is in native burning into sand psephitic more.
<18-6>Gentle breeze diabase:Grey, ophitic texture, massive structure is more complete~complete, and rock matter is harder~hard Firmly, it is mostly distributed with veiny.
<16-8>Severely-weathered tufa stone:Isabelline, rock is influenced by weathering, and mineral structure construction is basic to be destroyed, most of Mineral Weathering is in clay shape, and part mineral are distributed in rubble shape, rock mass granular media shape, marine site section, and thickness is generally no greater than 5m.
<16-8-1>Mylonitic tufa stone:Grey is influenced by construction extruding, and joint fissure is extremely developed, and rock mass is in rotten rib Shape, protolith part mineral alteration at pureed,
Part is in dust shape, rock matter dead-soft.
<17-8-3>Cataclastic shape tufa stone:Aubergine, based on tuff texture, part tuff texture containing gravel, rock is constructed Squeezing influences, cranny development, rock crushing,
Rock matter is softer, and fracture both sides are often developed more.
<18-8>Gentle breeze tufa stone:Aubergine, based on tuff texture, part tuff texture containing gravel, huge thick-layer columnar structure, Rock mass is relatively broken~complete, rock matter compared with
Firmly~hard, belong to eruptive facies volcanic rock, marine site section large area distribution.
<18-9>Micro- weathered andesite:Puce, porphyritic texture, massive structure, rock mass is relatively broken~complete, rock matter compared with Firmly.
Because starting well size is smaller, and vertical shaft cannot meet the lifting of TBM host overall packages and go into the well above main track, TBM Host cutterhead, anterior shield and flexible shield be completed in vertical shaft after, be pulled through bracket translated transverse passage-way to main track expand hole Room, duct piece installation machine and segment crane beam are connected with host again expanding in cavern, host machine part install after again with even Connect bridge, rear mating trolley connection installation.Starting well is deeper, and separable assembled difficulty is larger, and the duration is longer.
TBM after Tuan Dao is originated, under island portion team of the group of wearing land for military use, eight grand canyon Villages, Red Hill gorge branch, the Qutang Gorge road, Guizhou way station is reached after kwan-yin col, the numerous cells of bright moon col.Wherein, eight grand canyon Villages be mostly build the 80s and 90s it is old City, stone foundation.For edpth of tunnel in 22m or so, tunnel trunk is mainly gentle breeze, middle weathered granite.Under wear during The disturbance of generation can cause resident living to influence, and be influenced there may be different degrees of on older house.
Therefore, it is necessary to a kind of safely and effectively TBM sections of special construction plans for safety.
Invention content
The embodiment provides a kind of safe construction methods of rock tunnel(ling) machine, and TBM is effectively completed to realize Construction.
To achieve the goals above, this invention takes following technical solutions.
A kind of safe construction method of rock tunnel(ling) machine, including:
Using two rock tunnel(ling) machine TBM, subregion carries out driving operation simultaneously, and the work progress of every TBM includes:
Step 1:TBM sondages are into TBM boring parameters are grasped in the debugging of progress TBM loads;
Step 2, TBM are formally tunneled, and providing data using automatic guiding system carries out tuning, comes by adjusting propelling cylinder Realize adjustment direction;
Building is worn under step 3, TBM.
Further, further include before the step 1:
Step 0:TBM originates driving, and process flow includes:
1, section of jurisdiction gap, first ring pipe sheet assembling have been padded;
2, control cylinder pressure pushes first endless tube piece contact to originate reaction frame using 16 auxiliary cylinder top head endless tube pieces;
3, after the contact of first endless tube piece originates reaction frame, auxiliary push oil cylinder of retracting starts assembled second endless tube piece, withdraws piecewise The auxiliary cylinder stretching of retraction is resisted the section of jurisdiction spelled, is repeatedly performed domain section of jurisdiction by auxiliary cylinder, assembled monolithic section of jurisdiction Installation;
4, provide driving counter-force by the tight hole wall of branch pole support stretcher for boot and shoe, start sondage into.
Further, the step 1 specifically includes:
TBM sondages are into operating process
(1) start and prepare
1. connecting the power supply between transformer and DSUC type double-shielded TBM hosts, the illumination being also turned in tunnel outside hole;
2. connecting the main switch of transformer on TBM, transformer is made to come into operation, after transformer stable working, connects two The switch of power supply output of secondary side checks the various voltages needed for TBM, connects TBM and rear with the upper lighting system of set, checks TBM On electric leakage monitor system, determine that the insulation values of ground connection meet the job requirement of each equipment;
3. confirming that all light, sound instruction element manipulation are normal, all speed governing knobs are in zero-bit;
4. the lubricating oil level of the hydraulic oil oil level of inspection hydraulic system, lubricating system;
5. confirming that hole extroversion TBM supplies water, divulges information normally;
6. determining that various auxiliary equipment enter driving operating mode;
(2) start
1. connecting the control power supply of DSUC type double-shielded TBMs, start the water supply water of hydraulic power station, ventilation blower, TBM itself Pump, according to execution conditions, it is determined whether start draining water pump;
2. confirming that the included retractable high-tension cables of TBM, water pipe meet driving needs;
3. checking that the instrument for measuring and being oriented to is working properly, and correct location parameter is provided and is oriented to parameter;
4. according to the location parameter for measuring the TBM that guider provides, the side of development machine is adjusted using device for regulating direction To deviation, confirm that anti-twist mechanism is working properly;
5. determining that belt feeder system has started to start, and work well;
6. starting the acoustic-electric alarm system at each position of development machine, prompt to enter working condition.
Further, the step 2 specifically includes:
Using tunnel automatic guiding system and measure auxiliary progress development machine attitude monitoring, the tunnel automatic guiding system It is configured with guiding, automatic positioning, driving program software and display, in development machine master control room Dynamic Announce development machine current location And the deviation and trend of Tunnel Design axis, adjustment control development machine tunneling direction, makes tunneling direction be maintained at permission accordingly Deviation range in;
The driving attitude information of the plan of segmentation axis Solid rocket engine, guidance system reflection done according to line condition, knot Tunnel strata condition is closed, tunneling direction is controlled by the propelling cylinder of division operation development machine, when upward slope section is tunneled, is increased The thrust of development machine lower part oil cylinder;The thrust of top oil cylinder is then increased when lower slope section tunnels;When left-hand rotation curvilinear lengths are tunneled, Increase right side cylinder thrust;When right-hand rotation bending line tunnels, the thrust of left side oil cylinder is increased;When straight line flat slope section is tunneled, make The thrust of all oil cylinders is consistent.
Further, the step 2 further includes:
1 stabilising arrangement is respectively set in the anterior shield both sides of TBM, when TBM tunnels by adjusting the pressure of stabilising arrangement The vibrations and rolling of host machine part are reduced, are realized by adjusting 2 torque arm oil cylinder stretching speeds under double shield patterns Adjust TBM host postures;
In the case of linear advancement, some work in a distant place in development machine present position point and design lines is chosen always Line, then carrying out linear management with this straight line for new benchmark should make development machine be currently located position in the case where curve promotes It sets a little tangent with design curve with the line of distant place point.
Further, the tunnel automatic guiding system includes two laser targets, and two laser targets are separately mounted to TBM Branch pole and anterior shield on, using the laser target on development machine branch pole as system benchmark, by being mounted on anterior shield Laser target measure anterior shield and branch pole relative movement relationship;
Setting runs through the laser window of entire development machine corollary system on TBM, and laser total station is mounted on tunnel wall, with The carry out laser total station forward movement of driving carries Motion parameters function on the laser total station, and is equipped with one The basis of the parallel laser emitter of a same collimation axis, positioning TBM postures is two known geodetic coordinates points, and a point refers to The residing point of laser total station, laser total station and laser target intervisibility, laser total station are oriented by second known point To instrument the north to, by measurement be mounted on laser target on prism distance and angle, obtain the geodetic coordinates of laser target, After measured distance and angle, laser beam is directed toward laser target, and laser target measures the incidence angle of laser beam, passes through the laser that measures Horizontal azimuth of the TBM branch pole axis relative to Tunnel Design axis is calculated in refraction angle.
Further, the method further includes:
The segment selection in the sections TBM, section of jurisdiction are carried out according to the posture of TBM hosts, gap of the shield tail size and oil cylinder stroke difference Plane is perpendicular to TBM arbor lines, and pipe sheet assembling point is circumferentially uniformly to be divided into 10 points, and the rotation angle of adjacent point is 36 °, pipe sheet assembling takes staggered joint erection, turning ring to be controlled not according to different assembled points during practical assembled Offset on equidirectional according to staggered joint erection and needs the position of wedge shape amount to choose fast assembled position of binding.
The method of the application present invention it can be seen from the technical solution that embodiments of the invention described above provide, can be to TBM The safe and effective special constructions of Duan Jinhang avoid wearing the disturbance generated in the process under TBM and resident living are caused to influence, reduce TBM Work progress influence that house is generated.
The additional aspect of the present invention and advantage will be set forth in part in the description, these will become from the following description Obviously, or practice through the invention is recognized.
Description of the drawings
In order to illustrate the technical solution of the embodiments of the present invention more clearly, required use in being described below to embodiment Attached drawing be briefly described, it should be apparent that, drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the invention, for this For the those of ordinary skill of field, without creative efforts, others are can also be obtained according to these attached drawings Attached drawing.
