CN106502162A - A kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm - Google Patents

A kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106502162A
CN106502162A CN201611079546.6A CN201611079546A CN106502162A CN 106502162 A CN106502162 A CN 106502162A CN 201611079546 A CN201611079546 A CN 201611079546A CN 106502162 A CN106502162 A CN 106502162A
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China
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control
direct current
mechanical arm
current generator
experiment
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CN106502162B (en
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戴亚平
马俊杰
王天
杨方方
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Beijing Institute of Technology BIT
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Beijing Institute of Technology BIT
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • G05B19/0423Input/output
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B25/00Models for purposes not provided for in G09B23/00, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/25Pc structure of the system
    • G05B2219/25257Microcontroller

Abstract

A kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, is related to a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment instructional device, belongs to teaching field.Including controlled device, controller, actuator and feedback device, complete closed-loop control system loop is constituted.Controlled device is nested with direct current generator for mechanical arm and is combined, for producing angle position signal.Controller be used for make controlled device output fast and stable converge to predetermined value.Static and dynamic performance of the controller according to the control algolithm regulating system of control system, is the research contents of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system.Actuator is direct current generator, and control machinery arm is rotated, and realizes the position control of mechanical arm.Feedback device adopts unity negative feedback, for detecting the actual angle position signalling of mechanical arm, and signal is returned to controller.The invention has the advantages that:Portable;Cost and energy consumption are low;Function is more complete;Strong antijamming capability.The present invention is applied to Course of Automatic Control Theory experimental teaching.

Description

A kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment instructional device more particularly to a kind of based on portable mechanical arm Automatic Control Theory Experiment instructional device, it is adaptable to the Course of Automatic Control Theory experimental teaching of undergraduate, belongs to teaching Field.
Background technology
In the setting of the specialized courses that the undergraduate of colleges and universities cultivates, except theory teaching, also experimental teaching.Experiment religion Learn and research worker can be excited to carry out the interest for continuing Scientific exploration secret.There is a very big disadvantage in current University Education Disease, exactly a large amount of students are engaged in theoretical research, are emulated simply by software, and seldom carry out full-scale investigation to its theory side Method is verified.
The most of effect emulated using MATLAB to verify classic algorithm of university's automatic Control Theory Experiment at this stage, and It is more abstract that this causes Students ' Learning to get up.Minority universities and colleges of undergraduate course carry out reality using reversible pendulum system or composite network method Test.
Reversible pendulum system is automatic Control Theory Experiment instructional device usual means, and the control problem of inverted pendulum is exactly to make pendulum Bar reaches an equilbrium position as soon as possible, and is allowed to without big vibration and excessive angle and speed.When fork reaches the phase Behind the position of prestige, system can adopt the algorithm of response so as to overcoming random disturbance to keep stable position.
Dolly of the input of reversible pendulum system from sensor and the actual position signal of fork, are compared with expected value Afterwards, controlled quentity controlled variable is obtained by control algolithm, then drives direct current generator to realize the real-time control of inverted pendulum through digital-to-analogue conversion.Concrete mistake Journey is as follows:On dolly, active force acts on dolly parallel to the direction of trolley travelling, makes bar around dolly for one end of fork On axle rotate in the perpendicular, dolly is moved along horizontal rail, and when without active force, fork is stablized in vertical Equilbrium position (straight down), in order that pole swings or reach stablizing straight up, need to give dolly one control Power so as to pulled forward or backwards in orbit.
By being analyzed to the stress of dolly, the transmission function between fork angle and dolly acceleration can be obtained For:
Can see from transmission function, the system is a second-order system, can by the analysis to second-order system and control To verify function and the accuracy of classic algorithm.
Reversible pendulum system shortcoming:1. the system model be built upon various ideally, such as ignore air drag With various frictions, fork is necessary for homogeneous bar, and during actual experiment, air drag and various frictions be unpredictable, And there is no homogeneous bar in practice, so reducing the accuracy of experiment, the realization of subsequent control algorithm is more stranded Difficult;2. the system includes the devices such as the guide rail of trolley travelling, the motor of driving trolley travelling, and fork, so comparison is heavy, Not easily shifted and carry with.Wherein want to make fork keep stable, dolly needs the length of continuous service, guide rail at least to need 1 meter.The system is an ideal model, and the mathematical model for setting up reversible pendulum system using Newton-Euler method, by opening Ring response analyses are analyzed to the model, system are entered with Matlab/Simulink simulation softwares using Classical control is theoretical The design of line control unit.
