CN107049496A - A kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot - Google Patents

A kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107049496A
CN107049496A CN201710361356.1A CN201710361356A CN107049496A CN 107049496 A CN107049496 A CN 107049496A CN 201710361356 A CN201710361356 A CN 201710361356A CN 107049496 A CN107049496 A CN 107049496A
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China
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image
according
characteristics
operating robot
operation
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CN201710361356.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN107049496B (en
Inventor
祝世杰
陈煜�
张必聪
陈彤
陈一彤
靳琪奥
孙嘉玮
邓博元
姜力元
郑钢铁
潘勇卫
赵喆
邓玖征
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清华大学
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Priority claimed from US16/138,889 external-priority patent/US20190125461A1/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/72Intramedullary pins, nails or other devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00571Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body for achieving a particular surgical effect
    • A61B2018/00601Cutting

Abstract

A kind of Visual servoing control method for multitask operating robot that the present invention is provided, belongs to operating robot technical field.This method regard the relative coordinate relation between operating robot front end and operative site as control foundation, the controlling feature is extracted in the image gathered from image capture device, real-time update relative co-ordinate information, surgical action path is planned according to relative co-ordinate information, control the motion of motion, realize that targeted surgical is operated, it is possible to realize multitask function by changing controlling feature type and operating robot front end.Higher operation precision can be obtained compared to the operating robot mode of operation of traditional " being performed in preoperative planning art " present invention, avoiding the mode of operation of the installation of additional flag thing and calibration process, and view-based access control model servo.

Description

A kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot

Technical field

The invention belongs to operating robot technical field, more particularly to a kind of visual servo control of multitask operating robot Method processed.

Background technology

With technological progress, operating robot gradually applies to clinically to come.Operating robot is led according to special operation The coordinate that boat system is provided is operated accordingly.Wherein conventional Technology of surgery navigation has CT, X-ray, infrared optics positioning etc. Deng.The task that these Technology of surgery navigation are all based on the absolute coordinate of physical space, i.e. navigation system is to obtain operating theater instruments, Expression of the position and posture of operative site under same absolute coordinate system, then operating robot is according under absolute coordinate Position and attitude information are operated.This air navigation aid has following three shortcoming:One is operation consent need to X-ray machine etc. into It is not only time-consuming as equipment is demarcated, it is also possible to cause navigation accuracy to decline by calibrated error;The second is needing in operating theater instruments With extra mark is installed on operative site, add operating procedure, also increase the wound to patient;The third is often needing Additionally to configure CT and infrared optics alignment system in special navigation equipment, such as art, the operation cost greatly increased.

On the other hand, existing most of operating robot uses opened loop control.Specifically, it is exactly that operation consent is first Operation technique end, position letter of the limbs that operative site or operation technique end are clamped under absolute coordinate are obtained by navigation system Breath, then calculates the track that robot needs to move, is operated in operation according to track computed in advance accordingly.Letter speech It is exactly " being performed in preoperative planning-art ", therefore can only rigidly performs task, the energy for not possessing real time correction in surgical procedure Power.So, the changing of the relative positions of mark in the error of preoperative planning, art, or even the operative site caused by reason such as patient respiration Motion can all substantially reduce operation precision, even result in operative failure.Such as document [1] (DU H, HU L, LI C, et al.Advancing computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery using a hexapod device for closed diaphyseal fracture reduction[J].International Journal of Medical Robotics+Computer Assisted Surgery Mrcas,2014,11(3):Reduction of the fracture machine in 348-59.) What people used is exactly the control strategy of " in preoperative planning-art execution ", needed for calculating the reduction of the fracture by preoperative CT information Moved in the amount of exercise for the operating robot operating side wanted, art in the way of realizing and calculating, it is real not over visual information When feedback compensation ability.