Fig. 1 is that a kind of TBM provided in an embodiment of the present invention originates driving flow chart;
Fig. 2 is a kind of TBM excavation operations circulation process figure provided in an embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a kind of equal rides plan view provided by the invention;
Fig. 4 is a kind of beans gravel backfill provided by the invention and grouting flow chart;
Fig. 5 is a kind of Tunnel Excavation Monitoring point layout drawing provided by the invention.
Specific implementation mode
Embodiments of the present invention are described below in detail, the example of the embodiment is shown in the accompanying drawings, wherein from beginning Same or similar element or element with the same or similar functions are indicated to same or similar label eventually.Below by ginseng The embodiment for examining attached drawing description is exemplary, and is only used for explaining the present invention, and is not construed as limiting the claims.
Those skilled in the art of the present technique are appreciated that unless expressly stated, singulative " one " used herein, " one It is a ", " described " and "the" may also comprise plural form.It is to be further understood that is used in the specification of the present invention arranges It refers to there are the feature, integer, step, operation, element and/or component, but it is not excluded that presence or addition to take leave " comprising " Other one or more features, integer, step, operation, element, component and/or their group.It should be understood that when we claim member Part is " connected " or when " coupled " to another element, it can be directly connected or coupled to other elements, or there may also be Intermediary element.In addition, " connection " used herein or " coupling " may include being wirelessly connected or coupling.Wording used herein "and/or" includes any cell of one or more associated list items and all combines.
Those skilled in the art of the present technique are appreciated that unless otherwise defined, all terms used herein (including technology art Language and scientific terminology) there is meaning identical with the general understanding of the those of ordinary skill in fields of the present invention.Should also Understand, those terms such as defined in the general dictionary, which should be understood that, to be had and the meaning in the context of the prior art The consistent meaning of justice, and unless defined as here, will not be with idealizing or the meaning of too formal be explained.
For ease of the understanding to the embodiment of the present invention, done further by taking several specific embodiments as an example below in conjunction with attached drawing Explanation, and each embodiment does not constitute the restriction to the embodiment of the present invention.
The present invention unloads and lifts work using what a 350T crawler crane and 160T truck crane completed TBM, is used in combination 350T crawler cranes individually go into the well large equipment lifting, improve efficiency;Transverse passage-way translation, big cross section longitudinal translation, using two 100T hydraulic jacks carry out translation work.Bis- assemblings of big cross section TBM and rear mating assembling, are hung using 55T transverse passage-ways purlin and are matched It is combined dress task, it is ensured that lifting work is smoothed out, rear mating trolley, assembling machine supporting beam, assembling machine, 3 pieces of host belt holder Shield tail is hung to silo bottom with crane.It is hung using the purlins transverse passage-way 55T and secondary assembling region is transported to by transverse passage-way by silo bottom It is assembled.In this way, not only meet construction technical requirement, but it is economical and practical.
Suspender selection is shown in Table 2-1
Table 2-1:
A kind of construction speed of the safe construction method of rock tunnel(ling) machine provided by the invention is as shown in following table 3.1:
3.1 TBM sections of schedule diagram of table
According to the Practical Project situation of this bid section, main mechanical plan of needs is shown in Table shown in 3.3:
3.3 main mechanical plan of needs table of table
Main material plan
According to design drawing, totally 819 ring, 819 ring of right line calculate the total dosage of section a variety of materials to left line.Materials arrival meter It draws and is worked out according to duration scheduling, appropriate in construction to consider to propose material requirement planning in advance and organize to march into the arena, main material It daily or by week makes the plan, a small amount of material monthly or is quarterly marched into the arena.
TBM preparations of construction
Place is built
Section originates construction site and is located in the institute of island portion team of group of Shinan District, and live vertical shaft is 15m × 8m, well depth 53m, TBM Lifting and driving material are hung in from this vertical shaft, and underground dregs is overturn by tippler to belt conveyor, and Belt Conveying is passed through Machine entrucking finally passes through incline shaft transport to ground cinder field by dregs transportation vehicle.According to showing for the position of active well and construction site Shape reasonably carries out ground configuration, is broadly divided into two regions in living area and production district, and production district is further divided into ground and underground two A working face.
Total scheme of electric power
2 TBM carry 4700KVA transformers, respectively each self reference 10kv special lines;Scene uses 1 box change of 800KVA Depressor hangs to the purlins 55T of underground 1, tippler, tunnel illumination, hole draining power supply, capacitor charging stake, install equipment electricity consumption, dirt Water pump such as repaiies between knife at the electricity consumptions;1 630KVA box type transformer is to 25T gantry cranes, ventilation blower on well sizing liquor station, beans gravel field, well And living area power supply.
1, it rolls into a ball electrical equipment power statistic on the well of island with electrical equipment and power meter to consider by maximum value, because of place east master If scene and living area, equipment working frequency is high.Therefore consider maximum electricity consumption by electricity consumption maximum construction stage entire process.
All whole motor general power Σ P1=597KW
Synchronization factor presses 0.7, and power factor presses φ=0.85 cos, considers that power electricity consumption accounts for about total then live total use Electricity:P counts=597 × 0.7 ÷ 0.85=491.6KW
Transformer demand capacity:P changes=1.05P counts=1.05 × 491.6=516.18KVA
It to sum up calculates, the transformer of a 630KVA can meet power requirement.
2, island vertical shaft electric equipment under ground and power is rolled into a ball with electrical equipment and power meter to consider by maximum value
Big cross section internal unit and installation equipment utilization rate are high during installing because of TBM, so total according to equipment electricity consumption With consider maximum electricity consumption.
All whole motor general power P2
Σ P2=840KW
Synchronization factor presses 0.7, and power factor presses φ=0.85 cos, considers that power electricity consumption accounts for about total then live total use Electricity:
P counts=840 × 0.7 ÷ 0.85=691.7KW
Transformer demand capacity:P changes=1.05P counts=1.05 × 691.7=726KVA
It to sum up calculates, the transformer of a 800KVA can meet power requirement.
3,10KV special lines supply line is respectively drawn in 2 TBM electricity consumptions, and high pressure switching station is arranged in capacity 4700KVA outside hole, 10KV high-tension cables directly carry transformer with TBM into hole and are connected, and power supply is provided for TBM equipment.
Circuit cable is laid using suspension in hole, is installed and is linked up with using segment bolt, by linking up with fixed cable, with area Between driving be gradually completing line arrangement.
Underground construction prepares
Underground big cross section and transverse passage-way include:55T hangs purlin, three-level sedimentation basin, cyclic water tank, interim pit, tippler etc. Auxiliary equipment.
1, big cross section construction speed in underground meets TBM assemblings and originates requirements, and completion inclined shaft is to originating totally 212 meters of face The construction task of left and right;It originates hole and TBM steppings cavern hole diameter size is finished and should overhauled before originating according to design and construction, Do not allow country rock occur to invade limit, be interfered with TBM;
2, arc guide table construction finishes, and TBM stepping guide table intensity and pre-buried P43 tracks planarization is checked, to pre-buried track Faulting of slab ends is handled, and prevents during vertical shift that guide table is broken or track rises and falls and influence TBM to slide;It is mixed for C25 reinforcing bars to originate guide table Xtah Crude Clay structure, and pre-buried P43 rail is as TBM stepping dragging tracks.
3, originating terminal reinforcing finishes
Originating terminal is excavated using outburst is bored, and answers strengthening supporting, ensures that originating terminal rock mass is firm, intensity meets design requirement.
4, transverse passage-way 55T hangs purlin installation, debugging, checks and accepts and complete.Installation is hung in purlin, debugging, examination refer to《55T hangs purlin peace and tears open Special scheme》
5, transverse passage-way steel plate, track, originate bracket be laid with installation is complete.
6, tippler installation, debugging, examination are completed.Tippler installation refers to《Tippler peace tears special scheme open》.
7, measurement and positioning is completed
It is both needed to survey engineer before all constructions to put a little, strictly constructs by design requirement.Review is measured after the completion of construction, it is full Next process is carried out after sufficient design requirement again.It includes following several respects to check measurement and positioning work:
(1) TBM originates the pilot measurement of measuring basis horizontal control point and bench mark in hole and lays;
Originate measurement control point pilot measurement in hole
1. control points layout
It includes horizontal control point and level control point to originate hole and measure control point, and each control point is arranged in running tunnel bottom plate On.
2. the making at control point
It takes at control pointRound steel makes, and is about 30cm, and reinforcing bar one inlays 1mm copper wire cores, copper wire after polishing on end face Core is implanted into stepping hole bottom plate about 15cm as control point, reinforcing bar with impact drill, exposes base surface part and is covered with fine-stone concrete, reinforcing bar Head only exposes about 1cm.
3. the pilot measurement at control point
The control points GPS and Level Height point that horizontal control point and level control point are transferred from ground owner carry out contact survey Amount.
(2) TBM originates the location survey for putting survey and tunnel starting mileage line of hole inner tunnel axis;
To hole inner tunnel axis is originated, according to horizontal control point on bottom plate, every 30 meters of surveys on bottom plate set one in TBM steppings hole Point layouts to take and uses the inbuilt reinforcing bar control point of concrete placings on tunnel center line.
(3) ground monitoring point, which is laid and measured, originates preceding initial value.Fig. 5 is a kind of Tunnel Excavation Monitoring provided by the invention Point layout drawing.
TBM is lifted and debugging is checked and accepted
TBM is lifted
When this TBM liftings are gone into the well, vertical shaft is 8 meters × 15 meters, 53 meters deep, and TBM piece weights, size are larger, examine Consider the lifting performance of crane and the rope capacity of crane, while considering economy and safety, 350 tons of shoes are selected in this lifting Band is hung as main hoisting machinery, and 160 tons of truck cranes hang turn and go into the well as auxiliary loop wheel machine tool, cooperation master.