Composite network method is simulating various typical links:Using the different input network of operational amplifier and feedback network mould Intend various typical links, then according to these simulation links are coupled together by the structure chart of given system, just obtained corresponding Analog systemss.Input signal is added to the input of analog systemss again, and using measuring instruments such as computers, measuring system defeated Go out, dynamic response curve and the performance indications of system are just obtained.If changing the parameter of system, ginseng of also further can analyzing and researching Several impacts to systematic function.
For example:Anticipatory control circuit diagrams of the Fig. 1 for second-order system, system addition step signal, measuring system step response, And record overshoot σ % and regulating time ts;Switch s is connected, repeat the above steps, and the waveform that is surveyed twice and numerical value are entered Row compares, and the effect of anticipatory control is just obtained.
Composite networkization simulates shortcoming:1. need according to different algorithm need when composite networkization simulates various typical links Different work platformses to be built temporarily, than if desired for checking anticipatory control, then needing the module for building as above figure, when needs are tested Need to build again when card correction or lag.2. it is that open cycle system does not have feedback element, can only lead to when system is unstable The size for overregulating each electronic devices and components is stable be close to system.
Content of the invention
A kind of skill to be solved based on the automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system of portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention Art problem is to provide a kind of portable machine automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system of small volume, can complete to automatically control reason By major experimental in teaching.
Invention additionally discloses realized based on a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm Typical teaching method.
The purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, including controlled right As, controller, actuator and feedback device, complete closed-loop control system loop is constituted.
Controlled device is nested with direct current generator for mechanical arm and is combined, for producing angle position signal.As shown in Fig. 2 The angle position of mechanical arm is controlled device S, and wherein S (r) is reference position, i.e. target location, and S (t) is working as mechanical arm Front position, i.e. physical location.
Controller be used for make controlled device output fast and stable converge to predetermined value.Controller is according to control system The Static and dynamic performance of control algolithm regulating system, is the research contents of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system.Control system The Static and dynamic performance of control algolithm regulating system is realized by software programming.
Actuator is direct current generator, and DC MOTOR CONTROL mechanical arm is rotated, and realizes the position control of mechanical arm.Unidirectional current Machine characteristic is considered as after dispatching from the factory and immobilizes, and the mathematical model of direct current generator is determined by the electrical characteristic of itself.
Feedback device adopts unity negative feedback, for detecting the actual angle position signalling of mechanical arm, and signal is returned Back to controller.Described feedback device is preferably realized by photoelectric encoder.
Object of study of the position of direct current generator as automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system.In order to more intuitively observe Experimental result, welding manipulator arm on the output shaft of direct current generator, used as the Warning Mark of motor position.Using controller to machine Tool arm carries out position control.
Described controller includes PC host computers and ARM slave computers;The voltage signal of PC host computers first passes through USB serial ports Transport module is sent to MCU main control modules, and produces controllable duty ratio square wave by ARM control chips internal timing/timer Drive direct current generator and driving mechanical arm is rotated;Two-way feedback signal of the angle position signal of direct current generator by feedback device MCU main control modules are sent to, the rotation direction that mechanical arm is judged by ARM control chips internal counter and phase logic analysis And angle position, angle position signal is sent to PC host computers finally carries out the calculating of next step voltage signal values and in front end Display module shows, tests last direct current generator and rotarily drive mechanical arm rotation to reach the finally stabilised effect of mechanical arm.
