CN108372197B - Composite technology mainly based on thermal desorption for treating contaminated soil - Google Patents

Composite technology mainly based on thermal desorption for treating contaminated soil Download PDF

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CN108372197B
CN108372197B CN201810068057.3A CN201810068057A CN108372197B CN 108372197 B CN108372197 B CN 108372197B CN 201810068057 A CN201810068057 A CN 201810068057A CN 108372197 B CN108372197 B CN 108372197B
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soil
thermal desorption
cooling
equipment
composite process
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CN108372197A (en
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秦艳涛
吴玉清
黄晖
姚清
曹嘉林
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Hongguan Environment Technology Co ltd
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Hongguan Environment Technology Co ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09CRECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09C1/00Reclamation of contaminated soil
    • B09C1/06Reclamation of contaminated soil thermally

Abstract

The invention discloses a thermal desorption-based composite process for treating polluted soil, which comprises the following specific steps of: a. screening; b. drying; c. thermal desorption; d. cooling; e. and (5) secondary cooling. The composite process adopts disc type thermal desorption equipment, has few internal rotating devices, small dust generation amount and low energy consumption; cooling the high-temperature soil subjected to thermal desorption by adopting a water indirect cooling and air direct cooling mode, and simultaneously using the recovered energy for soil drying pretreatment; when the soil is cooled for the second time, the heat of the soil is utilized to initiate persulfate to generate free radicals to further decompose pollutants in the soil. The invention takes thermal desorption as a main process and chemical oxidation as an auxiliary process, and can achieve higher repair standard at one time.

Description

Composite technology mainly based on thermal desorption for treating contaminated soil
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of environmental protection and soil treatment, in particular to a composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating polluted soil.
Background
The soil pollution problem in China has been well established, and with the rapid development of industry, a large amount of waste water, waste gas and solid waste are discharged to the environment to cause soil pollution. In the 80 s of the 20 th century, researchers called for protection of soil environments, but have not been gaining attention. Until the soil environmental pollution events occur frequently in recent years, the universality and the severity of soil pollution are exposed, the remediation and the reutilization of the polluted land become problems which need to be solved urgently at present, and the soil pollution treatment becomes the focus of attention of academic circles and the environmental protection industry. The existing restoration technology mainly comprises plants, microorganisms, solidification, soil air stripping, thermal desorption, leaching, chemical extraction and the like.
The heterotopic thermal desorption is to heat the soil by high-temperature flue gas generated by burning fuel gas or fuel oil, desorb volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in the soil to generate tail gas, and then perform subsequent treatments such as adsorption and incineration on the tail gas to achieve the emission standard. Thermal desorption requires a high-temperature heat source to heat soil, at present, gas is generally adopted as the heat source, high-temperature smoke generated by combustion of the gas heats the soil, the highest temperature in the system is high, and the risk is high. The fuel gas is inflammable and explosive, the design and manufacture requirements of thermal desorption equipment are high, and the requirements of operation management level are high.
Electromagnetic heating is one of electric heating, has high heating efficiency, and is mainly used for steel making and household use at present. In the aspect of soil remediation, patent 201320389183.1 handles contaminated soil with electromagnetic heating's cylinder equipment, relies on the rotation of cylinder to stir soil, and the transform heat-transfer surface, stirring effect is relatively poor. The high temperature soil is not subjected to subsequent heat recovery.