All it is between being positioned etc. by infrared optics although partial surgical robot introduces the means of Real-time Feedback in art What catcher section rather than direct image information were fed back.Such as document [2] (WESTPHAL R, WINKELBACH S, WAHL F,et al.Robot-assisted Long Bone Fracture Reduction[J].International Journal of Robotics Research,2009,28(10):The reduction of the fracture introduced in 1259-78.) and Intramedullary nailing robot System, is planned using preoperative CT and x-ray image, is fed back in art using infrared optics positioner (on bone It is mounted with infrared index point), but without directly using image informations such as X-rays in art, in muscle tone, the factor such as the deformation of bone Index point may be subjected to displacement under the influence of reason, and then cause positioning precision to decline.

In recent years, visual servo is received more and more attention in robot field.So-called visual servo, that is, pass through vision Sensor obtains position or the movable information of target and robot, and these information are then used for into the motion control of robot in real time System, specific task is completed with guided robot.Due to carrying out closed-loop control to robot using visual feedback, robot determines Position precision is higher compared to opened loop control, and can make corresponding tune to the change for the target location that may occur in actual task It is whole.And a branch in visual servo technology, i.e. " the non-calibrating visual servo based on image " technology, due to using relative seat Target concept, it is to avoid the demarcating steps in Conventional visual servo so that greatly simplified using flow.In addition, with digitized map As the progress for the treatment of technology, the dependence of the mark that visual servo is artificially installed to target and mechanical arm front end is also increasingly It is small, it can be completed to robot using image feature informations such as target and mechanical arm front end characteristic point in the picture and edges Control.But the current visual servo technology is not applied also in operating robot technical field.

The content of the invention

The invention aims to overcome a kind of weak point the regarding there is provided multitask operating robot of prior art Feel method of servo-controlling, the control method using the relative position shape information between the operating side of robot and operative site as Characteristics of image carries out the closed-loop control of visual servo, realizes that targeted surgical is operated, it is possible to realize many by replacement operation end Business function.

A kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot proposed by the present invention, it is characterised in that this method Specifically include following steps:

1) according to specific type of surgery, it is determined that needing the image capture device of use and performing corresponding surgical tasks Robot;It is determined that being used to represent that the image of destination end or mobile terminal position and attitude is special in the image gathered by image capture device Levy, the image spy for representing relative position and attitude relation between destination end and mobile terminal is defined according to the characteristics of image used Levy relative coordinate f;Require to define desired image feature relative coordinate f according to specific operationExpect, for representing destination end and shifting Actual relative position has reached desired state between moved end;Wherein, the mobile terminal be with operating robot front end or The operative site of operating robot front end clamping, the destination end is that what is reached expected in the mobile terminal determined by operation requirement Operative site;Described f, fExpectIt is vector;

2) by step 1) the middle view data for determining current time in image capture device collection operation, and to collection View data carry out noise reduction, the enhanced pretreatment of contrast;

3) by step 2) in pretreated view data according to step 1) determined by characteristics of image extracted, according to Step 1) the characteristics of image relative coordinate that defines calculates the characteristics of image relative coordinate at current time, is designated as fCurrently, fCurrentlyFor vector;

4) according to control error e=fCurrently-fExpect, calculate corresponding according to " the non-calibrating visual servo based on image " control law Controlled quentity controlled variable r, r be vector;Then the operating side of operating robot is made to be moved according to controlled quentity controlled variable r;

If 5) | | e | | > ε, return to step 2), gather the view data of subsequent time;If | | e | |≤ε, stop following Ring, operating robot completes surgical tasks;The ε is the threshold value that setting is required according to surgical errors.

The step 1) in characteristics of image include destination end or mobile terminal characteristic point, feature in gathered image One or more in line, feature contour.

The features of the present invention and beneficial effect:

1st, surgical robot system of the present invention uses the control mode of " visual servo ", it is possible to use surgical procedure Motion of the visual information of middle collection to robot is fed back, it is possible to prevente effectively from operative site in preoperative planning error and art Operation precise decreasing caused by the reason such as mobile, so that artificial compared to the surgical machine of traditional " being performed in preoperative planning-art " Operation mode can obtain higher operation precision.

2nd, the medical imaging equipment used in Technology of surgery navigation of the present invention sets for the operating rooms such as G arm are conventional It is standby, without additionally adding the expensive device such as CT or infrared optical system in art, not only save cost and decreased training medical matters Time required for personnel.

