CN106894313A - A kind of retention oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff - Google Patents

A kind of retention oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106894313A
CN106894313A CN201710065361.8A CN201710065361A CN106894313A CN 106894313 A CN106894313 A CN 106894313A CN 201710065361 A CN201710065361 A CN 201710065361A CN 106894313 A CN106894313 A CN 106894313A
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China
Prior art keywords
pavement
greenbelt
rainwater
seep
red mud
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CN201710065361.8A
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CN106894313B (en
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华玉妹
杨栋
赵建伟
周文兵
朱端卫
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Huazhong Agricultural University
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Huazhong Agricultural University
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C15/00Pavings specially adapted for footpaths, sidewalks or cycle tracks
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C11/00Details of pavings
    • E01C11/22Gutters; Kerbs ; Surface drainage of streets, roads or like traffic areas
    • E01C11/224Surface drainage of streets
    • E01C11/225Paving specially adapted for through-the-surfacing drainage, e.g. perforated, porous; Preformed paving elements comprising, or adapted to form, passageways for carrying off drainage
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03FSEWERS; CESSPOOLS
    • E03F1/00Methods, systems, or installations for draining-off sewage or storm water
    • E03F1/002Methods, systems, or installations for draining-off sewage or storm water with disposal into the ground, e.g. via dry wells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/30Flood prevention; Flood or storm water management, e.g. using flood barriers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/40Protecting water resources
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/60Planning or developing urban green infrastructure

Abstract

The present invention is that a kind of retention oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, and it is retained and led using pavement road pavement rainfall runoff oozes, and makes to be oozed under a rainwater part, greenbelt is partly into, while realizing the pouring of the supplement and greenbelt of underground water.The present invention can embody sponge city implementation ooze, it is stagnant, net, with four kinds of measures, compared with prior art with following major advantage:1. kerb limbers is connected with pavement seep-guiding channel, in surface gathered water being quickly introduced into seep-guiding channel, reduces surface gathered water;2. the pollutant that the red mud filler layer under pavement can be in purifying rainwater runoff, and promote rainwater infiltration, reduce the amount of rainfall load of sewerage system;3. filler is made of industrial waste red mud, the volume of cargo in storage and economical and effective of red mud is reduced;4. certain slope is arranged at pavement bottom, helps not ooze rainwater down and flows to greenbelt, while the seep-guiding channel between pavement and greenbelt, rainwater can be avoided to flow back causes packing layer ponding under pavement.

Description

A kind of retention oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff
Technical field
The invention belongs to the rainfall runoff control field in sponge urban construction, and in particular to ooze pavement and satisfy the need using leading Face rainfall runoff is retained and led to be oozed, and makes to be oozed under a rainwater part, is partly into greenbelt, is reduced ground and is catchmented into row The Rainfall runoff of grid, and recharge of groundwater and pouring greenbelt.
Background technology
Country advocates the construction in sponge city, proposes:To be paid the utmost attention to limited rain when sewerage system is lifted Water is stayed, and pays the utmost attention to more utilization elements drainings, builds nature accumulation, naturally osmotic, " the sponge city of self-purification City ".In recent years, the Pilot project construction in sponge city had been carried out in the whole nation, meanwhile, the theory in sponge city has been rooted in the hearts of the people, at present For sponge city, main implementing measure has 6 aspects:Ooze, it is stagnant, store, it is net, with, row.Around these aspects, carry out The technological development of many aspects such as grass planting ditch, artificial swamp, concave herbaceous field, permeable pavement.But, come from the whole country See, especially 2015 that the waterlogging problem that whole nation multiple city occurs shows in the construction in sponge city, also more multiplexing Need to carry out.Because the construction investment of drainage pipeline networks is huge, and time-consuming, and drainage pipeline networks can not possibly be increased substantially in a short time To the conveying capacity of rainfall runoff, and at the same time China's underground water constantly reducing, therefore, under promoting rainfall runoff Ooze, reduce the load and recharge of groundwater of drainage pipeline networks, be current urgent problem, cutting for rainfall runoff can be promoted Stay, help lend some impetus to the construction process in sponge city.