ARM control chip of the MCU main control modules using low cost, be responsible for the initialization of all other peripheral circuit, control, Drive direct current generator to rotate and receive the position feedback device signal of photoelectric encoder, and the result for obtaining is passed through USB serial ports Module is sent to PC host computer platforms;USB Serial Port Transmissions module can provide power supply for ARM slave computers, and for ARM slave computers and Data transmission interface between PC host computers;Motor drive module, the drive circuit of the linear amplification of mechanical arm adopt two-way PWM Mode driving voltage, drive signal are obtained by the timer/counter that ARM control chips are carried, with the rotating forward of motor Reversion and stalling, while be also devised with protecting drive circuit virtual protection circuit;Feedback device is used for the reality for detecting mechanical arm Border angle position signal, feeds back to MCU main control modules, and feedback device is the feedback of whole automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system Part.
Described direct current generator mathematical model is:According to the opering characteristic of electric apparatus of direct current generator, by the position model of direct current generator It is divided into two parts of rate pattern and position integral element, first passes through identification algorithm and obtain rate pattern, then accumulates with position again The combination of point link obtains complete position model.As shown in figure 3, the position of direct current generator can be obtained by described modeling pattern Put the open loop mathematical model of system.In order to calculate Tm、KeTwo parameters, using the speed controlling of direct current generator as object of study, by In the corresponding model of the speed controlling of direct current generator be the first order modeling of standardWherein TmIt is the mark of position system Quasi- time constant, it is assumed that speed of the system in a step response during stabilization of speed is t, when system rotating speed reaches 0.632t The corresponding time is exactly Tm.Wherein UfRepresenting, the unknown time-variant nonlinear friction disturbance torque that dead band is produced in position system is equivalent To the voltage of input, y represents that the position of motor, v represent speed, if TmFor the time constant of direct current generator, KeSpeed for motor Degree feedback proportional coefficient, wherein Tm、KeIt is position system electrical characteristic constant, and UfIt is the equivalent electric in mission nonlinear dead band Pressure, when hardware system is set up, the software compensation that carries out DC driven to the dead band, so that draw direct current generator position mould Type isAs can be seen that second-order system of the position system for standard, according to the step response of motor position control Curve, calculates parameter Ke.By many experiments corrected Calculation, system T is finally drawnm、KeTwo parameters are respectively 0.15, 0.56.Therefore, direct current generator position model is
A kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system profile preferred cartridge based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention Dress, controller, actuator and feedback device are all encapsulated, using modular mentality of designing, are only reserved and is connect Mouth is interacted with outside, above box designs a graduated disc, and direct current generator is fixed on the inside of box, and direct current generator is exported Axle is stretched out from directly over box, and is connected with a pointer, so contributes to observing automatic Control Theory Experiment phenomenon, more preferably Analysis experimental result.
Hardware space position annexation:Box-packed experimental box is can to deposit experiment to need between sealed in unit, storing The connecting line that wants, graduated disc are used for showing that the angle that mechanical arm is rotated, pointer are used for the rotation for assuming machinery, direct current jack It is to supply electrical outlet to the optional direct current 12V of direct current generator, usb data interface/DC source connector is on experimental facilitiess and PC The interface of position machine connection, and ARM slave computers are powered, motor power switching is cutting for motor supply voltage high and low shift (5V/12V) Button is changed, on and off switch is the main switch of proof box.
As a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention is to be directed to Course of Automatic Control Theory Instructional Design, adopting diagram method, such as system to respond the analysis method of Course of Automatic Control Theory more, Root locus, frequency characteristic lamp need to draw substantial amounts of curve, therefore in addition to experimental provision, have also been devised host computer platform Aided education.
The reality that the experimental selection unit of host computer platform aided education is carried out required for being used for select before the experiments Test;Parameter modifying unit:It is that student must fill in corresponding experiment parameter in parameter modification inframe before experiment starts, if Do not fill in, will be using default parameterss;Data Computation Unit:The real time data that ARM slave computers are returned is analyzed and is calculated, will The real time information for receiving carries out calculating analysis, and common data are converted into the flag information that Theory of Automatic Control is applied to, Facilitate the viewing and understanding of student;Data display unit:Student not only can field observation experimental phenomena, can also pass through upper Every real time data of the quantitative observation experiment system of machine platform, in addition the unit can also be the real-time curve of controlled device upper Show in the machine software of position;Experiment control unit:The progress of Control release, experiment can start at any time, stop, knot Beam, it is also possible to after experiment terminates, the experimental data before calling, observation contrast;Communication unit:It is responsible for carrying out with experimental provision Real-time Communication for Power, also receives the data message of experimental provision return while transmitting control commands.