Since pit mouth is not above main track, all this time TBM liftings are divided into two stages progress:
1, TBM is lifted in the vertical shaft first stage
Branch pole (auxiliary push oil cylinder installation) → outer inside contracts shield bottom sheet → anterior shield → and promotes mainly oil cylinder, cutter plate driver motor, torque Two panels installation → external extension shield weld seam welding → cutterhead installation in arm installation, interior external extension shield, then with two 100T hydraulic pressure thousand Jin top prepares second stage assembling by first stage host integral translation to main track, then to the vertical shift of big mileage direction.
2, TBM is lifted in big cross section second stage
During host vertical shift, shield tail bottom sheet installation → host belt feeder first segment installation → assembling machine is successively installed Two panels shield tail installation → shield tail weld seam welding → host belt feeder second segment → No. 1 connecting bridge → No. 2 company at the top of installation → shield tail Connect bridge → No. 1 -- No. 10 trolleys.
3, vertical shift is connected to face pipeline is originated.
TBM debugging is checked and accepted
TBM carries out field adjustable examination after being completed, inspection is completed rear each system working performance and online entirety Working performance.Field adjustable examination is divided into unloaded debugging examination, load debugging is checked and accepted.
DSUC type double-shielded TBMs assemble and connection finishes and determine it is errorless after, you can carry out unloaded debugging and check and accept.It is main to adjust Trying content is:The school of distribution system, hydraulic system, lubricating system, cooling system, filling system and various instrument, sensor Just.Can just have the condition of originating after the completion of checking and accepting.
Load debugging can be carried out after each system operating of zero load debugging DSUC type double-shielded TBMs.The main mesh of load debugging Be the load capacity for checking various pipelines and sealing;The each work system and auxiliary system for making DSUC type double-shielded TBMs reach To the working condition for meeting normal production requirement.Usual sondage is into the time as to apparatus of load debug time.
Stringent technology and management measure will be taken to ensure engineering safety, construction quality and operating accuracy when load debugging.
Originate reaction frame installation
While TBM is debugged and checked and accepted, installed to originating reaction frame.It is K30+ that left line, which originates face mileage, 466.4, it is K30+467 that right line, which originates face mileage,.TBM hosts installation is complete about 12.8 meters, 0.5 meter away from face of cutterhead, Reaction frame is from originating 13.5 meters of face.Originate pre-buried 2 built-in fitting of reaction frame, 0.77 meter of distance between 2, per pass 12 is pre- Embedded part.1st installation reaction frame, the 2nd installation reaction frame support, ensures that installation of embedded parts is secured, reaction frame and supporting welding Position welding is full.After installation is complete, section of jurisdiction sealing device is installed, not spillage when guarantee originates the rockfill grouting of section of jurisdiction behind.
TBM originates driving flow as shown in Figure 1, including:
1, section of jurisdiction gap, first ring pipe sheet assembling have been padded.
2, control cylinder pressure slowly pushes first endless tube piece to be close to and originates instead using 16 auxiliary cylinder top head endless tube pieces Power frame.
3, after first endless tube piece is close to and originates reaction frame, auxiliary push oil cylinder of retracting starts assembled second endless tube piece, withdraws piecewise The auxiliary cylinder stretching of retraction is resisted the section of jurisdiction spelled, is repeatedly performed domain section of jurisdiction by auxiliary cylinder, assembled monolithic section of jurisdiction Installation.
4, provide driving counter-force by the tight hole wall of branch pole support stretcher for boot and shoe, start sondage into.
5, the assembled section of jurisdiction completed is backfilled behind.
TBM sondages into
Line each sondage in left and right meets normal into 200m according to sondage into the debugging of TBM loads, grasp TBM boring parameters is carried out Construction requirement during driving.
1, TBM sondages are into purpose
(1) it is familiar with machine performance, the working condition and equipment for grasping DSUC types double-shielded TBM in various country rocks are dug Into parameter.
(2) development machine is in light condition when development machine stepping, and electric appliance, hydraulic system and mechanical structured member do not bear to tunnel Load.Sondage into when every system is further debugged, Improving Equipment properties.
(3) geological conditions for further appreciating that this engineering rests in applying for DSUC types double-shielded TBM under different geological conditions Work method.
(4) it collects, arrange, analyze the equipment boring parameter originated under section geological conditions, laid for the speedy drivage in later stage Good basis.
(5) it is familiar with the operational sequence of pipe sheet assembling and steel rail laying, improves the efficiency and quality of pipe sheet assembling.
(6) it is analyzed according to the monitoring of ground deformation situation, grasps the shadow to ambient enviroment when DSUC type double-shielded TBMs are constructed It rings.
(7) it is familiar with the systems such as material transportation, the pipeline extension of equipment, improves the linking between links inside and outside hole, no The disconnected drivage efficiency for improving equipment.
(8) the handing-over flow of each work team of interdepartmental co-ordination, especially tunneling construction is improved.
3, sondage is into operating process
(1) start and prepare
1. connecting the power supply between transformer and DSUC type double-shielded TBM hosts, the illumination being also turned in tunnel outside hole.
2. connecting the main switch of transformer on TBM, transformer is made to come into operation.Then it after transformer stable working, connects The switch of power supply output of logical secondary side, checks the various voltages needed for TBM, connects TBM and rear with the upper lighting system of set.It checks Electric leakage on TBM monitors system, determines that the insulation values of ground connection can meet the job requirement of each equipment.
3. confirming that all light, sound instruction element manipulation are normal.All speed governing knobs are in zero-bit.
4. the lubricating oil level of the hydraulic oil oil level of inspection hydraulic system, lubricating system, adds oil plant if necessary at once.
5. confirming that water supply, the normally i.e. hole extroversion TBM that divulges information supply water, divulge information normally.
6. determining that various auxiliary equipment enter driving operating mode.
(2) start
1. connecting the control power supply of DSUC type double-shielded TBMs, start the water supply of hydraulic power station, ventilation blower, TBM itself (pressurization) water pump.According to execution conditions, it is determined whether start draining water pump.
2. confirming that the included retractable high-tension cables of TBM, water pipe meet driving needs.
3. checking that the instrument for measuring and being oriented to is working properly, and correct location parameter is provided and is oriented to parameter.
4. according to the location parameter for measuring the TBM that guider provides, the side of development machine is adjusted using device for regulating direction To deviation (horizontal, vertical, circumference), confirm that anti-twist mechanism is working properly.
5. determining that belt feeder system has started to start, and work well.
6. starting the acoustic-electric alarm system at each position of development machine, prompt to enter working condition.
Formal driving
P. drechsleri flow
TBM excavation operation circulation process is as shown in Figure 2:
Direction controlling
Two TBM development machines provide data using automatic guiding system and carry out tuning, are realized by adjusting propelling cylinder Adjustment direction.
1, development machine attitude monitoring is carried out using tunnel automatic guiding system and manual measurement auxiliary
Tunnel automatic guiding system is configured with guiding, automatic positioning, driving program software and display etc., can be round-the-clock Deviation and trend in development machine master control room Dynamic Announce development machine current location and Tunnel Design axis.Adjustment control accordingly Development machine tunneling direction, makes it remain in the deviation range of permission.
As development machine promotes guidance system backsight datum mark to need to move forward, it is necessary to which it is accurately fixed to be carried out by manual measurement Position.To ensure the accurate and reliable of direction of propulsion, according to driving distance manual measurement, to check the measurement data of automatic guiding system And check the position of development machine, posture, it is ensured that tunneling direction it is correct.
2, tunneling direction is controlled using division operation development machine propelling cylinder
The driving attitude information of the plan of segmentation axis Solid rocket engine, guidance system reflection done according to line condition, knot Tunnel strata condition is closed, tunneling direction is controlled by the propelling cylinder of division operation development machine.
When upward slope section is tunneled, the appropriate thrust for increasing development machine lower part oil cylinder;It is then suitably increased when lower slope section tunnels The thrust of top oil cylinder;It is when left-hand rotation curvilinear lengths are tunneled, then appropriate to increase right side cylinder thrust;It is tunneled in right-hand rotation bending line When, then suitably increase the thrust of left side oil cylinder;When straight line flat slope section is tunneled, then the thrust of all oil cylinders should be made to keep one as possible It causes.
Anti-rolling controls
In anterior shield both sides 1 stabilising arrangement is respectively set, is reduced by adjusting the pressure of stabilising arrangement when TBM tunnels The vibrations and rolling of host machine part.
TBM hosts pose adjustment is by adjusting 2 torque arm oil cylinder stretching speeds under double shield patterns, reach it is anti-roll and The purpose of pose adjustment.
Satisfactory after correcting
1, horizontal departure should be controlled in ± 30mm in the case of normal driving, and main driver should adjust in time when reaching early warning value, It should be shut down in time when being close to or up to limiting value ± 50mm, ascertain the reason after formulating satisfactory after correcting, can tunnel.Vertical deviation is answered In 0~30mm, main driver should adjust in time when reaching early warning value, should shut down, find out in time when being close to or up to limiting value for control After reason formulates satisfactory after correcting, it can tunnel.
2, snake is corrected and should slowly be carried out when rectifying a deviation, and it is too urgent such as to correct, and snake is more obvious instead.In linear advancement In the case of, a little one straight line of work of development machine present position point and a distant place in design lines should be chosen, then again with this line Linear management is carried out for new benchmark.In the case where curve promotes, development machine present position point and distant place point should be made Line is tangent with design curve.
