CN108072860A - A kind of 3-D positioning method based on radio communication base station - Google Patents

A kind of 3-D positioning method based on radio communication base station Download PDF

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CN108072860A
CN108072860A CN201611049054.2A CN201611049054A CN108072860A CN 108072860 A CN108072860 A CN 108072860A CN 201611049054 A CN201611049054 A CN 201611049054A CN 108072860 A CN108072860 A CN 108072860A
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base station
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terminal
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杨冠男
闫文江
丁华平
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Nanjing University
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Nanjing University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • G01S5/10Position of receiver fixed by co-ordinating a plurality of position lines defined by path-difference measurements, e.g. omega or decca systems

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  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • General Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Radar, Positioning & Navigation (AREA)
  • Remote Sensing (AREA)
  • Position Fixing By Use Of Radio Waves (AREA)

Abstract

The present invention proposes a kind of 3-D positioning method based on radio communication base station.The location information of range information and base station based on communication base station to terminal, realizes the positioning of mobile terminal.Cardinal principle is that the time of propagation of electrical signals is converted into distance, and end coordinates are solved on the basis of known to base station coordinates.Due to electric signal, be subject to non-line-of-sight propagation, measurement accuracy, clock be asynchronous etc., factors are influenced in communication process, need to establish the error model of measurement distance, the transformational relation between measurement distance and actual distance is found out, so as to establish more accurate location model in some specific scene.It is the precondition using this kind of location technology at least there are four communication base stations in the range of the communication radius of mobile terminal.The base station number in place where the precision of location algorithm depends on terminal, present invention further proposes the Selection Strategies of communication base station in scene.

Description

A kind of 3-D positioning method based on radio communication base station
Technical field
The invention belongs to wireless positioning field, this method is realized by radio communication base station and positioned.
Technical background
With the fast development of cordless communication network, service (the Location Based based on location information are provided SerXice, abbreviation LBS) already become most one of business of development potentiality and market prospects.Although commercialization GPS with The development of mobile terminal is widely applied, still, in such as built-up urban district, interior of building, underground parking Etc. in many scenes, GPS positioning poor-performing.Compared to GPS positioning, based on the alignment system of wireless network base station it is above this A little scenes can realize breakthrough, and there are the advantages of bigger in depth and range.It will measure what is obtained based on wireless communication system The physicals index such as signal strength, propagation time transforms into the information such as distance, angle that positioning needs, so as to pass through positioning Algorithm calculates the coordinate of terminal.But based on the alignment system of wireless network base station there is also lot of challenges, because communication base Residing electromagnetic signal environment of standing is more complicated.It such as can be in metope multiple reflections, object during electromagnetic wave indoor propagation Refraction and absorption so that there are errors for the range information that communication base station measures.Method in relation to indoor positioning and navigation at present, Most communication by between Wi-Fi equipment and mobile terminal, but the limited coverage of Wi-Fi equipment and strange Wi-Fi The information security of equipment becomes the apparent inferior position of this kind of method.The present invention is based on arrival time (the Time Of of wireless signal ArriXal, abbreviation TOA) and base station coordinates, the foundation location model of the more base stations of a terminal-pair (at least four) is established, is passed through Certain existing scene it is several to actual value and measured value, establish the error model of the scene, carried so as to be directed to the scene For a kind of more accurate measurement model.
The content of the invention
Goal of the invention:The technical problems to be solved by the invention are determined based on what is communicated between communication base station and user terminal Position system proposes a kind of positioning terminal, it is necessary to consider the influence of the factors such as the asynchronous, measurement accuracy of non-line-of-sight propagation, clock The method of three-dimensional coordinate, and find out suitable base station selection strategy.