Host computer platform aided education function:
(1) Control release device is tested:It is responsible for giving experimental provision transmitting control commands using host computer.That tested opens Begin, suspend, terminate, the selection of control algolithm, the retaking of a year or grade of parameter are controlled by host computer platform, experimental provision is by connecing The control command for receiving host computer completes to test.
(2) show empirical curve, analyze experimental data:The characteristics of due to this subject of Theory of Automatic Control, on drawing is Position one function that must be realized of machine platform, host computer platform receive the angle of the experimental data such as mechanical arm that experimental provision is returned Degree, position etc., are arranged by calculating, show student with forms such as curve, data forms, with the teaching efficiency for having reached.
The control strategy of host computer includes:
Closed-loop pole when without controller can be obtained from the mathematical model of portable mechanical arm direct current generator, In order to optimize the Static and dynamic performance of system, control effect is lifted, need control algolithm to be added to system.Wherein control algolithm bag Include:
PID controller design:The mathematical model of control system, control law is:
Therefore, in PID control experiment, 3 parameters, respectively Kp, Ti, Td are devised altogether.When being tested, pass through These three parameters are changed, is contrasted, PID link can be obtained and acted in the controller.
Lead-lag controller design:Similar with PID control experiment, in lead-lag Control release, devise 3 altogether Parameter, respectively K, Ti, Td.When being tested, student can change the parameter of controller by PC control platform, lead to Cross using different control parameters, obtain the function of lead-lag controller.
Custom algorithm is designed:Can verify that the control whether algorithm that oneself writes can reach is made in this module student With, the Program transformation that can be write oneself is uploaded to PC host computers, and operation program into dynamic link library (.dll) form, from To curve in analyze associated dynamic and static performance index, it is possible to obtain the parameter of measure algorithm control performance, by repairing Change to verify the control algolithm of oneself.
Root locus correction experiment:By designing the transmission function of corrective network, give the performance indications satisfaction of system Require, including anticipatory control and the cascade lag controller of connecting.
Frequency method correction experiment, similar with root locus, by designing the transmission function of corrective network, refer to the performance of system Mark meets given requirement, including anticipatory control and the cascade lag controller of connecting.
POLE PLACEMENT USING is tested, and by the analysis to original system, obtains the pole and zero of system stability, by POLE PLACEMENT USING Method, carries out POLE PLACEMENT USING to system, is that system meets given target.
The last control algolithm Control release of Linear-Quadratic Problem, including LQR control algolithms, the emulation of LQR controllers, eliminates steady State error and the actual control of LQR controllers.
Direct current generator modeling experiment, by starting collection and the data analysiss of hour angle degree position to direct current generator, from concrete The model parameter of direct current generator is obtained in experiment.
Beneficial effect:
1st, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, using direct current Motor carries out actual control using low-power consumption ARM single-chip microcomputers, greatly reduces cost and energy consumption as experimental provision.
2nd, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, using closed loop Control system, function are more complete, can complete all of experiment in theory teaching, make Students ' Learning get up more specific, understand Theoretical knowledge is more thorough.
3rd, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, to mechanical arm Close loop maneuver is carried out, and theoretical knowledge fits like a glove, be not related to various emulation, solving current main flow experimental facilitiess needs to emulate Problem.
4th, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, anti-interference energy Power is strong, and need not readjust parameter when the change of external environment just can be with direct experiment;
5th, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, by control Platform processed is packaged with actuator, and more easily can carry while ensure that attractive in appearance is carried out to classroom Teaching demonstration, with extremely strong portability.
6th, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm disclosed by the invention, student can be with By self-definition design being carried out to control algolithm, be uploaded to PC host computers by generating dynamic link library, operation program, from obtaining Curve in analyze associated dynamic and static performance index, and verify whether the algorithm that oneself writes can reach by this experimental provision The control action for having arrived.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the anticipatory control circuit diagram in background technology;
Fig. 2 is portable mechanism arm control system model figure;
Fig. 3 is direct current generator mathematical model;
Fig. 4 is portable mechanism arm control system working envelope figure;
Fig. 5 is portable experimental provision schematic diagram;
Compositions of the Fig. 6 for robotic arm apparatus system;
Wherein 1. experimental box 2. 3. graduated disc 4. pointer 5. 12V direct current jacks 6. usb data interface/direct current between storing 5V power supplys connector 7. network interface 8. motor power switching 9. on and off switch
Fig. 7 is host computer platform structure chart;
Fig. 8 is PID control system mathematical model.