3, the adjustment of propelling cylinder oil pressure is unsuitable too fast, excessive, and section of jurisdiction local damage otherwise may be caused even to crack.
4, segment selection is correctly carried out, it is ensured that assembled quality and precision make driving side of the section of jurisdiction end face as far as possible with plan To vertical.
5, direction controlling is of crucial importance when driving is originated, reached, and should be required according to the related technology for originating, reaching driving, Carry out measurement and positioning work.
Curved section digging control
There is curved section in this section constructing tunnel.When curved section (including level curve and vertical curve) constructs, driving Operation direction controlling mode is that hydraulic drive oil cylinder is carried out division operation, and the direction of development machine as expected is made to carry out tuning.
When curved section is constructed, to ensure development machine along design axis driving, it is necessary to strictly control boring parameter, such as tunnel speed Degree, the stretching mode of propelling cylinder and oil pressure etc. make driving track meet the parameter of curve requirement of designed lines.In addition, driving Machine makes curve construction be easier to control using articulated form.When curved section tunnels, it should be noted that the following:
1, before the construction of arrival curve section, the posture of development machine is adjusted.
2, it selects correct section of jurisdiction to be installed in curved section, arranges full-time staff to check and accept when receiving section of jurisdiction, ensure pipe The deflection direction of tablet quality and curve section of jurisdiction.
3, the measurement result after each cycle driving is included in figure and is contrasted with design curve, it is determined whether correct next time The amount of deflection of driving and azimuth.
4, it is to prevent section of jurisdiction crooked, it is necessary to assure section of jurisdiction backfills the effect of slip casting behind, makes the eccentric thrust of propelling cylinder It effectively works, it is ensured that curve promotes effect, reduces the damage and deformation of section of jurisdiction, and according to the deformation monitoring situation in construction Grouting parameter is adjusted at any time, to effectively control axis.According to the actual conditions in construction, after taking wall when necessary The method of ftercompction slurry is controlled.Slurries are injected into stratum by the injected hole of section of jurisdiction.
5, pay attention at hinged oil cylinder and shield tail has No leakage, it is found that leakage takes timely measure processing.
Coordinate each process when 6, replacing quarrel vehicle, avoids shutting down for a long time.
Broken belt construction
Crushed zone overview
Data is surveyed by ground to show, it is largely II-III grade which, which does not have fault belt, section country rock grade, office Portion is IV-V grade.In tunneling process of constructing, whether office is had according to the variation of boring parameter and amount of slag and Quality estimation of slagging tap The small broken situation in portion makes relevant parameter adjustment according to actual conditions.
The influence that crushed zone constructs to TBM
Fault belt can construct to TBM and cause very negative impact, mainly have:
1, working face and vault cave in after excavating, and peel off.TBM cutterheads are embedded to, cutterhead rotation is difficult.
2, excavation face and abutment wall cave in, and support boots support force is inadequate, cannot provide enough support reactions needed for TBM drivings.
3, the soft or hard unevenness of country rock, cutterhead are also easy to produce vibrations when rotating, and influence cutting-tool's used life, increase cutter consumption.
4, the swing of TBM bodies may be caused to increase when country rock is soft or hard uneven.It is brought to the control of tunneling direction tired It is difficult.
5, it can be acted on due to hydraulic pressure if there are water burst, working face caves in, and water burst flows or blow over and cover completely cutterhead and body, increases knife The rotation torque of disk;The effect of water causes side wall to cave in, and supporting boot can not support, and water burst floods body etc..
Crushed zone treatment measures
General crushed zone treatment measures
When fault belt to be passed through, and different measures is taken according to the concrete condition of fault belt.For one As crushed zone concrete processing procedure be divided into driving before, in driving, three processing stages after driving, each stage adopts according to construction characteristic Take corresponding treatment measures.
1, before tunneling
The prediction of advance geologic prediction, to determine broken belt edge, length, degree of crushing and aqueous situation etc..For Slight Area cracked can be without processing when will not be impacted to TBM.For general Area cracked, using first tunneling, The method of reprocessing.
When 2, tunneling
Reasonable selection TBM boring parameters.Under different geological conditions, the required thrusts of TBM, driving speed, cutterhead The boring parameters such as rotating speed, cutter head torque and support boots support force are different.When TBM passes through fault belt, can suitably reduce The boring parameters such as driving speed, the cutterhead rotating speed of TBM can effectively reduce the disturbance to country rock in this way, to reduce or avoid It collapses, makes TBM safeties.
Simultaneously according to the opposite variation of part boring parameter in driving, the situation of change for understanding front country rock (such as passes through The size of propelling pressure can deduce Surrounding Rock Strength situation, and the complete implementations of country rock can be deduced by the size of cutter head torque), from And adjust in time TBM boring parameter or use other measures, make TBM quickly, safety.
3, after tunneling
Reinforce pipe-plate lining progress, and the backfill of follow-up section of jurisdiction behind beans gravel and slip casting in time.
Serious crushed zone measure
When serious crushed zone section was wanted in determination, judge that being not suitable for TBM drivings passes through according to the geological condition in front, then Advanced drilling machine pre-reinforcement is equipped with using TBM.
1, other general crushed zones, it is available for influencing little fault belt stratum by advance geologic prediction Advanced drilling machine provisioned in TBM carries out the country rock of fault belt in front of tunnel in conjunction with the grouting equipment that TBM itself is equipped with Front pre-grouting is reinforced.Before carrying out slip casting, it is first rinsed with water drilling, it, can be first from both sides to prevent grout leaking and leakage from noting when slip casting Drilling to the symmetrical slip casting of vault.Grouting parameter should be according to the engineering geology of country rock and hydrogeological (such as country rock porosity, crack Rate, infiltration coefficient, water yield, hydraulic pressure etc.) and select to determine in conjunction with experiment.
2, advanced drill hole of drilling machine design
Advance drilling function carries out detection drilling or pre-pouring grout outside the shield with 6 ° of elevations angle in the region on 84 ° of cutterhead top Reinforce rock stratum.Front jumbolter can be in 150 ° of top area internal drilling, and rear portion jumbolter can be in each 90 ° of ranges of two side walls Internal drilling.Jumbolter drilling depth reaches 3.5m, and aperture 38mm moves horizontally distance 3.8m.Meanwhile to prevent falling rocks harm from applying Worker person and equipment, when driving, are mounted with the indication shape shield of long 90cm in shield outer rim, are in addition welded again in shield lower edge One row's steel pipe can carry out advance anchor bolt supporting using it.
It caves in processing
1, it caves on a small scale
At the top of work surface and face occur it is several cave in or small-scale stripping, but do not expand.Between cutterhead shield and palisades There is fritter stone to fall down, arch or side wall occur it is small cave in, but do not continue to develop widened sign.Driving is normal, thrust, torsion Square variation is little, and mechanical (especially host region) abnormal vibration and the sound, ballast uniform concentration are not mixed with bulk rock once in a while Quarrel.It can directly tunnel and pass through, pipe-plate lining is installed at rear in time.
2, medium-scale to cave in
Work surface is peeled off seriously, and vault seriously caves in or localized delamination, but cutter can also operate, and support boots position collapses tight Weight, pad switch difficulty, a large amount of stones are fallen between shield and palisades.Mechanical oscillation are larger when driving, have abnormal noise, push away Power has the tendency that decrease, and torque increases, and has the tendency that changing up and down, and bulk increases on belt conveyor, is carefully cut with a small amount of, The heap that is cut is erratic, uneven.Following supporting measure can be used:Locate gunite concrete to caving in using hand pneumatically placed concrete system, Closing country rock in time reduces rock exposure duration.
3, it caves on a large scale
Vault and hole wall occurrence of large-area are caved in, and have developed rapidly so that conventional construction method is unable to control;From shield Viewed edge vault caves in very deep, and a large amount of stones are fallen between shield and palisades, posteriorly region expansion of caving in;Support stretcher for boot and shoe Hole wall site largely collapse, so that counter-force cannot be obtained, journey can not be changed.Mechanical oscillation are especially big when driving, are in master control room It can hear the huge sound that face is sent out.When propulsion, torque becomes very big, and cutter rotation is difficult or cannot rotate;Rock quarrel is big Amount generates, and blocks, and cutterhead is blocked by stone when serious, can not be rotated, in quarrel based on bulk, almost without thin quarrel.It can Using following supporting measure:TBM stops driving, takes auxiliary countermeasure, hole is pried into from the rears TBM, in position slip casting of caving in, removes The native of place that cave in is cut, and the fillings such as pea gravel concreten are used in combination.
Train marshalling list
TBM excavates outer diameter 6.3m, tunnels per ring 1.5m, the practical slag earth volume 46.44m of every ring is calculated3, void side's coefficient It is calculated by 1.7, empty ashlar side is 79m3, consider the dischargeable capacity of mine car 0.9,88m should be met3Mine car capacity, 4 sections need to be equipped with Volume 22m3The slag car.Often recycle section of jurisdiction behind beans gravel backfill amount about 4m3, per endless tube piece back-grouting amount about 4m3, configuration one Save 4m3Beans gravel and one section 6m3Mortar vehicle, you can meet construction needs.So each column marshalling includes 1 section locomotive, 4 section slags Vehicle, 1 section beans gravel vehicle, 1 section mortar vehicle, 2 section segment cars.