If the soil is polluted for a long time, the polluted organic matters in the soil can be in a blocked state, the volatilization difficulty of the organic matters is high, the soil is difficult to treat to a remediation target only by thermal desorption, or high energy consumption is consumed. Considering that the temperature of the soil after thermal desorption is higher, water is generally needed to be sprayed for cooling and the humidity is also needed to be improved. The persulfate is initiated by high temperature to generate free radicals to oxidize organic pollutants in the soil, so that higher restoration standard can be achieved, and meanwhile, the energy consumption of thermal desorption can be saved.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention mainly solves the technical problem of providing a composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating polluted soil, which adopts disc type thermal desorption equipment, has less internal rotating devices, less dust generation amount and low energy consumption; cooling the high-temperature soil subjected to thermal desorption by adopting a water indirect cooling and air direct cooling mode, and simultaneously using the recovered energy for soil pretreatment; the soil is cooled secondarily by adopting a direct spraying cooling mode, persulfate is initiated by utilizing the heat of the soil to generate free radicals, and the free radicals further decompose pollutants in the soil.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts a technical scheme that: provides a composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating polluted soil, which comprises the following specific steps:
a. screening, namely removing large-volume stones or construction waste from the soil through a vibrating screen, controlling the diameter of soil particles to be not more than 40mm through a secondary vibrating screen, and then feeding the soil into a dryer;
b. drying, namely heating and drying the soil by using a dryer to reduce the water content in the soil;
c. thermal desorption, wherein soil enters thermal desorption equipment after being pretreated and heated by a dryer, the thermal desorption equipment adopts disc type thermal desorption equipment and is divided into a heating disc and a shell, a sealing device is arranged between the heating disc and the shell, gas cannot circulate, the thermal desorption equipment is provided with a material inlet and a material outlet, the soil is uniformly distributed on the heating disc after entering the thermal desorption equipment, the soil is rapidly heated to 600 ℃ along with the heating disc and simultaneously rotates, stirring blades fixed on the shell stir the soil, and the soil is discharged out of the thermal desorption equipment by a discharge screw conveyor after reaching a discharge port;
d. cooling, namely discharging the high-temperature soil from the thermal desorption equipment, then feeding the high-temperature soil into a cooling machine, cooling the cooled soil to 150 ℃, and cooling to obtain high-temperature water and air to pretreat the soil;
e. and (5) secondary cooling, wherein the cooled soil enters a secondary cooling device, and cooling water is adopted to directly spray and cool the soil.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the thermal desorption device adopts electromagnetic heating, and electromagnetic coils are arranged outside the bottom layer of the heating disc and on the outer side surface of the bottom layer of the heating disc.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a heat insulation board is arranged between the electromagnetic coil and the heating disc, the electromagnetic coil is cooled in an air cooling mode, an air inlet is formed in the side wall of the machine shell, and an air outlet is formed in the bottom of the machine shell.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the casing is fixed with a stirring blade, and the stirring blade is provided with a reinforcing rib.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the casing is provided with a baffle plate and a baffle plate.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the discharge screw conveyor is a shaft screw, divided into two sections, and the feed end is free of a casing.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the discharge screw conveyor comprises a screw shaft, on which an elongated stirring paddle is welded.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cooling machine is a disc type cooling machine, high-pressure cooling water is introduced into a disc and a jacket of the cooling machine to indirectly cool the soil, and cooling air is introduced into the cooling machine to directly cool the soil.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cooling water in the secondary cooling device contains persulfate, and the soil is cooled and simultaneously subjected to oxidation treatment, wherein the persulfate is sodium persulfate or potassium persulfate.