3rd, Technology of surgery navigation of the present invention employs " the non-calibrating visual servo based on image " technology, it is to avoid The installation of additional flag thing and calibration process, can effectively reduce operation preparation time, and " the non-calibrating vision based on image Servo " technology can effectively suppress the displacement of corrective surgery position, the error that the uncertain factor such as image capture device displacement is brought.

4th, Technology of surgery navigation of the present invention is independent of extra mark, intrinsic preferably versatility, therefore base Do not limit to and a certain operation in the function of the surgical robot system of this Technology of surgery navigation.By changing robot front end For representing the characteristics of image type of destination end or mobile terminal position and attitude and for representing mesh in operation tool, collection image The characteristics of image relative coordinate of relative position and attitude relation between end and mobile terminal is marked, a tractor serves several purposes is can be achieved with.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram that the embodiment of the present invention 1 carries out closed loop adjustment for the control error of characteristics of image;

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram that the embodiment of the present invention 2 carries out closed loop adjustment for the control error of characteristics of image.

Embodiment

The Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot proposed by the present invention, it is detailed below in conjunction with drawings and Examples Carefully it is described as follows:

A kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot proposed by the present invention, specifically includes following steps:

1) according to specific type of surgery, it is determined that needing the image capture device (such as G arm) of use and performing corresponding The robot of surgical tasks;It is determined that being used to represent destination end or mobile terminal position and attitude in the image gathered by image capture device Characteristics of image, the mobile terminal is and operating robot front end (front end is the operating theater instruments for completing operation) or surgical engine The operative site of device people front end clamping, the destination end is the Surgery that the mobile terminal determined by operation requirement is expected to reach Position, described characteristics of image is included in characteristic point in gathered image of destination end or mobile terminal, characteristic curve, feature contour One or more, are defined for representing relative position and attitude relation between destination end and mobile terminal according to the characteristics of image used Characteristics of image relative coordinate f;Require to define desired image feature relative coordinate f according to specific operationExpect, for representing mesh Actual relative position has reached the desired state (shape that the expectation state namely operation are required between mark end and mobile terminal State);Described f, fExpectIt is vector;

2) by step 1) determined by image capture device collection operation in current time view data, and to collection View data carry out noise reduction, contrast enhancing etc. pretreatment;

3) by step 2) in pretreated view data according to step 1) determined by characteristics of image extracted, according to Step 1) the characteristics of image relative coordinate that defines calculates the characteristics of image relative coordinate at current time, is designated as fCurrently, it is vector;

4) according to control error e=fCurrently-fExpect, calculate corresponding according to " the non-calibrating visual servo based on image " control law Controlled quentity controlled variable r, i.e.,:

Wherein, kP,kI,kDRespectively Visual servoing control rule proportionality coefficient, integral coefficient, differential coefficient, need to be according to tool The robot system of body is adjusted;J is Jacobian matrix, is obtained by conventional On-line Estimation method, such as Kalman filtering, Particle filter, SVMs etc.;∫ edt are integration of the control error e to time t,Time t is led for control error e Number;Then the operating side of operating robot is made to be moved according to controlled quentity controlled variable r;

If 5) | | e | | > ε, return to step 2), gather the view data of subsequent time;If | | e | |≤ε, stop following Ring, operating robot completes surgical tasks;The ε is the threshold value that setting is required according to surgical errors.

The inventive method can be by being realized by changing operating robot, characteristics of image and characteristics of image relative coordinate The Visual servoing control of the operating robot of different surgical tasks.