According to tunnel section size, transported using rail single line in hole, gauge 90cm, using 43kg/m rail.It is trying After driving, sky pushes away and does the vehicles platform such as track switch in arc guide table, and single line starts normal tunneling construction using 2 row transport marshallings. Fig. 3 is a kind of equal rides plan view provided by the invention;
Ventilation principle
It is completed in fully investigation China and in the experience of built tunnel construction ventilation and the domestic and international aeration technology hair of tracking On the basis of exhibition, system design is aerated than choosing, optimization.Construction ventilation of tunnel electricity consumption occupies quite in constructing tunnel electricity consumption Proportion, it is preferential to select energy-saving type fan to reduce energy consumption.Under the premise of meeting ventilation effect, kind, the type of wind turbine are reduced Number, quantity.According to this bid section engineering characteristic, and combine TBM suppliers and internationally famous ventilation equipment manufacturer suggestion and I Experience of the company using TBM in major long tunnel construction, this bid section TBM construction sections use forced ventilation scheme, select import Energy-saving axial streaming tunnel wind turbine.
Ventilation Control standard
In work progress, the oxygen in hole is calculated by volume should not be less than 20%;Allowable concentration of dust:Per cubic metres of air In the dust containing 10% or more free SiO2 be not greater than 2mg;A concentration of 30mg/m that CO highests allow3;CO2 presses volume Meter is not greater than 0.5%;Nitrogen oxides (being converted into NO2) is 5mg/m3Below;Temperature must not be higher than 28 DEG C in tunnel;Everyone answers Supplied fresh air 3m3/min.It is 0.15m/s that tunneler construction, which defines minimum windspeed in hole,.
Ventilation quantity calculates
By the code requirement of constructing tunnel, according to the loss of institute's required airflow, wind pressure and air hose in ventilation calculates, come true Determine power of fan and dust diameter.
1, required Wind Coverage Calculation in tunnel
(1) by the required fresh air of most numbers worked at the same time in hole, institute required airflow Q1 is calculated;
Q1=K × q × n
In formula:K:Air quantity reserve factor 1.2
q:Amount of fresh air is 0.05m per capita3/s
n:Tunneling operation number, it is 40 to take n
So Q1=40 × 0.05 × 1.2=2.4m3/s
(2) defined minimum windspeed in hole is pressed, required air quantity Q2 is calculated;
Q2=s × v
In formula:s:For the area (㎡ of excavation face)
v:Minimum windspeed value 0.4m/s in tunnel.
So Q2=s × v=π R2V=12.46m3/s
By calculating Q1 < Q2, the Q2=12.46m so tunnel institute required airflow takes large values3/s。
2, volume of air supply Q is for calculating
The volume of air supply of wind turbine is other than the normal air quantity for meeting tunnel, it is also necessary to consider inleakage and loss amount.
Q confessions=P × Q2
In formula:P:For air leakage coefficient, it is known that designed lines overall length L=2500m is calculated per 100m air leak rate of air curtain using 1%, then Air-supply 2500m inleakages are 2500 × 0.01/100=0.25.
P=1+0.25=1.25
Q2:For institute's required airflow in the hole that is computed
So confession=1.25 Q × 12.46=15.58m3/s
3, the calculating of wind pressure
The total wind pressure P of wind turbine is total in calculating ventilation process, it is ensured that air outlet reaches the demand of air quantity, needs to consider on the way Air hose frictional dissipation, thus P it is total=RfQ goes out+HD+H for Q
In formula:Q is supplied:Ventilation blower volume of air supply takes design air flow 15.58m3/s
Q goes out:Pipe end flows out air quantity 12.46m3/s
HD:Tunnel internal resistance loss takes 50
H:Other drag losses take 60
Rf:Ventilation resistance coefficient
Rf=(6.5 α L)/d5
Wherein:α:Tube friction coefficient takes 0.00225
L:Duct length is 2500m;
d:Dust diameter is 1.5m;
It is computed to obtain Rf=4.81
Tunnel blower total head:P is total=4.81 × 12.46 × 15.58+50+60=1043.7Pa;
6, power of fan calculates
W=Q is for the total K/1000 η of P;
In formula:Q is supplied:Wind turbine volume of air supply;
P is total:Blower fan work wind pressure;
η:Blower fan work efficiency takes 80%;
K:Coefficient of reserve power takes 1.26;
It brings data into and calculates W=51.22Kw
According to result of calculation, selected power of fan is more than 51.22kw, and ventilation blower volume of air supply is more than 15.58m3/s, pipeline end End outflow air quantity, which is more than 12.46m3/s, can meet requirement.
Segment selection and assembly
Segment selection principle
1, segment selection will be suitble to the principle of Tunnel Design circuit
Before TBM commencement of works, one section segment array is made to section of jurisdiction according to designed lines first.It is arranged by section of jurisdiction Version, understands the section standard ring, curve endless tube piece quantity and arrangement, convenient for the overall arrangement constructed later.Section of jurisdiction parameter It is shown in Table 5.2.
Chip length 1500mm It is passed through in section of jurisdiction 5400mm
Section of jurisdiction thickness 300mm Warp in shield tail 6090mm
Section of jurisdiction outer diameter 6000mm Turning ring section Isosceles trapezoid
Curve ring wedge shape amount 38mm Gap of the shield tail 45mm
5.2 sections TBM section of jurisdiction technical data sheet of table
The sections TBM are distributed two groups of right-hand rotation circular curves, and radius is respectively 700m, 1000m.According to curve central angle with turn The relationship for the deflection angle that bending ring generates can calculate the arrangement of the turning ring and standard ring of interval circuit curved section.
The calculation formula for ring deflection angle of turning:
θ=2 γ=2arctg δ/D
In formula:
The deflection angle of θ-turning ring
The half of the maximum wedge shape amount of δ-turning ring
D-section of jurisdiction diameter
Data substitution is obtained into θ=0.3629
According to the calculation formula of central angle:
α=180L/ π R
In formula:The length of L-section central lines of track
R-sweep, takes 360m
And θ=α, it is substituted into, obtains L=2.279m
Above formula shows on the circular curve of 360m, is turned ring with a ring every 2.279m, chip length 1.5m, just It is to say, on the circular curve of 360m, the assembled relationship of standard ring and turning ring is+1 ring of 1 ring standard ring turning ring.And so on, The assembled relationship that radius is 700m, 1000m can be calculated, combined circuit can come out section of jurisdiction general alignment.
2, segment selection will adapt to the principle of the posture of TBM hosts
Section of jurisdiction is assembled in shield tail, so inevitably being restricted by TBM host postures.Section of jurisdiction plane should be as possible Perpendicular to TBM arbor lines, that is, TBM auxiliary propulsion oil cylinder energy vertical floor push on section of jurisdiction.Also take into account section of jurisdiction and shield simultaneously Ground gap between tail, avoids TBM from colliding with section of jurisdiction and damage section of jurisdiction.In practical tunneling process, TBM because geology not , the unequal reason of thrust will often deviate Tunnel Design circuit.So when TBM off-designs circuit or when being rectified a deviation, all Segment selection is paid close attention to, avoids that major accident occurs.
3, segment selection is according to the principle of gap of the shield tail size
Usually by the gap between shield tail and section of jurisdiction gap of the shield tail.If gap of the shield tail is too small, the power on shield shell is direct It acts on section of jurisdiction, then friction, collision will occur with section of jurisdiction for TBM machines shield tail in tunneling process.It is light then increase TBM machines forward Change the resistance of step, heavy then cause section of jurisdiction faulting of slab ends, the one side TBM gap is too small, and another side accordingly becomes larger, at this moment shield tail ventral brush sealing effect Fruit reduces, and under grouting pressure effect, cement mortar is easy to leak out, and breaks the sealing effect of ring shield tail.
Gap of the shield tail is an important evidence of segment selection.This bid section TBM gap of the shield tail is 45mm, installs section of jurisdiction every time Before, four, the upper and lower, left and right of section of jurisdiction position being measured, is carried out according to measurement result, the basic principle of adjustment is, which The gap of the shield tail on side is too small, just selects the turning ring of assembled negative direction.
4, segment selection is according to the principle of oil cylinder stroke difference
TBM machines by propelling cylinder pushing tow, tunnel forward by the generated counter-force on section of jurisdiction, we are propelling cylinder It is divided into four groups by upper and lower, left and right four direction.And the difference of the stroke of each P. drechsleri this four group oil cylinder has reacted TBM Spatial relationship between machine and section of jurisdiction plane, it can be seen that the variation tendency of next P. drechsleri gap of the shield tail.When section of jurisdiction plane When being not orthogonal to TBM arbor lines, the stroke of each group propelling cylinder will be variant, when this difference is excessive, propelling cylinder Thrust will generate larger component in the radial direction of section of jurisdiction ring, to influence assembled tunnel duct piece and driving attitude.
Usually with the size of the difference of each group oil cylinder stroke to determine whether should assembled turning ring, two opposite sides When upward stroke difference is more than 40mm, the ring that assembled should just turn is rectified a deviation.
Pipe sheet assembling point determines
The pipe sheet assembling point in the sections TBM is circumferentially uniformly to be divided into 10 points, i.e. the 10 of pipe sheet assembling point, phase The rotation angle of adjoint point position is 36 °, and pipe sheet assembling takes staggered joint erection, fast alternately spell 2, top of binding under normal circumstances Point.
Ring turn during practical assembled, the offset on different directions can be controlled according to different assembled points Amount.According to staggered joint erection and the position for needing wedge shape to measure, fast assembled position of binding flexibly is chosen.