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating the polluted soil adopts the disc type thermal desorption equipment, has few internal rotating devices, small dust generation amount and low energy consumption; cooling the high-temperature soil subjected to thermal desorption by adopting a water indirect cooling and air direct cooling mode, and simultaneously using the recovered energy for soil pretreatment; the soil is cooled secondarily by adopting a direct spraying cooling mode, persulfate is initiated by utilizing the heat of the soil to generate free radicals, and the free radicals further decompose pollutants in the soil.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings needed to be used in the description of the embodiments are briefly introduced below, it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and other drawings can be obtained by those skilled in the art without inventive efforts, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a schematic flow chart of a preferred embodiment of the thermal desorption-based composite process for treating contaminated soil according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of the thermal desorption apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a top view of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the construction of the screw conveyor of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural view of a baffle of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the structure of the cooling machine of the present invention;
the labels in the figures are: 1. heating disc, 2, casing, 3, feeding screw conveyer, 4, closing device, 5, material inlet, 6, discharging screw conveyer, 7, stirring leaf, 8, reinforcing rib, 9, material outlet, 10, electromagnetic coil, 11, heat insulation material, 12, air hole, 13, air extraction opening, 14, tail gas opening, 15, first guide plate, 16, screw shaft, 17, paddle, 18, stirring paddle, 19, baffle, 20, second guide plate, 21, air inlet, 22, air outlet, 23, disc, 24, jacket, 25, water inlet, 26, water outlet.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
As shown in fig. 1, an embodiment of the present invention includes:
a composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating polluted soil comprises the following specific steps:
a. screening, namely removing large-volume stones or construction waste from the soil through a vibrating screen, controlling the diameter of soil particles to be not more than 40mm through a secondary vibrating screen, and then feeding the soil into a dryer;
b. drying, namely heating and drying the soil by using a dryer to reduce the water content in the soil;
c. thermal desorption, wherein soil enters thermal desorption equipment after being pretreated and heated by a dryer, the thermal desorption equipment adopts disc type thermal desorption equipment and is divided into a heating disc and a shell, a sealing device is arranged between the heating disc and the shell, gas cannot circulate, the thermal desorption equipment is provided with a material inlet and a material outlet, the soil is uniformly distributed on the heating disc after entering the thermal desorption equipment, the soil is rapidly heated to 600 ℃ along with the heating disc and simultaneously rotates, stirring blades fixed on the shell stir the soil, and the soil is discharged out of the thermal desorption equipment by a discharge screw conveyor after reaching a discharge port;
d. cooling, namely discharging the high-temperature soil from the thermal desorption equipment, then feeding the high-temperature soil into a cooling machine, cooling the cooled soil to 150 ℃, and cooling to obtain high-temperature water and air to pretreat the soil;
e. and (5) secondary cooling, wherein the cooled soil enters a secondary cooling device, and cooling water is adopted to directly spray and cool the soil.
In the above, the dryer is a belt dryer. Wherein, the heat source used by the dryer is high-temperature water and high-temperature air recovered from high-temperature soil.
The thermal desorption equipment adopts electromagnetic heating, and the electromagnetic coils are arranged outside the bottom layer of the heating disc and on the outer side surface of the heating disc; the thermal desorption equipment adopts a power frequency power supply, and the heating disc and iron soil particles in the soil are heated under the change of the alternating magnetic field. The casing of the thermal desorption equipment is also provided with an air pumping hole, and gas generated by the thermal desorption equipment is pumped out through the air pumping hole and then is subjected to subsequent treatment. In this embodiment, the tail gas generated by thermal desorption is discharged from a tail gas port at the top of the thermal desorption apparatus, and is cooled to 50-60 ℃ after being sprayed, so that water vapor and part of organic matters in the tail gas are condensed.