Specific embodiment:
The present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, while also describing technical solution of the present invention The technical problem and beneficial effect of solution, it should be pointed out that described embodiment is intended merely to facilitate the understanding of the present invention, And any restriction effect is not risen to which.
Embodiment 1:
As shown in Figure 2,4, disclosed in the present embodiment, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment based on portable mechanical arm is imparted knowledge to students System, including controlled device, controller, actuator and feedback device, constitutes complete closed-loop control system loop.
Controlled device is nested with direct current generator for mechanical arm and is combined, for producing angle position signal.The angle of mechanical arm Degree position is controlled device S, and wherein S (r) is reference position, i.e. target location, and S (t) is the current location of mechanical arm, i.e., in fact Border position.
Controller is used for correcting the mathematical model of system and makes it possible to converge to predetermined value.Controller is according to control system The Static and dynamic performance of control algolithm regulating system, is the research contents of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system.Control system The Static and dynamic performance of control algolithm regulating system is realized by software programming.
Actuator is direct current generator, and DC MOTOR CONTROL mechanical arm is rotated, and realizes the position control of mechanical arm.Unidirectional current Machine characteristic is considered as after dispatching from the factory and immobilizes, and the mathematical model of direct current generator is determined by the electrical characteristic of itself.
Feedback device adopts unity negative feedback, for detecting the actual angle position signalling of mechanical arm, and signal is returned Back to controller.Described feedback device is realized by photoelectric encoder.
Object of study of the position of direct current generator as automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system.In order to more intuitively observe Experimental result, welding manipulator arm on the output shaft of direct current generator, used as the Warning Mark of motor position.Using controller to machine Tool arm carries out position control.
As shown in figure 4, described controller includes PC host computers and ARM slave computers;The voltage signal of PC host computers first MCU main control modules are sent to by USB Serial Port Transmission modules, and are produced by ARM control chips internal timing/timer controllable Dutycycle square wave drive direct current generator the rotation of driving mechanical arm;The angle position signal of direct current generator by feedback device two Road feedback signal is sent to MCU main control modules, judges mechanical arm by ARM control chips internal counter and phase logic analysis Rotation direction and angle position, angle position signal is sent to PC host computers finally carries out the meter of next step voltage signal values Calculate and show in front end display module, test last direct current generator and rotarily drive mechanical arm and rotate and finally stablized with reaching mechanical arm Effect.
As shown in Fig. 2 ARM slave computers include MCU main control modules, USB Serial Port Transmission modules, motor drive module and feedback Device.ARM control chip of the MCU main control modules using low cost, the initialization of responsible all other peripheral circuit, control, drive Dynamic direct current generator rotates and receives the position feedback device signal of photoelectric encoder, and the result for obtaining is passed through USB serial ports moulds Block is sent to PC host computer platforms;USB Serial Port Transmissions module can provide power supply for ARM slave computers, and be ARM slave computers and PC Data transmission interface between host computer;Motor drive module, the drive circuit of the linear amplification of mechanical arm adopt two-way PWM side Formula driving voltage, drive signal are obtained by the timer/counter that ARM control chips are carried, anti-with the rotating forward of motor Turn and stall, while being also devised with protecting drive circuit virtual protection circuit;Feedback device is used for the reality for detecting mechanical arm Angle position signal, feeds back to MCU main control modules, and feedback device is the feedback section of whole automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system Point.