Above-mentioned technical proposal is described in further detail below by specific embodiment:

Embodiment 1 is used for the Visual servoing control method of the operating robot of the reduction of the fracture, specifically includes following steps:

1) required according to the operation of the reduction of the fracture, from G arm as image capture device, the G arm will hang down from mutual Straight both direction collection fluoroscopy images, artificial one of the surgical machine used has the Stewart platforms of six degree of freedom, with Fixture is the robot front end, and left side knochenbruch is mobile terminal, is fixed on by fixture on stewart platforms, band is moved by platform Dynamic left side knochenbruch movement, right side knochenbruch is destination end, is connected by fixture with operation table;As shown in figure 1, being located at acquired image (straight line m shown in Fig. 1, straight line n) are respectively k in the slope of fracture to the profile center line of middle left and right side knochenbruchIt is mobile、kTarget, move Moved end section central point A, coordinates of the destination end section central point B in gathered image are respectively (xIt is mobile,yIt is mobile) and (xTarget, yTarget)((xIt is mobile,yIt is mobile) and (xTarget,yTarget) be pixel coordinate), i.e., using kIt is mobile、kTarget、(xIt is mobile,yIt is mobile) and (xTarget,yTarget) conduct Characteristics of image for representing the relative position and attitude relation between destination end and mobile terminal;Define characteristics of image relative coordinate f (each G arm gathers 1,2 in two pictures, subscript from both direction and represents the extraction from picture 1 and picture 2 respectively as follows The characteristics of image arrived):

Required to define desired image feature relative coordinate f according to operationExpectFor:

fExpectTwo sections of knochenbruch of correspondence are in state completely to connecting;

2) by step 1) determined by image capture device collection operation in current time view data, and to collection View data carry out noise reduction, contrast enhancing etc. pretreatment;

3) by step 2) in pretreated view data according to step 1) determined by characteristics of image extracted, according to Step 1) the characteristics of image relative coordinate that defines calculates the characteristics of image relative coordinate at current time, is designated as fCurrently

4) according to control error e=fCurrently-fExpect, phase is calculated according to " the non-calibrating visual servo based on image " control law The controlled quentity controlled variable r answered, i.e.,:

Wherein, controlled quentity controlled variable r is the long pace of change of bar of six bars in Stewart platforms, is vector;kP,kI,kDRespectively Proportionality coefficient, integral coefficient, the differential coefficient of Visual servoing control rule, need to be adjusted according to specific robot system;J is Jacobian matrix, is obtained by kalman filter method;∫ edt are integration of the control error e to time t,For control error e To time t derivative;Then the operating side of operating robot is made to be moved according to controlled quentity controlled variable r;

If 5) | | e | | > ε, return to step 2), gather the view data of subsequent time;If | | e | |≤ε, stop following Ring, operating robot completes surgical tasks;The ε is the threshold value that setting is required according to surgical errors.

The present embodiment fixture different by changing reaches the target of the docking mission of plurality of specifications bone.

Embodiment 2 is used for the Visual servoing control method for the operating robot that intra medullary nail far-end pinning is positioned, and specifically includes Following steps:

1) the operation requirement positioned according to intra medullary nail far-end pinning, image capture device, the G arm are used as from G arm Fluoroscopy images will be gathered from orthogonal both direction, artificial one of the surgical machine used has six-degree-of-freedom parallel Device people, using piercing instrument and guider as the robot front end, the port of the guider of front end clamping is mobile terminal, and intramedullary nail is remote End lockhole is destination end;As shown in Fig. 2 by mobile terminal in image and destination end each formed ellipse major axis, short axle and in Heart dot image coordinate is as characteristics of image, and the oval major axis slope in note mobile terminal is kIt is mobile, the ratio between short axle long axis length be αIt is mobile, in Heart dot image coordinate is (xIt is mobile, yIt is mobile);Similar, the oval major axis slope of note destination end is kTarget, the ratio between short axle long axis length be αTarget, central point image coordinate be (xTarget, yTarget);Defining characteristics of image relative coordinate, (each G arm is adopted from both direction as follows Collect 1 in two pictures, subscript, 2 and represent the characteristics of image extracted from picture 1 and picture 2 respectively):

Required to define desired image feature relative coordinate f according to operationExpectFor:

fExpectCorrespondence guider and intra medullary nail far-end lockhole have reached coaxial state.