With reference to the attached drawings 1 to 6, the specific implementation process of the composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating the polluted soil of the invention comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the steps of excavating polluted soil by an excavator, then conveying the soil to a treatment place, removing large-volume stones, construction waste and the like in the soil by using a vibrating screen, controlling the particle diameter to be not more than 40mm by using a secondary vibrating screen, then feeding the soil into a dryer, recycling high-temperature water and high-temperature air from the high-temperature soil as a heat source of the dryer, and treating tail gas generated by the dryer to reach the standard and then discharging. After the soil is pretreated, the water content is reduced, the temperature is increased, and the soil is conveyed to thermal desorption equipment by a discharge screw conveyor;
the thermal desorption equipment is circular, adopts disc type thermal desorption equipment, is divided into a heating disc 1 and a casing 2, the heating disc 1 rotates under the driving of a motor, the casing 2 is fixed, and a sealing device 4 is arranged between the heating disc 1 and the casing 2 to prevent the gas of the heating disc 1 and the casing 2 from mixing. The casing 2 is provided with a material inlet 5 and a material outlet 9, and the casing 2 is connected with a feeding screw conveyor 3 and a discharging screw conveyor 6. The soil is evenly distributed on the heating disc 1 by the feeding screw conveyor 3. The thermal desorption adopts electromagnetic heating, adopts a power frequency power supply, and heats the heating disc 1 and iron soil particles in the soil under the change of an alternating magnetic field. Due to the excellent performance of electromagnetic heating, the soil is rapidly heated to 500-600 ℃, and volatile substances in the soil are desorbed and separated from the soil. The top of the casing 2 is also provided with a tail gas port 14, and tail gas generated by thermal desorption is discharged from the tail gas port at the top of the thermal desorption equipment;
along with the rotation of the heating disc 1, the stirring blades 7 fixed on the shell 2 stir the soil in a turning way, so that the soil is uniformly heated, and the separation of volatile substances from the soil is accelerated. Be equipped with strengthening rib 8 on stirring leaf 7, improve stirring leaf 7's structural stability, improve the stirring effect simultaneously. Two adjacent stirring blades 7 are arranged at intervals;
be equipped with first guide plate 15 in the thermal desorption equipment, first guide plate 15 is used for leading ejection of compact screw conveyer 6 with soil. The discharging screw conveyor 6 is a shaft screw conveyor, the machine body is divided into two sections, the tail end of feeding is provided with an inorganic shell, blades 17 are arranged on a screw shaft 16 of the discharging screw conveyor 6, and three lengthened stirring paddles 18 are further arranged on the screw shaft 16 to lift soil to the screw conveyor. A baffle plate 19 and a second guide plate 20 are also arranged in the thermal desorption equipment, the second guide plate 20 guides the soil to the screw conveyor, and the baffle plate 19 prevents the soil from being mixed back;
the electromagnetic coils 10 are uniformly arranged at the bottom and the outer wall of the heating disc 1, are not in contact with thermal desorption equipment, and are made of thermal insulation materials 11 in the middle. The side wall of the casing 2 is provided with an air hole 12, the bottom of the casing is provided with an air extraction port 13, and the electromagnetic coil 10 is cooled by air extraction of a fan;
after being discharged from the thermal desorption equipment, the high-temperature soil enters a cooling machine which is in a disc type and is provided with a jacket 24. High-pressure cooling water is introduced into the disc 23 and the jacket 24 of the cooling machine to indirectly cool the soil. Meanwhile, the cooling machine is provided with a water inlet 25, a water outlet 26, an air inlet 21 and an air outlet 22, and cooling air is introduced into the air inlet 21 to directly cool the soil. After passing through a cooling machine, the temperature of the high-temperature soil is reduced to about 150 ℃;
the cooled soil enters a secondary cooling device, cooling water is adopted for direct spray cooling, sodium persulfate or potassium persulfate is added into the cooling water, and the sodium persulfate or potassium persulfate generates free radicals under the initiation of heat to further oxidize and decompose pollutants in the soil;
the tail gas that thermal desorption equipment produced is discharged from thermal desorption equipment top, makes the vapor and partial organic matter condensation in the tail gas after spray cooling, and the tail gas after the cooling is carrying out subsequent processing, discharges after reaching standard.
Compared with the prior art, the composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating the polluted soil has the following advantages:
1. the thermal desorption equipment has less internal power equipment and the dust content in the gas is small;
2. the electromagnetic heating is adopted, so that the highest temperature of the system is reduced, the safety of equipment is improved, and the manufacturing difficulty of the equipment is reduced;
3. the soil after being treated by the thermal desorption equipment is cooled by adopting a mode of combining direct contact and indirect contact, so that the heat transfer coefficient is high, and the heat exchange area is small;
4. the secondary cooling equipment adopts sodium persulfate or potassium persulfate water solution as cooling water, so that the content of pollutants in the soil can be further reduced.