Pipe sheet assembling
Pipe sheet assembling is an important procedure of DSUC type double-shielded TBM method constructing tunnels, is with ring, longitudinal bolt block-by-block High-precision prefabricated reinforced concrete section of jurisdiction is assembled, entire process is complete with TBM driver, pipe sheet assembling hand and assembled work At.
1, the preparation before assembly
(1) floating ash, the floating sand on section of jurisdiction are removed outside hole, section of jurisdiction are carried out after cleaning section of jurisdiction cleans out, by design drawing It is required that adhesive seal pad.
(2) by material preparations such as the connector of section of jurisdiction, waterproof washers.
(3) operating personnel should check whether the power, hydraulic pressure and mechanical equipment of duct piece assembling machine are normal comprehensively, segment lifting appliance It is whether safe and reliable.
2, section of jurisdiction installation method
(1) since tunnel bottom then adjacent block must be installed successively when section of jurisdiction is installed, the block that binds finally is installed.Often One piece of section of jurisdiction is installed, section of jurisdiction connection bolt is inserted into connection immediately, and put on nut and fastened with electric wrench.
(2) 30cm~40cm is first overlapped when block is bound in installation, with fitting machine radial direction jacking, adjusts slow longitudinal direction behind position Pushing tow damages water-proof sealing strip when being headed into for the block that prevents from binding, and painting lubricating oil should be carried out to water-proof sealing strip and makees lubricated.
(3) after section of jurisdiction is installed in place, the propelling cylinder that should stretch out corresponding position in time holds out against section of jurisdiction, and jacking force should be greater than Stablize power needed for section of jurisdiction, then can remove duct piece installation machine.
(4) section of jurisdiction ring will carry out secondary fastening to section of jurisdiction connection bolt in time after being detached from TBM tails.
(5) it adopts an effective measure when section of jurisdiction is installed and avoids damage water-proof sealing strip, and should ensure that pipe sheet assembling quality, reduce Faulting of slab ends ensures its hermetic seal effect.Installation ejects propelling cylinder behind section of jurisdiction, tightens connection bolt, ensures that water-proof sealing strip connects Seam is close, prevents that the changing of the relative positions, water-proof sealing strip seam occurs in DSUC type double-shielded TBM progradations due to adjacent two endless tubes piece Increase and the changing of the relative positions, influence water-stagnating effect.
3, section of jurisdiction installation quality safeguard measure
(1) pipe sheet assembling is carried out by veteran section of jurisdiction installation personnel, assembled process is by engineers and technicians according to testing Receipts standard carries out process examination, ensures assembled quality.
(2) inspection of stringent section of jurisdiction of marching into the arena has damaged, crack section of jurisdiction not use.It is answered when lifting section of jurisdiction and transport section of jurisdiction Pay attention to protecting section of jurisdiction and water-proof sealing strip, in order to avoid damage.
(3) before water-proof sealing strip is pasted, section of jurisdiction should thoroughly be cleaned, to ensure that its stickup is stable and firm.
(4) DSUC type double-shielded TBMs section of jurisdiction installing zone should be cleared up, is removed such as sludge, sewage, guarantor before the installation of section of jurisdiction Demonstrate,prove the cleaning of installing zone and section of jurisdiction abutted surface.
(5) propelling cylinder for forbidding non-section of jurisdiction installation site and the propelling cylinder of section of jurisdiction installation site are shunk simultaneously.
(6) micromatic setting of duct piece assembling machine must be used section of jurisdiction to be installed and installing pipe tile when section of jurisdiction is installed Intrados, which indulges face and is adjusted to smooth out, to connect to reduce faulting of slab ends.Action is steady when adjustment, avoids section of jurisdiction impact failure.
(7) section of jurisdiction installation quality should with meet the canal axes deviation of design requirement and the ovality in relation to code requirement and Ring, longitudinal joint dislocation standard are controlled.It is shown in Table shown in 5.3,5.4:
5.3 tunnel axis of table and elevation tolerance and method of inspection table
Project Tolerance/mm The method of inspection Check frequency
Tunnel axis plan-position ±50 Center line is surveyed with total powerstation 1 point/ring
Tunnel axis elevation ±50 Elevation is surveyed with spirit level 1 point/ring
5.4 pipe sheet assembling tolerances and the method for inspection
Project Tolerance/mm The method of inspection Check frequency
Lining Ring diameter ellipse degree ±5‰D It is calculated after dipstick metering 4 points/ring
The radial faulting of slab ends of adjacent section of jurisdiction 5 Use dipstick metering 4 points/ring
Adjacent ring piece anchor ring faulting of slab ends 6 Use dipstick metering 1 point/ring
Note:D is the outer diameter in tunnel
Beans gravel backfills and grouting
Beans gravel backfills and grouting purpose
Since TBM outer diameters and section of jurisdiction outer diameter are there are difference, in tunneling process after assembled section of jurisdiction is detached from shield tail, Annular space together can be formed between the soil body and section of jurisdiction.The purpose of beans gravel rockfill grouting is made to fill annular gap as early as possible Section of jurisdiction supports stratum as early as possible, prevents ground deformation excessive and jeopardizes ambient enviroment safety, it is often more important that ensures that center line, absolute altitude are vertical To, circumferential faulting of slab ends and ovality in specification allowable range, while as waterproof outside section of jurisdiction and structural reinforcement, anti-water quality is improved Amount.
Material and equipment
1, material specification
(1) backfill beans gravel uses grain size for 5mm-10mm beans gravels, good material is done before materials arrival according to design requirement Checking and accepting, acceptance(check) can just put into production use.
(2) grouting slurries are according to design requirement, using the ratio of mud 0.75:1 cement mortar.Selected coordination in works must be into Row industrial experimentation, to reach design requirement and site operation requirement.Cement mortar mixing is carried out in well sizing liquor mixing station, is passed through Slurries station automatic metering system carries out mixing according to match ratio.
2, rockfill grouting equipment
Air compressor machine (110 kilowatts) 1, beans gravel spraying machine 1, the belt material-feeding machine 1 that the backfill of beans gravel is carried using TBM Platform.
Grouting is using mortar stirring tank 1 included TBM, mortar pump 1.
Construction technology
1, process flow chart
Beans gravel backfills and grouting flow is as shown in Figure 4
2, preformed hole is numbered
According to the double Shield TBM features of Qingdao region DUSC types, first endless tube piece installation need to be according to 18 ° of 18 ° of left avertence or right avertence (positions wedge block FB) design installation.By TBM tunneling directions, the right side is pressed to 6 holes (working hole) backfilled on first ring lining segment Inclined 18 ° of positions are counterclockwise numbered, and serial number A (B2B) is compiled in the backfill hole on the prefabricated lining segment in bottom arch;Encircle on right side Compile serial number B (B1B), C (L1B) in backfill hole on the prefabricated lining segment in portion;It compiles in backfill hole on the prefabricated lining segment in crown portion Serial number E (L2B), F (B3B) are compiled in serial number D (FB), the backfill hole on the prefabricated lining segment in left side arch.Beans gravel backfill and Grouting construction
Beans gravel backfills
1, beans gravel in section of jurisdiction bottom backfills
When driving, which starts lining segment leakage tail shield position, to be suitble to, the nozzle of connection spray beans gravel pipeline is packed into bottom Backfill the hole holes A, start to blow tank backfill, when beans gravel work feel in pipeline no beans gravel flowing it is gentle press off the beginning increase when stop Only hydraulic reclamation is perfused, and removes nozzle by the holes A temporary plugging, completes the backfill of bottom beans gravel.
2, both sides arch beans gravel backfill
Specific method:After completing bottom hydraulic reclamation, a ring will be moved after the nozzle of connection spray beans gravel pipeline, be packed into both sides arch Backfill the hole holes B, the holes F start hydraulic reclamation perfusion, and feeling in pipeline that no beans gravel flowing is gentle until working as beans gravel work presses off the beginning Stop perfusion when raising, remove nozzle by the holes B, the holes F temporary plugging, then the nozzle of connection spray beans gravel pipeline is packed into both sides arch The backfill hole holes C, the perfusion of the holes E, when beans gravel work feel in pipeline the flowing of no beans gravel it is gentle press off the beginning increase when stop Perfusion removes nozzle by the holes B, the holes F temporary plugging, completes the beans gravel backfill of both sides arch.
3, crown portion beans gravel backfills
Implement after arch beans gravel perfusion 1 ring of position of lag both sides.Specific method:By the nozzle of connection spray beans gravel pipeline It is packed into the perfusion of the crown portion holes D hydraulic reclamation, manipulator and beans gravel work want close fit, especially beans gravel work to want in filling process Conscientiously observation perfusion situation, immediately when beans gravel work feels that no gentle pressure of beans gravel flowing abruptly starts to increase in pipeline Stop hydraulic reclamation perfusion, remove nozzle and block in the holes D in time, completes the beans gravel backfill of crown portion.
It removes the 6th ring, the seven ring crown portion holes D closure timber wedge and is checked, if being overflowed without beans gravel, needed in time It re-blows, the 6th ring of nozzle loading, the seven ring crown portion holes D is re-blow, when beans gravel work feels in pipeline do not have beans gravel Flowing and air pressure abruptly start to stop being perfused immediately when increasing, and remove nozzle by D temporary pluggings, complete the beans gravel of a cycle Backfill.Cooperation driving, lining cutting are pushed ahead successively, are sequentially completed returning for A-B-F-C-holes E-D again into subsequent cycle It fills out.