In order to solve the above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention proposes a kind of three location algorithms of consideration error model, and explains A kind of strategy of base station selection has been stated, has been included the following steps:
Step 1 arranges several terminals as sampled point in this scenario, it is known that sample point coordinate and base station coordinates, according to Sampled point is obtained to the actual distance d of coordinate in range formula;
Step 2 is obtained sampling terminal according to the arrival time (Time Of Arrival, abbreviation TOA) of wireless signal and arrives The measurement distance of base station
For some specific scene, error is fitted by the correspondence of actual distance and measurement distance for step 3 Function establishes base station to the error model of terminal distance;
Step 4 in the scene for having built up error model, for target terminal P to be positioned, finds out corresponding TO A values 15 minimum terminals when scene base station number is less than 15, choose all terminals, and ensure that base station number is more than 4, otherwise without Method positions;
Step 5, by actual distance d, measurement distanceThe coordinate of terminal brings positioning equation into, solves the coordinate of terminal.
In the present invention, actual distance is the air line distance between base station and terminal in step 1, can be used for positioning terminal Coordinate.Known base station coordinate is (xi, yi, zi), end coordinates for (x, y, z) by below equation, base station and end can be acquired Actual distance d between end:d2=(x-xi)2+(y-yi)2+(z-zi)2
In the present invention, TOA is the arrival time of radio signal in step 2, i.e. the biography of signal between a base station and a terminal Between sowing time, the spread speed of radio signal is multiplied by by the time can obtain observed range between base station and terminal.Pass through TOA values can acquire the observed range between base station and terminal:Wherein d is actual distance,Represent terminal with Observed range between base station, c is the spread speed of radio signal, when TOA is the propagation of signal between a base station and a terminal Between.Measurement distance can be converted into actual distance by the error model.
The deviation between observed range and actual distance is considered in the present invention, in step 3, introduces error shown in following formula FunctionWherein ω function representations actual distance d and measurement distanceMapping relations, under different scenes, ω Expression formula is typically different.In certain scene, the measurement arrived by the true coordinate value and each base station measurement of several handheld terminals Value TOA can fit the error function ω of the scene.
In the present invention, the three-dimensional coordinate X (x, y, z) of terminal is solved in step 4, it is necessary to use at least four base station Coordinate, because at least knowing that four coordinate points can just obtain unique solution X (x, y, z), i.e. four side mensurations.When known three dimensions The coordinate of 4 base stations is respectively (x1, y1, z1)、(x2, y2, z2)、(x3, y3, z3)、(x4, y4, z4), terminal X to this four base stations Distance be respectively d1, d2, d3, d4, list equation group:
In the present invention, although theoretically only needed in step 4 four base stations can solve approximate end coordinates X (x, y, Z), but in order to improve the accuracy of approximate solution, more base stations can be added in.In actual engineering problem, above equation is only Getable approximate solution, with the increase of base station number, the equation quantity included in equation group increases, in the situation that unknown number is constant Under, equation group variation is over-determined systems.
It is the solution X that over-determined systems are obtained in the present invention, in step 4, considers to solve this overdetermination side using least square method Journey group obtains the approximate solution as close possible to actual value.Assuming that linear equation group AX=b, wherein A are coefficient matrix, b is Constant vector, X are unknown vector, according to the correlation theorem of least square method, X*It is that filling for the least square solution of AX=b wants item Part is:X*It is ATAX=ATThe solution of b, wherein ATRepresent the transposed matrix of A.In matrix ATUnder the conditions of A is nonsingular, so logical Cross the following formula:X=(ATA)-1·ATB can solve approximate end coordinates X (x, y, z).
Assume that the total number of base in certain scene for N, chooses wherein n base station, to target terminal in the present invention, in step 4 P is positioned.First, we choose the base station nearer from terminal P as far as possible.This is because with the increase of propagation distance, electricity Signal is influenced be subject to factors such as multipath transmisstion, reflected refraction, signal interferences can bigger.On the other hand, base station has certain big Small communication radius, beyond the measurement data of radius and unreliable.So, it should the premise in base station communication radius Under, take the shorter priority principle of distance.Since TOA can reflect the distance of base station and terminal to a certain extent, in practical operation, Using the product of TOA and propagation velocity of electromagnetic wave c as distance reference value, on the premise of the reference value is less than communication radius, choosing Take the positioning participated in n base station of the TOA values minimum of terminal P to terminal P.