As shown in figure 3, described direct current generator mathematical model is:According to the opering characteristic of electric apparatus of direct current generator, by direct current generator Position model be divided into two parts of rate pattern and position integral element, first pass through identification algorithm and obtain rate pattern, then Combine with position integral element again and obtain complete position model, the position that direct current generator can be obtained by described modeling pattern Put the open loop mathematical model of system.In order to calculate Tm、KeTwo parameters, using the speed controlling of direct current generator as object of study, by In the corresponding model of the speed controlling of direct current generator be the first order modeling of standardWherein TmIt is the mark of position system Quasi- time constant, it is assumed that speed of the system in a step response during stabilization of speed is t, when system rotating speed reaches 0.632t The corresponding time is exactly Tm.Wherein UfRepresenting, the unknown time-variant nonlinear friction disturbance torque that dead band is produced in position system is equivalent To the voltage of input, y represents that the position of motor, v represent speed, if TmFor the time constant of direct current generator, KeSpeed for motor Degree feedback proportional coefficient, wherein Tm、KeIt is position system electrical characteristic constant, and UfIt is the equivalent electric in mission nonlinear dead band Pressure, when hardware system is set up, the software compensation that carries out DC driven to the dead band, so that draw direct current generator position mould Type isAs can be seen that second-order system of the position system for standard.Step response according to motor position control Curve, calculates parameter Ke.By many experiments corrected Calculation, system T is finally drawnm、KeTwo parameters are respectively 0.15, 0.56.Therefore, direct current generator position model is
As shown in Figure 5,6, disclosed in the present embodiment, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment based on portable mechanical arm is imparted knowledge to students System profile is box-packed, and controller, actuator and feedback device are all encapsulated, and is thought using modular design Road, is only reserved interface and is interacted with outside, above box designs a graduated disc, and direct current generator is fixed in box Side, direct current generator output shaft are stretched out from directly over box, and are connected with a pointer, so contribute to observation and automatically control reason By experimental phenomena, experimental result is preferably analyzed.
Hardware space position annexation:Box-packed experimental box is can to deposit experiment to need between sealed in unit, storing The connecting line that wants, graduated disc are used for showing that the angle that mechanical arm is rotated, pointer are used for the rotation for assuming machinery, direct current jack It is to supply electrical outlet to the optional direct current 12V of direct current generator, usb data interface/DC source connector is on experimental facilitiess and PC The interface of position machine connection, and ARM slave computers are powered, motor power switching is cutting for motor supply voltage high and low shift (5V/12V) Button is changed, on and off switch is the main switch of proof box.
As disclosed in the present embodiment, a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm is pin To Course of Automatic Control Theory Instructional Design, the analysis method of Course of Automatic Control Theory, adopting diagram method, such as system to ring more Should, root locus, frequency characteristic need to draw substantial amounts of curve, therefore in addition to experimental provision, host computer platform are also disclosed auxiliary Assiatant learns.
As shown in fig. 7, needed for the experimental selection unit of host computer platform aided education is used for select before the experiments Experiment to be carried out;Parameter modifying unit:It is that student must fill in corresponding experiment in parameter modification inframe before experiment starts Parameter, if do not filled in, will be using default parameterss;Data Computation Unit:To slave computer return real time data be analyzed and Calculate, the real time information for receiving is carried out calculating analysis, common data are converted into the mark that Theory of Automatic Control is applied to Will information, facilitates the viewing and understanding of student;Data display unit:Student not only can field observation experimental phenomena, can be with By every real time data of the quantitative observation experiment system of host computer platform, in addition the unit can also be the real-time of controlled device Curve is shown in upper computer software;Experiment control unit:The progress of Control release, experiment can be opened at any time Begin, stop, terminate, it is also possible to after experiment terminates, the experimental data before calling, observation contrast;Communication unit:It is responsible for and real Experiment device carries out real-time Communication for Power, also receives the data message of experimental provision return while transmitting control commands.
Host computer platform aided education function:
(1) Control release device is tested:It is responsible for giving experimental provision transmitting control commands using host computer.That tested opens Begin, suspend, terminate, the selection of control algolithm, the retaking of a year or grade of parameter are controlled by host computer platform, experimental provision is by connecing The control command for receiving host computer completes to test.
(2) show empirical curve, analyze experimental data:The characteristics of due to this subject of Theory of Automatic Control, on drawing is Position one function that must be realized of machine platform.Host computer platform receives the angle of the experimental data such as mechanical arm that experimental provision is returned Degree, position etc., are arranged by calculating, show student with forms such as curve, data forms, with the teaching efficiency for having reached.