Grouting construction
1, the perfusion of bottom arch cement mortar
Bottom arch grout pouring is that cement mortar force feed is encircleed to backfill position on earth with cement slurrypump through pipeline.Manipulator will be done It links to cement mortar charging with cement slurrypump, while work close fit of wanting and be in the milk, manipulator start under the instruction of grouting work The holes cement slurrypump A carry out pressure filling.Based on amount control, supplemented by pressure control, perfusion finishes plasterer with sealing of hole mortar in time grouting Hole blocks.
2, both sides arch lower part grouting
Grouting plug is not installed to by the holes B -- the holes F that lower part is encircleed in the 1st ring both sides by grouting work point, while installing the 4th successively Ring, the 7th ring B--F (observation, grout leaking, slip casting) hole grouting plug.Manipulator opens the baiting valve of high-speed slurrying, will stir evenly Slurries be put into slurry can, in the case where grouting work is instructed by intercom, manipulator is respectively started grouting pump and starts to be perfused manipulator, Work of being in the milk in filling process wants close observation grout leaking situation, finds the 4th ring successively, the holes B--F of the 7th ring have and compare turbidity Slurry liquid closes slip casting obturator valve when leaking out.Grouting pressure is generally 1.1~1.2 times of carth pressure at rest, base area in construction Layer characteristic is adjusted.It is controlled under normal conditions in 0.3-0.6MPa, 5 minutes slurries of constant pressure do not enter back into after reaching pressure requirements When stop perfusion, simultaneously close off slip casting obturator valve, depending on the hole perfusion terminate.Grouting work removes grouted pipe coupler and is coupled with the 4th Ring, the 7th ring......The holes B--F grouting plug on, stop B, F hole when the holes B-F have to compare when turbid water slurry liquid leaks out Perfusion, complete both sides arch lower part grout pouring.With constantly tunneling forward for TBM, slip casting is filled also with continuous Forward Note.
3, both sides arch top grouting
Grouting plug is not installed to by the 1st ring both sides by grouting work point and encircles the holes C and the holes E on top, while installing the 5th successively Ring, the 9th ring C-E (observation, grout leaking, slip casting) hole grouting plug.Manipulator opens the baiting valve of high-speed slurrying, will stir evenly Slurries be put into slurry can, in the case where grouting work is instructed by intercom, manipulator is respectively started grouting pump and starts to be perfused manipulator, Work of being in the milk in filling process wants close observation grout leaking situation, it is found that the 5th ring, the 9th holes ring C-E have successively and compare turbid water Slurry liquid closes slip casting obturator valve when leaking out.Grouting pressure is generally 1.1~1.2 times of carth pressure at rest, base area in construction Layer characteristic is adjusted.Controlled under normal conditions in 0.3~0.6MPa, reach after pressure requirements 5 minutes slurries of constant pressure no longer into Fashionable stopping perfusion, simultaneously closes off the valve on grouting plug, terminates depending on hole perfusion.Grouting work is removed grouted pipe coupler and is connect respectively To the 5th ring, the 9th holes ring C, E grouting plug on, be perfused forward successively, when the holes C-E have compare turbid water slurry liquid leak out when Stop the perfusion in the hole C, E, completes the grout pouring on both sides arch top.
4, crown center is in the milk
When proceeding to the grouting of crown center, grouting plug is installed to the 1st ring crown center holes D by grouting work, while according to It is secondary installation the 6th ring, the 11st ring D (observation, grout leaking, slip casting) hole grouting plug.Manipulator opens the baiting valve of high-speed slurrying, will stir It mixes uniform slurries and is put into slurry can, instruct mechanical hand starting grouting pump single machine work to start to fill by intercom in grouting work Note, work of being in the milk in filling process will look over one's shoulder grouting pressure and grout leaking situation, it is found that there is ratio in the 6th ring, the 11st holes ring D successively When more muddy cement grout leaks out, slip casting obturator valve is closed in time.Grouting pressure is generally 1.1~1.2 times of carth pressure at rest, It is adjusted according to formation characteristics in construction.It is controlled under normal conditions in 0.3~0.6MPa, constant pressure 5 is divided after reaching pressure requirements Stop perfusion when clock slurries do not enter back into, simultaneously close off the valve on grouting plug, terminates depending on hole perfusion.Grouting work removes grouting Pipe be connected to the 6th ring, the 11st holes ring D grouting plug on, be perfused forward successively, when the holes D have compare turbid water slurry liquid leak out when Stop the perfusion in the holes D, completes the grout pouring of crown center.
Both sides, crown 270 ° of ranges grouting completes, it is established that a distance piece is completed on the basis of beans gravel rockfill groutings Rockfill grouting work.270 ° of both sides of next lining cutting distance piece, crown range grout pourings, still execute as stated above
TBM is received
TBM reaches driving
1, it is promoted according to the perforation posture of TBM machines and driving correction plan, correction will be gradually completing, each ring correction Amount cannot be excessive.
2, rational boring parameter is selected when 50 meters of outbound place end wall at TBM machine distances, gradually slows down driving speed Degree, control hereinafter, thrust continuously decreases, slowly equably cut the hole soil body in 20mm/min, to ensure to reach the steady of headwall It is fixed, formation damage.
3, after TBM enters arrival section, reinforce surface subsidence monitoring, timely feedback information to instruct TBM machines to tunnel.
4, when TBM machine knives disk is less than 10m apart from through chainage, in tunneling process, special messenger is responsible for observing hole of appearing Situation of change, remain with TBM machine driver links, adjust boring parameter in time.
5, after assembled section of jurisdiction enters reinforcing scope, slurries are changed to fast rigid slurries, in advance by mud in reinforcing scope Water seal is got lodged in outside stabilization zone.
6, after the completion of last ring pipe sheet assembling, by the secondary grouting hole of section of jurisdiction, injection dual slurry is blocked.Note The case where portal is paid close attention to during slurry, once find there is the phenomenon that spillage to stop slip casting immediately and handled.
7, due to when TBM machines arrive at a station thrust it is smaller, cause the section of jurisdiction ring near portal and connect defective tightness between ring, because This carries out the bolt fastening of rear 10 endless tube piece and tightens up work.Pull rod 10 endless tube pieces behind tunnel longitudinally tension are used in combination, 10 after making Endless tube piece is linked to be entirety, prevents section of jurisdiction relaxation and influences sealed waterproof effect.
2 TBM, which are received, to be prepared
1, hole repetition measurement is received
When TBM is advanced into TBM coverage areas, the position of TBM machines is accurately measured, cavitation central axis is specified With the relationship of Tunnel Design central axis, while review measurement should be carried out to receiving portal position, determine the perforation posture of TBM machines And driving correction plan.Pay attention at 2 points when considering the perforation posture of TBM machines:First, central axis and tunnel when TBM machines penetrate through Road designs the deviation of axis, second is that receiving the deviation of portal position.These comprehensive factors are on the basis of Tunnel Design central axis It is upper suitably to be adjusted.Correction will be gradually completing, and each ring correction amount cannot be excessive.
2, reception guide table pours or bracket is placed
The central axis for receiving guide table or bracket should be consistent with Tunnel Design axis, while also needing to take into account TBM machines and appear Posture.The rail level absolute altitude deconditioning of guide table or bracket is received in outside line condition, suitably reduces 20mm, so as to TBM it is smooth on connect Receive guide table or bracket.
3 TBM receive points for attention
1, soil stabilization quality of appearing is checked before TBM is reached, it is ensured that strengthening quality meets design requirement;
2, before reaching, the emergency materials such as sand pocket, water pump, water pipe, the lumps of wood, impact gun and tool are got out on the inside of hole;
3, prepare in hole, the lighting apparatus in communication tool and hole outside hole;
4, increase the frequency of surface subsidence monitoring, and timely feedback monitoring result guiding construction;
5, a few endless tube pieces installed after TBM tunnel holing throughs have to ensure that beans gravel, slurries are full closely knit, and one Surely it to tense in time, prevent from causing section of jurisdiction sinking, faulting of slab ends and leak.
1 VMT automatic guides
1, SYSTEM SUMMARY
2 double-shielded TBM guidance systems are one of VMT guidance system products (TUnlS), for guiding development machine to tunnel. The technological core of this system is the very high movable laser target of two precision being separately mounted on development machine anterior shield and branch pole. In order to make tunnel axis driving of the development machine along design, this system is determining and calculates data and information that all drivings need.Together When system standby shelves are carried out to the data in tunneling process, automatically generate driving report.The position and attitude of TBM is every in tunneling process It is primary every several seconds update.Development machine can pass through industrial electro relative to the position relationship of tunnel axis in a manner of number and image System software on brain is shown.System software is protected by password by different security levels.All hardware components are all It is to aim at the adverse circumstances for adapting to constructing tunnel and develop.There is a branch of visible laser (grade between total powerstation and laser target For 3R), it is shown that measurement direction.System is dug in order to ensure the optimal spatial posture of development machine to ensure during driving Minimum deviation is kept to provide very abundant data information into machine and Tunnel Design axis.Development machine attitude and trend information It can be continuously displayed in face of operating personnel, thus be easily carried out and development machine is grasped on vertical curve and horizontal curve Control.
Hardware is sturdy and durable, is specially designed for constructing tunnel;Software is easy to operate and stores various numbers related with driving According to.This makes operating personnel easily grasp system operatio.
2, operation principle
The critical piece of this system is two laser targets, wherein using the laser target on development machine branch pole as system It unites main benchmark, passes through the relative movement relationship that the laser target on anterior shield measures anterior shield and branch pole.Laser target with The exact positional relationship of development machine axis can first pass through machine and measure to obtain in advance.