In the present invention, step 4 hypothesis has m terminal, it is known that each terminal PiTrue coordinate (xi, yi, zi)(1≤i≤ M), it is terminal P according to distance priority principleiIt chooses n base station and participates in positioning (n >=4), it is known that the coordinate of this n base station and and Pi Corresponding TOA values solve the elements of a fix according to positioning equation groupTo weigh the error of positioning Size defines average relative error value, the true coordinate of all terminals and makes in the case that it represents certain in base station, in scene The absolute value of coordinate difference and the ratio of true coordinate value calculated with location model, relative error and the specific place of terminal Coordinate is unrelated, has more objectivity than absolute error in the measurement to error:
Calculate when n is respectively 4,5,6 ..., N when average relative error value.From the base station numbers of special scenes and error It can be clearly seen that in relational graph, choose n base station according to distance priority principle, as n values increase, measurement error progressively subtracts It is small, it tends towards stability.First, the location model that it demonstrates foundation be it is reliable, the method for solving of least square method be it is feasible, The least square method used in over-determined systems are solved can obtain globally optimal solution.Secondly, proved by actual calculating Increase base station number can improve positioning accuracy, but when base station number is larger, increase raising shadow of the base station number to positioning accuracy Very little is rung, so choosing suitable base station number, positional accuracy and efficiency can be taken into account.Finally, by result of calculation With the analysis of error change tendency chart, it is believed that:According to the shorter priority principle of distance, from the base station selection less than communication radius 15 participate in positioning apart from shortest terminal, the accuracy and efficiency of positioning can be taken into account, when the base station number in communication radius is small When 15, all base station numbers participate in positioning, but base station number has to be larger than 4, otherwise can not position, i.e.,:
Description of the drawings
The features of the present invention is further elaborated further combined with the drawings and specific embodiments.
Fig. 1 is the arrival time TOA schematic diagram of wireless signal.
Fig. 2 is four side mensuration schematic diagrames.
Fig. 3 is the positioning flow figure based on radio communication base station.
Specific embodiment
The invention discloses a kind of localization methods based on radio communication base station, comprise the following steps:
Step 1 arranges several terminals as sampled point in this scenario, it is known that sample point coordinate and base station coordinates, according to Sampled point is obtained to the actual distance d of coordinate in range formula;
Step 2 is obtained sampling terminal according to the arrival time (Time Of Arrival, abbreviation TOA) of wireless signal and arrives The measurement distance of base station
For some specific scene, error is fitted by the correspondence of actual distance and measurement distance for step 3 Function establishes base station to the error model of terminal distance;
Step 4 in the scene for having built up error model, for target terminal P to be positioned, finds out corresponding TO A values 15 minimum terminals when scene base station number is less than 15, choose all terminals, and ensure that base station number is more than 4, otherwise without Method positions;
Step 5, by actual distance d, measurement distanceThe coordinate of terminal brings positioning equation into, solves the coordinate of terminal.
As shown in Figure 1, TOA is the arrival time of radio signal, i.e. the propagation time of signal between a base station and a terminal, The spread speed of radio signal is multiplied by by the time can obtain observed range between base station and terminal.
In this example, in step 1 in advance arrange in the scene it is several sampling terminals, it is necessary to these known terminals it is true Three-dimensional coordinate.
In this example, step 2 by the TOA values measured be multiplied by radio signal spread speed c can obtain base station with Observed range between terminal.