From for rainfall runoff coefficient, the runoff coefficient of bituminous paving has reached 0.9 or so, it is meant that 90% rainwater enters Enter sewerage pipeline network, and the runoff coefficient of greenbelt is only 0.1~0.2, therefore, although the greenbelt in roadside can in rainfall To be poured, but greenbelt can accommodate more Rainfall runoffs, if passing through pavement by a part of amount of rainfall water conservancy diversion To greenbelt, it is also possible to contribute to the retention of rainwater, while the utilization of rainwater can also be realized.
Certain thickness filler is loaded on pavement, can make to be purified while storm seepage.If filler is with one A little industrial wastes, can simultaneously realize its resource, with prior environmental value and economic benefit.According to China's aluminum oxide Yield has occurred that the event of a lot of red mud dump dam breaks it may be speculated that the red mud yield of 2015 reaches 85,000,000 tons, right The health of soil and crop and people causes harm.Therefore, if carrying out effective recycling to red mud, it will help The volume of cargo in storage of red mud is reduced, with important Significance for Environment and application value.
The content of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the invention are:Pavement is oozed using retention and leading for purifying rainwater runoff, by red Packed layer of the mud filler under pavement, realizes the purification of rainfall runoff, promotes more rainfall runoff to permeate the ground, to reduce Flow into the amount of rainfall of urban discharging pipeline, recharge of groundwater amount;Meanwhile, do not ooze rainwater inflow greenbelt down and play pouring effect.
The present invention solves its technical problem and uses following technical scheme:
The retention that the present invention is provided oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, is coupled to form by three parts, and one is band The kerb of limbers, makes the rainwater of road surface both sides flow into packing layer under pavement as early as possible;Two is people's row that band leads infiltration layer Road main body, three are provided in the seep-guiding channel between pavement and greenbelt.
It is described to lead infiltration layer and seep-guiding channel is mainly made up of red mud filler.
Described seep-guiding channel, can fill the red mud filler that particle diameter is 30~45mm, the width of the seep-guiding channel for 20~ 30cm, depth is 55~65cm.
Described pavement main body, from top to bottom successively by sidewalk ground tile, screed-coat, red mud fine grained packing layer, red Mud coarse granule packing layer is constituted.
The above-mentioned retention that the present invention is provided oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, and it is in the larger situation of rainfall Under, rainfall runoff that inlet for stom water can not be collected in time imports pavement, is led after infiltration layer filters through pavement, is oozed into leading Ditch, realizes being detained, purifies and application to rainwater.
The retention that the present invention is provided oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, and its method to set up is to comprise the following steps:
(1) kerb is set:
Kerb is set between pavement and driveway, at interval of 25~35cm arrangements;Set on kerb vertical The through hole in direction, for 5cm, width is 5~8cm to height of boxing out, and the rainwater on road surface is entered in the seep-guiding channel on pavement, reduces road Area water, and reduce the amount of rainfall for flowing into sewerage system;
(2) seep-guiding channel is set:
Seep-guiding channel is set between pavement and kerb joint and pavement and greenbelt, grain is filled in seep-guiding channel Footpath is the red mud filler of 30~45mm, and width is 20~30cm, and depth is 55~65cm;
(3) setting on pavement:
In the genesis analysis on pavement, two-layer red mud is filled, upper strata is that particle diameter is 3~5mm fine grained red muds, filling thickness It is 5~8cm, lower floor is that particle diameter is 10~20mm coarse granule red muds, and filling thickness is 20~30cm;Pavement bottom have 1~ 3% gradient, can avoid rainwater in the excess savings of pavement bottom, and flow to greenbelt direction along the gradient.
In the above method, described 35~45cm of greenbelt upper strata is soil, and laying is filled out at 45~65cm of greenbelt bottom The bed of material, makes rainfall runoff be purified in infitration process, and filling particle diameter is the red mud filler of 10~20mm, in making rainfall runoff The pollutant such as nitrogen phosphorus after leading and oozing pavement and greenbelt purification, further across red mud filler layer in infitration process Purification, reduces the amount of pollutant such as nitrogen phosphorus being input into underground water.
Pavement is oozed in leading for methods described setting, its application in delay and purifying rainwater runoff.
Pavement is oozed in leading for the method setting, when it is applied, can be retained and be oozed pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, It is combined with pavement with the seep-guiding channel between greenbelt, delay and purification of the reinforcing to rainfall runoff.