2) by step 1) described in image capture device collection operation current time view data, and to collection View data carries out the pretreatments such as noise reduction, contrast enhancing;

3) by step 2) in pretreated view data according to step 1) determined by characteristics of image extracted, according to Step 1) the characteristics of image relative coordinate that defines calculates the characteristics of image relative coordinate at current time, is designated as fCurrently

4) according to control error e=fCurrently-fExpect, phase is calculated according to " the non-calibrating visual servo based on image " control law The controlled quentity controlled variable r answered, i.e.,:

Wherein, controlled quentity controlled variable r is the angular speed in six joints of robot;kP,kI,kDThe ratio that respectively Visual servoing control is restrained Example coefficient, integral coefficient, differential coefficient, need to be adjusted according to specific robot system;J is Jacobian matrix, passes through branch Vector machine method is held to obtain, etc.;∫ edt are integration of the control error e to time t,For derivative of the control error e to time t; Then the operating side of operating robot is made to be moved according to controlled quentity controlled variable r;

If 5) | | e | | > ε, return to step 2), gather the view data of subsequent time;If | | e | |≤ε, stop following Ring, operating robot completes surgical tasks;The ε is the threshold value that setting is required according to surgical errors.

Embodiment 3 is used for the Visual servoing control method of the operating robot of Soft tissue cutting:

As different from Example 1, the front end of operating robot is replaced by electric knife, by the sophisticated point of electric knife, Blade axis regard marking line on soft tissue as the characteristics of image of destination end, high-frequency electrical point of a knife as the characteristics of image of mobile terminal End points marking line will be moved along along soft tissue, and execution task is changed into Soft tissue cutting operation;Now, fExpectIt is expressed as high frequency Relative position relation of the electric knife tip point with marking line, thus be the vector changed over time.

Similar to embodiment 3, difference can be completed by changing operating robot front end for power saw, osteotome, circular bistrique Joint replacement surgery.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot, it is characterised in that specifically include following steps:
1) according to specific type of surgery, it is determined that needing the machine of the image capture device and corresponding surgical tasks of execution used People;It is determined that being used for the characteristics of image for representing destination end or mobile terminal position and attitude, root in the image gathered by image capture device The characteristics of image phase for representing relative position and attitude relation between destination end and mobile terminal is defined according to the characteristics of image used To coordinate f;Require to define desired image feature relative coordinate f according to specific operationExpect, for representing destination end and mobile terminal Between actual relative position reached desired state;Wherein, the mobile terminal is and operating robot front end or operation The operative site of robot front end clamping, the destination end is the operation that the mobile terminal determined by operation requirement is expected to reach Position;Described f, fExpectIt is vector;
2) by step 1) the middle view data for determining current time in image capture device collection operation, and to the figure of collection As data carry out noise reduction, the enhanced pretreatment of contrast;
3) by step 2) in pretreated view data according to step 1) determined by characteristics of image extracted, according to step 1) the characteristics of image relative coordinate defined calculates the characteristics of image relative coordinate at current time, is designated as fCurrently, fCurrentlyFor vector;
4) according to control error e=fCurrently-fExpect, corresponding control is calculated according to " the non-calibrating visual servo based on image " control law Amount r processed, r are vector;Then the operating side of operating robot is made to be moved according to controlled quentity controlled variable r;
If 5) | | e | | > ε, return to step 2), gather the view data of subsequent time;If | | e | |≤ε, stop circulation, hand Art robot completes surgical tasks;The ε is the threshold value that setting is required according to surgical errors.
2. Visual servoing control method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step 1) in characteristics of image bag Include the one or more in characteristic point in gathered image of destination end or mobile terminal, characteristic curve, feature contour.
CN201710361356.1A 2017-05-22 2017-05-22 A kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot CN107049496B (en)

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CN201710361356.1A CN107049496B (en) 2017-05-22 2017-05-22 A kind of Visual servoing control method of multitask operating robot
US16/138,889 US20190125461A1 (en) 2017-05-22 2018-09-21 Remotely Operated Orthopedic Surgical Robot System for Fracture Reduction with Visual-servo Control Method
CN201910310370.8A CN109998687A (en) 2017-05-22 2019-04-17 Reduction of the fracture surgical robot system and method

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