In this example, the respective value of one group of actual distance in scene and observed range is carried out Function Fitting by step 2, Obtain error functionExpression, so, after bring positioning equation group into, by equation group actual distance d convert For measurement distance
In certain scene, we have a true coordinate value of several handheld terminals and each base station measurement arrives measured value TOA can then fit the error function ω of the scene.The actual distance d and measurement distance for four scenes respectively chosen Matched curve, wherein abscissa represent actual distance d, and ordinate represents measurement distanceIt makes actual distance and measurement distance is closed The coordinate diagram of system.By the matched curve of coordinate diagram, it has been found that actual distance d and measurement distanceShow as linear relationship:For Different scenes, slope is different, and which reflects the influences that different scenes apply the propagation of electric signal;There is approximately uniform section Away from (about 0.5), this fixed clock-skew between terminal and base station closes.Therefore following error model expression is provided Formula:
Wherein k values are related with scene, this error model will be brought into basic fixed position model, orderBy error function Bring positioning equation into:
In actual engineering problem, approximate solution that above equation can only obtain, with the increase of base station number, in equation group Comprising equation quantity increase, in the case where unknown number is constant, above equation group expands to over-determined systems.Assuming that shared n A base station participates in computing, and above equation group expands to:
If it can be obtained nonhomogeneous from the form of equation group it is observed that mutually being made the difference to the equation in equation group System of linear equations reduces and solves difficulty.It is poor that above equation group is made, and obtains Linear Equations, it may be considered that the side of passing through The matrix form of journey group solves, and is written as matrix form:Av=b, wherein
For solution of equations v is obtained, considers to solve this over-determined systems using least square method, obtain as close possible to true The approximate solution of real value.According to the correlation theorem of least square method, by v=(ATA)-1·ATB, solve approximate end coordinates X (x, Y, z).
In this example, although the accuracy of positioning can be improved by increasing the base station number for participating in positioning, with base station The increase of quantity, solving complexity can greatly improve, and influence the efficiency of location algorithm.The system of many mobile terminals is to positioning Requirement of real-time is very high, while is also limited by the hardware computation ability of mobile terminal in itself, so must take into consideration positions calculations Complexity.The base station selection strategy that the present invention takes not only ensures the accuracy of positioning, but also reduces the base station for participating in positioning as far as possible Number improves location efficiency.
At least there are four communication base stations in the range of the communication radius of mobile terminal, positioned using this kind in this example The precondition of technology.The base station number in place where the precision of location algorithm depends on terminal.In addition, the scene residing for terminal Data sampling, model foundation must be passed through in advance, positioning service could be provided.
The localization method based on radio communication base station that the present invention introduces, either compared to traditional GPS positioning or base In the indoor positioning of Wi-Fi communications, all with larger advantage.Radio communication base station based on operator, the coverage rate of signal It is very high, it is influenced by environment and place smaller, the deficiency of both the above tradition positioning method can be made up.It is provided from experimental result As can be seen that the positioning result of the algorithm can reach very high accuracy, on this basis, also analyze raising positioning effect The strategy of rate, positioning flow figure are as shown in Figure 3.In application afterwards, if radio communication base station mutually tied with GPS positioning It closes, has complementary advantages, then can play better locating effect.Following research direction is realized in various scenes, and terminal can It establishes error model in real time in position fixing process, improves the adaptive ability of alignment system, expand the suitable of wireless base station positioning Use scope.
The present invention provides a kind of 3-D positioning methods based on radio communication base station, it is noted that institute in position fixing process The base station equipment and mobile terminal equipment model form being related to are not construed as limiting this patent;Involved TOA in step 2 The measurement method of value is not construed as limiting this patent.It should be pointed out that for the ordinary person of the art, do not departing from Any equal replacement and improvement made on the premise of inventive principle, are regarded as protection scope of the present invention.In addition, this example In the available prior art of each component that is not known realized.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of location algorithm based on radio communication base station, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
Step 1 arranges several terminals as sampled point in this scenario, it is known that sample point coordinate and base station coordinates, according to distance Sampled point is obtained to the actual distance d of coordinate in formula;
Sampling terminal to base station is obtained according to the arrival time (Time Of Arrival, abbreviation TOA) of wireless signal in step 2 Measurement distance
For some specific scene, error function is fitted by the correspondence of actual distance and measurement distance for step 3, Base station is established to the error model of terminal distance;
Step 4 in the scene for having built up error model, for target terminal P to be positioned, finds out corresponding TO A values minimum 15 terminals, when scene base station number be less than 15 when, choose all terminals, and ensure base station number be more than 4, otherwise without legal Position;
Step 5, by actual distance d, measurement distanceThe coordinate of terminal brings positioning equation into, solves the coordinate of terminal.