In order to ensure the normal operation of guidance system, it must assure that there are one run through entire development machine on rock tunnel(ling) machine The laser window of corollary system.Laser total station is mounted on tunnel wall, in the laser channeling between tunnel and machine, with pick Into progress, need to move forward laser total station.
Motion parameters function is carried on total powerstation, and there are one the laser emitters parallel with collimation axis for installation.It is fixed The basis of position TBM postures is two known geodetic coordinates points (Y, X, Z).One point refers to the residing point of total powerstation, whole station Instrument needs and laser target intervisibility.Total powerstation needs to orient by second known point, obtain the north of instrument to.Pacified by measuring The distance and angle of prism on laser target, can obtain the geodetic coordinates of laser target.After measured distance and angle, swash Light beam can automatically point to laser target.Laser target measures the incidence angle of laser beam at this time.The refraction angle of laser by measuring is (incident Angle and the incidence point on laser target) horizontal azimuth of the TBM branch pole axis relative to Tunnel Design axis is calculated.Rolling Dynamic angle and pitch angle are obtained by built-in two-axis inclinometer measurement.SiLTU laser targets by measurement mounted on anterior shield measure The posture of anterior shield, the two-axis inclinometer for being mounted on anterior shield measure the roll angle and pitch angle of anterior shield.
All initial data measured are all transferred in the industrial computer in operating room, are equipped in industrial computer TUnlS softwares calculate the exact space posture of TBM by TUnlS softwares.The posture of TBM passes through two bases on shield body axis It defines on schedule.By further converting, the distance between TBM datum marks and tunnel axis can also calculate, with number The form of word and image is shown on computer screen.
3, system hardware
VMT guidance systems hardware is by movable laser target ALTU, external two-axis inclinometer, central control cabinet, laser total station (Leica TS15G) and shock bracket, system computerized, signal converter (yellow box), SILTU laser targets and laser emitter, The compositions such as stroke sensor, measuring prism, triangular base.
4, software systems
The software of guidance system controls the acquisition and analysis of all measurement data, and is carried out to relevant sensor and component Management.
(1) in acquisition system various associated components measurement data (laser target, dipmeter, PLC);
(2) the various orders of total powerstation will be commanded to be sent to total powerstation;
(3) it calculates and the positioning of total powerstation is configured automatically;
(4) stroke (being connected with PLC or external stroke recording devices) of oil cylinder is recorded;
(5) handle simultaneously storing file to the posture result of various displays;
(6) show that the rolling deviation of anterior shield and branch pole determines the posture of anterior shield and branch pole by external dipmeter.
Tunnel Excavation Monitoring
The tunnels TBM monitoring project includes that grand sunken, tunnel deformation, the underground utilities deformation of earth's surface and differential settlement, the soil body are deep Layer displacement, Lining Ring internal force, earth pressure, building sedimentation and inclination etc..Fig. 4 Tunnel Excavation Monitoring point layout drawings.
One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that:Attached drawing is the schematic diagram of one embodiment, module in attached drawing or Flow is not necessarily implemented necessary to the present invention.
One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that:The component in device in embodiment can describe to divide according to embodiment It is distributed in the device of embodiment, respective change can also be carried out and be located in one or more devices different from the present embodiment.On The component for stating embodiment can be merged into a component, can also be further split into multiple subassemblies.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, but scope of protection of the present invention is not limited thereto, Any one skilled in the art in the technical scope disclosed by the present invention, the change or replacement that can be readily occurred in, It should be covered by the protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be with scope of the claims Subject to.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of safe construction method of rock tunnel(ling) machine, which is characterized in that including:
Using two rock tunnel(ling) machine TBM, subregion carries out driving operation simultaneously, and the work progress of every TBM includes:
Step 1:TBM sondages are into TBM boring parameters are grasped in the debugging of progress TBM loads;
Step 2, TBM formally tunnel, and providing data using automatic guiding system carries out tuning, is realized by adjusting propelling cylinder Adjustment direction;
Building is worn under step 3, TBM.
2. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, further including before the step 1:
Step 0:TBM originates driving, and process flow includes:
1, section of jurisdiction gap, first ring pipe sheet assembling have been padded;
2, control cylinder pressure pushes first endless tube piece contact to originate reaction frame using 16 auxiliary cylinder top head endless tube pieces;
3, after the contact of first endless tube piece originates reaction frame, auxiliary push oil cylinder of retracting starts assembled second endless tube piece, withdraws auxiliary piecewise The auxiliary cylinder stretching of retraction is resisted the section of jurisdiction spelled, is repeatedly performed the peace of domain section of jurisdiction by oil cylinder, assembled monolithic section of jurisdiction Dress;
4, provide driving counter-force by the tight hole wall of branch pole support stretcher for boot and shoe, start sondage into.
3. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the step 1 specifically includes:
TBM sondages are into operating process
(1) start and prepare
1. connecting the power supply between transformer and DSUC type double-shielded TBM hosts, the illumination being also turned in tunnel outside hole;
2. connecting the main switch of transformer on TBM, transformer is made to come into operation, after transformer stable working, connects secondary side Switch of power supply output, check the various voltages needed for TBM, connect TBM and rear with the upper lighting system of set, check on TBM Electric leakage monitoring system determines that the insulation values of ground connection meet the job requirement of each equipment;
3. confirming that all light, sound instruction element manipulation are normal, all speed governing knobs are in zero-bit;
4. the lubricating oil level of the hydraulic oil oil level of inspection hydraulic system, lubricating system;
5. confirming that hole extroversion TBM supplies water, divulges information normally;
6. determining that various auxiliary equipment enter driving operating mode;
(2) start
1. connecting the control power supply of DSUC type double-shielded TBMs, start the water supply pump of hydraulic power station, ventilation blower, TBM itself, According to execution conditions, it is determined whether start draining water pump;
2. confirming that the included retractable high-tension cables of TBM, water pipe meet driving needs;
3. checking that the instrument for measuring and being oriented to is working properly, and correct location parameter is provided and is oriented to parameter;
4. according to the location parameter for measuring the TBM that guider provides, the direction that development machine is adjusted using device for regulating direction is inclined Difference confirms that anti-twist mechanism is working properly;
5. determining that belt feeder system has started to start, and work well;
6. starting the acoustic-electric alarm system at each position of development machine, prompt to enter working condition.
4. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the step 2 specifically includes:
Using tunnel automatic guiding system and auxiliary progress development machine attitude monitoring is measured, the tunnel automatic guiding system configuration Be oriented to, automatic positioning, driving program software and display, in development machine master control room Dynamic Announce development machine current location and tunnel Road designs the deviation and trend of axis, and adjustment control development machine tunneling direction, makes tunneling direction be maintained at the inclined of permission accordingly In poor range;
The driving attitude information of the plan of segmentation axis Solid rocket engine, guidance system reflection done according to line condition, in conjunction with tunnel Road strata condition controls tunneling direction by the propelling cylinder of division operation development machine, when upward slope section is tunneled, increases driving The thrust of machine lower part oil cylinder;The thrust of top oil cylinder is then increased when lower slope section tunnels;When left-hand rotation curvilinear lengths are tunneled, increase Right side cylinder thrust;When right-hand rotation bending line tunnels, the thrust of left side oil cylinder is increased;When straight line flat slope section is tunneled, make to own The thrust of oil cylinder is consistent.
5. according to the method described in claim 4, it is characterized in that, the step 2 further includes:
In the anterior shield both sides of TBM 1 stabilising arrangement is respectively set, subtracts by adjusting the pressure of stabilising arrangement when TBM tunnels The vibrations and rolling of few host machine part, adjust by adjusting 2 torque arm oil cylinder stretching speeds to realize under double shield patterns TBM host postures;
In the case of linear advancement, a little one straight line of work of development machine present position point and a distant place in design lines is chosen, Development machine present position should be made in the case where curve promotes by being again the new linear management of benchmark progress with this straight line Point is tangent with design curve with the line of distant place point.
6. according to the method described in claim 4, it is characterized in that:
The tunnel automatic guiding system includes two laser targets, and two laser targets are separately mounted to the branch pole of TBM with before On shield, using the laser target on development machine branch pole as system benchmark, measured by the laser target on anterior shield The relative movement relationship of anterior shield and branch pole;
Setting is through the laser window of entire development machine corollary system on TBM, and laser total station is mounted on tunnel wall, with driving Carry out laser total station forward movement, Motion parameters function is carried on the laser total station, and install that there are one same The basis of the parallel laser emitter of collimation axis, positioning TBM postures is two known geodetic coordinates points, and a point refers to laser The residing point of total powerstation, laser total station and laser target intervisibility, laser total station orient to obtain instrument by second known point Device the north to, by measurement be mounted on laser target on prism distance and angle, obtain the geodetic coordinates of laser target, measure After distance and angle, laser beam is directed toward laser target, and laser target measures the incidence angle of laser beam, by the refraction of the laser measured Horizontal azimuth of the TBM branch pole axis relative to Tunnel Design axis is calculated in angle.
7. method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, which is characterized in that the method further includes:
The segment selection in the sections TBM, section of jurisdiction plane are carried out according to the posture of TBM hosts, gap of the shield tail size and oil cylinder stroke difference Perpendicular to TBM arbor lines, pipe sheet assembling point is circumferentially uniformly to be divided into 10 points, and the rotation angle of adjacent point is 36 °, Pipe sheet assembling takes staggered joint erection, turning ring to control not Tongfang according to different assembled points during practical assembled Upward offset according to staggered joint erection and needs the position of wedge shape amount to choose fast assembled position of binding.
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Application publication date: 20180814