In conclusion, the composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating the polluted soil adopts the disc type thermal desorption equipment, the internal rotating devices are few, the dust generation amount is small, and the energy consumption is low; to the high temperature soil after the heat desorption, adopt water indirect cooling and air direct cooling mode, cool off the soil, the energy of retrieving simultaneously is used for soil pretreatment, when carrying out secondary cooling to soil again, the persulfate is added to the heat of make full use of soil in the cooling water, further decomposes the pollutant in the soil through the production free radical of persulfate.
The above description is only an embodiment of the present invention, and not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and all modifications of equivalent structures and equivalent processes, which are made by the present specification, or directly or indirectly applied to other related technical fields, are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. A composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating polluted soil is characterized by comprising the following specific steps:
a. screening, namely removing large-volume stones or construction waste from the soil through a vibrating screen, controlling the diameter of soil particles to be not more than 40mm through a secondary vibrating screen, and then feeding the soil into a dryer;
b. drying, namely heating and drying the soil by using a dryer to reduce the water content in the soil;
c. thermal desorption, wherein soil enters thermal desorption equipment after being pretreated and heated by a dryer, the thermal desorption equipment adopts disc type thermal desorption equipment and is divided into a heating disc and a shell, a sealing device is arranged between the heating disc and the shell, gas cannot circulate, the thermal desorption equipment is provided with a material inlet and a material outlet, the soil is uniformly distributed on the heating disc after entering the thermal desorption equipment, the soil is rapidly heated to 600 ℃ along with the heating disc and simultaneously rotates, stirring blades fixed on the shell stir the soil, and the soil is discharged out of the thermal desorption equipment by a discharge screw conveyor after reaching a discharge port;
d. cooling, namely discharging the high-temperature soil from the thermal desorption equipment, then feeding the high-temperature soil into a cooling machine, cooling the cooled soil to 150 ℃, and cooling to obtain high-temperature water and air to pretreat the soil;
e. and (5) secondary cooling, wherein the cooled soil enters a secondary cooling device, and cooling water is adopted to directly spray and cool the soil.
2. The composite thermal desorption-based process for treating contaminated soil according to claim 1, wherein the thermal desorption device is electromagnetically heated, and the electromagnetic coils are arranged outside the bottom layer and on the outer side surface of the heating disc.
3. The composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating contaminated soil according to claim 2, wherein a heat insulation board is arranged between the electromagnetic coil and the heating disc, the electromagnetic coil is cooled in an air cooling mode, an air inlet is formed in the side wall of the machine shell, and an air outlet is formed in the bottom of the machine shell.
4. The composite process mainly based on thermal desorption for treating contaminated soil according to claim 1, wherein stirring blades are fixed on the casing, and reinforcing ribs are arranged on the stirring blades.
5. The thermal desorption-based composite process for remediating contaminated soil as claimed in claim 1, wherein a deflector and a baffle are provided on the housing.
6. The thermal desorption-based composite process for treating contaminated soil as claimed in claim 1, wherein the discharge screw conveyor is a spiral with a shaft and is divided into two sections, and the tail end of the feed is provided with no casing.
7. The thermal desorption-based composite process for treating contaminated soil according to claim 6, wherein the discharge screw conveyor comprises a screw shaft, and an elongated stirring paddle is welded on the screw shaft.
8. The thermal desorption-based compound process for treating contaminated soil as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cooling machine is a disc type cooling machine, high-pressure cooling water is introduced into a disc and a jacket of the cooling machine to indirectly cool the soil, and cooling air is introduced into the cooling machine to directly cool the soil.
9. The thermal desorption-based composite process for treating contaminated soil as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cooling water in the secondary cooling device contains persulfate, and the soil is simultaneously cooled and oxidized, wherein the persulfate is sodium persulfate or potassium persulfate.
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