The retention that the present invention is provided oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, and it utilizes pavement road pavement rainfall runoff Retained and led and oozed, make to be oozed under a rainwater part, greenbelt is partly into, while realizing the supplement and greenbelt of underground water Pouring.The present invention can embody sponge city implementation ooze, it is stagnant, net, with 4 kinds of measures, compared with prior art with following master The advantage wanted:
1. kerb limbers is connected with pavement seep-guiding channel, in the ponding on road surface being quickly introduced into seep-guiding channel, from And the ponding on road surface is reduced, more than the red mud filler layer that the rainwater of seep-guiding channel amount of savings then enters under pavement.
2. lead and ooze pavement and can promote to be oozed under rainwater, reduce the amount of rainfall load of sewerage system, be conducive to sponge The implementation of urban construction.
3. the red mud filler of pavement filling, for pollutant in rainfall runoff there is preferably purification removal to act on.
4. red mud is the industrial waste during aluminum oxide is produced, and the red mud storage of China has been over 300,000,000 tons, and The utilization rate of red mud is only 5% or so in recent years.The filler with potential potential safety hazard, being made of red mud of storing up of red mud promotees Enter the recycling of red mud, reduce the volume of cargo in storage of China's red mud.
5. 1~3% gradient is arranged at pavement bottom, contributes to rainwater comparatively fast to flow to greenbelt, when amount of rainfall is larger, can be with Flow into the seep-guiding channel between pavement and greenbelt, it is to avoid rainwater backflow causes packing layer ponding under pavement.
6. the red mud filler layer of greenbelt bottom, can be such that the pollutants such as the nitrogen phosphorus in rainfall runoff are obtained in infitration process To further purification, to SS, total phosphorus and nitrogen pollutant clearance respectively 50%, 30% and 20% or so.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is that retention oozes pavement schematic diagram with leading for purifying rainwater runoff.
In figure:1. road;2. kerb;3. limbers;4. pavement;5. greenbelt;6. packing layer;7. seep-guiding channel;8. Soil horizon.
Specific embodiment
With reference to specific embodiments and the drawings, the present invention is described in further detail, but does not limit the present invention.
Embodiment 1:Retention leads the method to set up for oozing pavement with purifying rainwater runoff
This is led and oozes the method to set up on pavement and comprise the following steps:
1. pavement seep-guiding channel is led in the hole for vertical direction being set on kerb, leads and oozes between pavement and driveway Kerb, at interval of the distance of 25~35cm, for 5cm, width is 5~8cm to height of boxing out.Hole on kerb, can be by road The rainwater in face is entered in the seep-guiding channel on pavement, reduces surface gathered water, and reduces the amount of rainfall for flowing into sewerage system, is realized Retention to rainfall runoff.
2. kerb sets seep-guiding channel with pavement joint, leads to ooze that seep-guiding channel is set between pavement and kerb, fills out The red mud filler that particle diameter is 30~45mm is filled, width is 20~30cm, and depth is 55~65cm.The effect of seep-guiding channel be mainly by Rainwater is introduced, and preliminary retention is carried out to rainwater, the suspension in rainwater can be enable to precipitate, while slow down entering pavement The rainwater flow velocity of packing layer.
3. retention oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, and red mud permeable brick, screed-coat, red mud are followed successively by from top to bottom Fine grained filler, red mud coarse granule filler composition.In leading the genesis analysis for oozing pavement, red mud fine grained packing material size is 3~ 5mm, filling thickness is 5~8cm, and red mud coarse granule packing material size is 10~20mm, and filling thickness is 20~30cm.Pavement Packing layer, can purify to the pollutant in rainfall runoff, meanwhile, buffering flows to the peak flow of greenbelt, and red mud is filled out Material has the effect of the pollutants such as purification nitrogen phosphorus, is confirmed in practice.Lead and ooze pavement bottom with 1~3% The gradient, can avoid rainwater in the excess savings of pavement bottom, and flow to greenbelt direction along the gradient.Red mud under pavement Packing layer, can promote to be oozed under rainfall runoff, and play catharsis to rainfall runoff.
4. the seep-guiding channel oozed between pavement and greenbelt is led, is to fill the red mud filler that particle diameter is 20~30mm, width It is 20~30cm, depth is 55~65cm.The seep-guiding channel can be with stagnant storage rainwater, it is to avoid when amount of rainfall is larger, greenbelt can not and Shi Rongna and cause rainwater to flow back, reduce pavement under packing layer ponding the occurrence of.