2. the localization method of wireless base station according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step 2 is multiplied by wirelessly by the time The spread speed of electric signal can obtain the measurement distance between base station and terminal, and by TOA values, base station and end are acquired by following formula Observed range between end:
Observed range between terminal and base station;
c:The spread speed of radio signal, takes 3 × 108m/s;
TOA:The propagation time of signal between a base station and a terminal.
3. the localization method of wireless base station according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step 3 by ranging process due to Error caused by the factors such as non-line-of-sight propagation, clock synchronism adds in location model, which can be expressed as:
Wherein d is actual distance,Represent measurement distance, wherein ω function representations actual distance d and measurement distanceMapping close System, under different scenes, ω expression formulas are typically different.
4. the localization method of wireless base station according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step 4 choose base station strategy be The nearer base station of prioritizing selection distance objective terminal, this is because with the increase of propagation distance, electric signal be subject to multipath transmisstion, The influence meeting bigger of the factors such as reflected refraction, signal interference, on the other hand, base station has a certain range of communication radius, exceeds The measurement data of radius is simultaneously unreliable, so, it should on the premise of in base station communication radius, take closer to the distance excellent First principle.
5. the localization method of wireless base station according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step 4 choose base station strategy be 15 nearest base stations of selected distance target terminal, if choosing all base station ginsengs in scene less than 15 base stations in scene With positioning, and must ensure base station number be more than 4, otherwise can not position;
6. the localization method of wireless base station according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step 5 is participated in by 4 base stations The positioning of terminal solves the three-dimensional coordinate X (x, y, z) of terminal, as shown in below equation group:
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Wherein the coordinate of 4 base stations of three dimensions is respectively (x1, y1, z1)、(x2, y2, z2)、(x3, y3, z3)、(x4, y4, z4), eventually The distance for holding X to this four base stations is respectively d1、d2、d3、d4
7. the localization method of wireless base station according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step 5 considers to use least square Method solves the over-determined systems of positioning, obtains the approximate solution as close possible to actual value;Assuming that linear equation group AX=b, Wherein A is coefficient matrix, and b is constant vector, and X is unknown vector, according to the correlation theorem of least square method, X*It is AX=b The necessary and sufficient condition of least square solution be:X*It is ATAX=ATThe solution of b, wherein ATRepresent the transposed matrix of A.So by following Formula:X=(ATA)-1·ATB, in matrix ATUnder the conditions of A is nonsingular, approximate end coordinates X (x, y, z) can be solved.
CN201611049054.2A 2016-11-18 2016-11-18 A kind of 3-D positioning method based on radio communication base station Pending CN108072860A (en)

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CN110726969A (en) * 2018-07-16 2020-01-24 刘勉志 Firefighter positioning system
CN111007459A (en) * 2019-12-19 2020-04-14 浙江工业大学之江学院 Dynamic topology positioning method
CN111491366A (en) * 2020-03-06 2020-08-04 西安电子科技大学 Method for correcting three-dimensional positioning of target based on wireless communication base station and wireless communication system
CN112987062A (en) * 2021-02-25 2021-06-18 贵州华图科技有限公司 Underground positioning method and system based on Chinese-micro son communication
CN113075616A (en) * 2021-03-18 2021-07-06 桂林电子科技大学 Detection positioning method and system of black-flying unmanned aerial vehicle and computer equipment
CN115308685A (en) * 2022-07-14 2022-11-08 南京信息工程大学 External radiation source target positioning method based on multi-base station communication pseudo-range information
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