5. the rainwater not oozed down enters greenbelt, and rainwater can be utilized.35~45cm of greenbelt upper strata is soil, At 45~65cm of greenbelt bottom lay packing layer, rainfall runoff is purified in infitration process, filling particle diameter be 20~ The red mud filler of 30mm, makes the pollutants such as the nitrogen phosphorus in rainfall runoff after leading and oozing pavement and greenbelt purification, is oozed under During further across red mud filler layer purification, reduce the amount of pollutant such as nitrogen phosphorus being input into underground water.
Above-described embodiment 1 and leading for the offer of embodiment 2 ooze pavement, its application in delay and purifying rainwater runoff. Application effect can be verified by following embodiments 3.
Embodiment 2:The ruuning situation for oozing pavement is led in lab scale simulation
Using 3 Organic glass columns of cuboid of series connection, 3 Organic glass column width are 0.8m.1st simulation Seep-guiding channel between pavement and kerb, width is 0.2m, is highly 70cm, and filling particle diameter is the red mud filler of 40mm or so 60cm, reserves 10cm superelevation.2nd Organic glass column for being to simulate pavement, width is 1.5m, is highly 40cm, use Red mud filler, red mud fine grained packing material size is 3~4mm, and filling thickness is 5cm, red mud coarse granule packing material size is 10~ 15mm, filling thickness is 25cm, and Organic glass column has the superelevation of 10cm.3rd is to simulate leading between pavement and greenbelt Sewer, width is 0.2m, is highly 70cm, and filling particle diameter is the red mud filler 60cm, superelevation 10cm of 30mm or so.
To ooze situation under in Simulated rainwater processing procedure, circular aperture, aperture are opened up 3 lucite column bottoms Radius be 1cm, at intervals of 2cm.Organic glass column lower section carries out the collection of leakage water.Open up and down 2 sides of 3 Organic glass columns 2 row's circular holes, aperture size is 10cm, and lateral separation is 3cm, and longitudinally spaced is 4cm, by pipeline, by the 1st seep-guiding channel, people Trade and the 2nd seep-guiding channel are attached, and are flowed to the rainwater of simulating actual conditions.By elevated tank to the 1st seep-guiding channel Water inlet.
By the 2nd padded 30cm of Organic glass column on simulation pavement, pavement is compared with seep-guiding channel in simulating actual design The low situation of packing layer.The Simulated rainwater of preparation, is divided into low concentration group:Total nitrogen 10mg/L, ammonia nitrogen 6mg/L, nitrate nitrogen 4mg/L, Total phosphorus 1.5mg/L, total SS 200mg/L.High concentration group:Total nitrogen 30mg/L, ammonia nitrogen 20mg/L, nitrate nitrogen 10mg/L, total phosphorus 2.5mg/L, total SS 350mg/L.Simulated rainwater inflow is 0.8m3/d。
Simulated experiment runs 6 times, and 3 times water inlet is low concentration group, and 3 times is high concentration group afterwards.Due to actual weather condition Under be not daily rainfall, therefore carried out a water inlet for Simulated rainwater at interval of one week.Test result shows, to low concentration group Simulated rainwater, the contaminant removal efficiency of its water outlet is as follows:Total nitrogen 21%, ammonia nitrogen 28%, nitrate nitrogen 19%, total phosphorus 33%, always SS 52%.To the Simulated rainwater of high concentration group, the contaminant removal efficiency of its water outlet is as follows:Total nitrogen 17%, ammonia nitrogen 22%, nitre State nitrogen 16%, total phosphorus 27%, total SS 56%.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of retention oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, it is characterized in that the pavement is coupled to form by three parts, one It is the kerb with limbers, the rainwater of road surface both sides is flowed into packing layer under pavement as early as possible;Two is that band leads infiltration layer Pavement main body, three are provided in the seep-guiding channel between pavement and greenbelt.
2. retention according to claim 1 oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, it is characterised in that described leading is oozed Layer and seep-guiding channel are mainly made up of red mud filler.
3. retention according to claim 2 oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, it is characterised in that described leading is oozed Ditch, filling particle diameter is the red mud filler of 30~45mm, and width is 20~30cm, and depth is 55~65cm.
4. retention according to claim 1 oozes pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, it is characterised in that described people's row Road main body, is made up of sidewalk ground tile, screed-coat, red mud fine grained packing layer, red mud coarse granule packing layer successively from top to bottom.
5. any retention leads the purposes for oozing pavement with purifying rainwater runoff in Claims 1-4, it is characterized in that in rain In the case of measuring larger, the rainfall runoff that inlet for stom water can not be collected in time imports pavement, leads infiltration layer through pavement and filters it Afterwards, into seep-guiding channel, rainwater is realized being detained, is purified and application.
6. a kind of retention leads the method to set up for oozing pavement with purifying rainwater runoff, it is characterized in that comprise the following steps:
(1) kerb is set:
Kerb is set between pavement and driveway, at interval of 25~35cm arrangements;Vertical direction is set on kerb Through hole, for 5cm, width is 5~8cm to height of boxing out, and the rainwater on road surface is entered in the seep-guiding channel on pavement, reduces road surface product Water, and reduce the amount of rainfall for flowing into sewerage system;
(2) seep-guiding channel is set:
Seep-guiding channel is set between pavement and kerb joint and pavement and greenbelt, and particle diameter is filled in seep-guiding channel is The red mud filler of 30~45mm, width is 20~30cm, and depth is 55~65cm;
(3) setting on pavement:
In the genesis analysis on pavement, two-layer red mud is filled, upper strata is that particle diameter is 3~5mm fine grained red muds, and filling thickness is 5 ~8cm, lower floor is that particle diameter is 10~20mm coarse granule red muds, and filling thickness is 20~30cm;Pavement bottom has 1~3% The gradient, rainwater can be avoided in the excess savings of pavement bottom, and flow to greenbelt direction along the gradient.
7. retention according to claim 6 leads the method to set up for oozing pavement with purifying rainwater runoff, it is characterised in that 35~45cm of greenbelt upper strata is soil, and packing layer is laid at 45~65cm of greenbelt bottom, makes rainfall runoff in infitration process In be purified, filling particle diameter is the red mud filler of 10~20mm, the pollutants such as the nitrogen phosphorus in rainfall runoff is oozed people by leading Behind trade and greenbelt purification, further across the purification of red mud filler layer in infitration process, reduce what is be input into underground water The amount of pollutant such as nitrogen phosphorus.
8. in claim 6 to 7 any methods described set lead the purposes for oozing pavement, it is characterized in that the pavement is being detained And the application in purifying rainwater runoff.
9. purposes according to claim 8, it is characterized in that retention is oozed into pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff, with people's row Road is combined with the seep-guiding channel between greenbelt, delay and purification of the reinforcing to rainfall runoff.
CN201710065361.8A 2017-02-06 2017-02-06 A kind of retain seeps pavement with leading for purifying rainwater runoff Active CN106894313B (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR20090080235A (en) * 2008-01-21 2009-07-24 (주)한국바이오콘 Block pavement setting structure
CN102465483A (en) * 2010-11-01 2012-05-23 华中农业大学 Pavement side vadose zone
CN202430056U (en) * 2011-09-01 2012-09-12 华南理工大学 Green belt gutter constructed wetland device for treatment of road rainfall runoff pollution
CN103103905A (en) * 2011-11-11 2013-05-15 上海市政工程设计研究总院(集团)有限公司 Road pavement draining method and drainage structure system
CN103938518A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-23 同济大学 Method for constructing road runoff pollution control greening system
CN205502183U (en) * 2016-03-04 2016-08-24 浙江德安科技股份有限公司 Rain water collecting treatment system

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR20090080235A (en) * 2008-01-21 2009-07-24 (주)한국바이오콘 Block pavement setting structure
CN102465483A (en) * 2010-11-01 2012-05-23 华中农业大学 Pavement side vadose zone
CN202430056U (en) * 2011-09-01 2012-09-12 华南理工大学 Green belt gutter constructed wetland device for treatment of road rainfall runoff pollution
CN103103905A (en) * 2011-11-11 2013-05-15 上海市政工程设计研究总院(集团)有限公司 Road pavement draining method and drainage structure system
CN103938518A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-23 同济大学 Method for constructing road runoff pollution control greening system
CN205502183U (en) * 2016-03-04 2016-08-24 浙江德安科技股份有限公司 Rain water collecting treatment system

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