The control strategy of host computer includes:
Closed-loop pole when without controller can be obtained from the mathematical model of portable mechanical arm direct current generator, In order to optimize the Static and dynamic performance of system, control effect is lifted, need control algolithm to be added to system.Wherein control algolithm bag Include:
As shown in figure 8, PID controller design:The mathematical model of control system, control law is:
Therefore, in PID control experiment, 3 parameters, respectively K are devised altogetherp, TI, Td.When being tested, pass through These three parameters are changed, is contrasted, PID link can be obtained and acted in the controller.
Lead-lag controller design:Similar with PID control experiment, in lead-lag Control release, devise 3 altogether Parameter, respectively K, Ti, Td.When being tested, student can change the parameter of controller by PC control platform, lead to Cross using different control parameters, obtain the function of lead-lag controller.
Custom algorithm is designed:Can verify that the control whether algorithm that oneself writes can reach is made in this module student With, host computer is write by the algorithm by oneself, operation program from the curve for obtaining is analyzed associated dynamic and static properties refers to Mark, it is possible to obtain the parameter of measure algorithm control performance, by changing to verify the control algolithm of oneself.
Root locus correction experiment:By designing the transmission function of corrective network, give the performance indications satisfaction of system Require, including anticipatory control and the cascade lag controller of connecting.
Frequency method correction experiment, similar with root locus, by designing the transmission function of corrective network, refer to the performance of system Mark meets given requirement, including anticipatory control and the cascade lag controller of connecting.
POLE PLACEMENT USING is tested, and by the analysis to original system, obtains the pole and zero of system stability, by POLE PLACEMENT USING Method, carries out POLE PLACEMENT USING to system, is that system meets given target.
The last control algolithm Control release of Linear-Quadratic Problem, including LQR control algolithms, the emulation of LQR controllers, eliminates steady State error and the actual control of LQR controllers.
Experimental example 1:PID is tested
Based on a kind of described automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm realize automatically from Dynamic control theory PID Experimental Teaching Method, comprises the steps:
Step one:Experimental facilitiess are connected electricity, host computer and host computer operating system is connected by USB interface.
Step 2:Open host computer operating system.
Step 3:System is initialized, including the selection of the selection of serial ports, signaling rate, data bit etc..
Step 4:PID experiments are selected, K is configuredp, TI, TdThree parameters, click on and start to test, and system brings into operation, now The empirical curve for representing arm angle can be ejected, the trend of curve is observed, is seen whether system tends towards stability, if unstable return Last layer is returned, parameter is reconfigured and is tested, until system stability.
Experimental example 2:Lead-lag is tested
Based on a kind of described automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm realize automatically from Dynamic control theory lead-lag teaching method, comprises the steps:
Step one:Ibid
Step 2:Ibid.
Step 3:Ibid.
Step 4:Lead-lag experiment is selected, K, T is configuredi, TdThree parameters, click on and start to test, and system brings into operation, The empirical curve for representing arm angle can be now ejected, the trend of curve is observed, is seen whether system tends towards stability, if unstable Surely last layer is returned, reconfigures parameter and tested, until system stability.
The described specific descriptions of above control, are carried out further in detail to purpose, technical scheme and the beneficial effect invented Illustrate, the be should be understood that specific embodiment that the foregoing is only the present invention, the protection being not intended to limit the present invention Scope, all any modification, equivalent substitution and improvements that within the spirit and principles in the present invention, is done etc., should be included in this Within bright protection domain.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm, it is characterised in that:Including controlled device, Controller, actuator and feedback device, constitute complete closed-loop control system loop;
Controlled device is nested with direct current generator for mechanical arm and is combined, for producing angle position signal;The angle position of mechanical arm It is controlled device S to put, and wherein S (r) is reference position, i.e. target location, and S (t) is the current location of mechanical arm, i.e. actual bit Put;
Controller is used for the mathematical model for correcting system;Quiet dynamic of the controller according to the control algolithm regulating system of control system Characteristic, is the research contents of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system;The quiet dynamic of the control algolithm regulating system of control system Characteristic is by PC upper computer software programming realizations;
Actuator is direct current generator, and DC MOTOR CONTROL mechanical arm is rotated, and realizes the position control of mechanical arm;Direct current generator is special Property is considered as after dispatching from the factory and immobilizes, and the mathematical model of direct current generator is determined by the electrical characteristic of itself;
Feedback device adopts unity negative feedback, for detecting the actual angle position signalling of mechanical arm, and signal is returned to Controller;Described feedback device is preferably realized by photoelectric encoder;
Object of study of the angle position of direct current generator as automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system;In order to more intuitively observe Experimental result, welding manipulator arm on the output shaft of direct current generator, used as the Warning Mark of motor position;Using controller to machine Tool arm carries out Angle-domain imaging.
2. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as claimed in claim 1, its feature It is:Described controller includes PC host computers and ARM slave computers;Wherein, ARM slave computers include MCU main control modules, USB strings Port transmission module, motor drive module and feedback device;ARM control chip of the MCU main control modules using low cost, is responsible for all The initialization and control of other peripheral circuits, the position feedback device that is responsible for driving direct current generator rotation, receives photoelectric encoder Signal, and the result for obtaining is sent to PC host computer platforms by USB serial port modules;USB Serial Port Transmissions module can be used as ARM Slave computer provides power supply, and is the data transmission interface between ARM slave computers and PC host computers;Motor drive module, machinery The drive circuit of the linear amplification of arm adopts two-way PWM mode driving voltage, and drive signal is by determining that ARM control chips are carried When device/enumerator obtain, with the rotating forward reversion of motor and stall, while being also devised with protecting drive circuit virtual protection electricity Road;Feedback device is used for the actual angle position signalling for detecting mechanical arm, feeds back to MCU main control modules, and feedback device is whole The feedback fraction of individual automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system.
3. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as claimed in claim 2, its feature It is:Described direct current generator mathematical model is:According to the opering characteristic of electric apparatus of direct current generator, the position model of direct current generator is divided into Two parts of rate pattern and position integral element, first pass through identification algorithm and obtain rate pattern, then integrate ring with position again Section combination obtains complete position model;The open loop number of the position system of direct current generator can be obtained by described modeling pattern Model is learned, in order to calculate Tm、KeTwo parameters, using the speed controlling of direct current generator as object of study, due to the speed of direct current generator The corresponding model of degree control is the first order modeling of standardWherein TmIt is the standard time constant of position system, it is assumed that Speed of the system in a step response during stabilization of speed is t, and when system rotating speed reaches 0.632t, the corresponding time is exactly Tm; Wherein UfRepresent the equivalent voltage to input of the unknown time-variant nonlinear friction disturbance torque that dead band is produced in position system, y tables Show that the position of motor, v represent speed, if TmFor the time constant of direct current generator, KeFor the velocity feedback proportionality coefficient of motor, its Middle Tm、KeIt is position system electrical characteristic constant, and UfIt is the equivalent voltage in mission nonlinear dead band, sets up in hardware system When, the software compensation for carrying out DC driven to the dead band, so that show that direct current generator position model is As can be seen that second-order system of the position system for standard, according to the step response curve of motor position control, calculates parameter Ke;By many experiments corrected Calculation, system T is finally drawnm、KeTwo parameters are respectively 0.15,0.56, therefore, direct current generator Position model is
4. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as described in claim 1 or 3, its are special Levy and be:Described controller includes PC host computers and ARM slave computers;The voltage signal of PC host computers first passes through USB serial ports Transport module is sent to MCU main control modules, and produces controllable duty ratio square wave by ARM control chips internal timing/timer Drive direct current generator and driving mechanical arm is rotated;Two-way feedback signal of the angle position signal of direct current generator by feedback device MCU main control modules are sent to, the rotation direction that mechanical arm is judged by ARM control chips internal counter and phase logic analysis And angle position, angle position signal is sent to PC host computers finally carries out the calculating of next step voltage signal values and in front end Display module shows, tests last direct current generator and rotarily drive mechanical arm rotation to reach the finally stabilised effect of mechanical arm.
5. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as described in claim 1,2 or 3, its It is characterised by:Profile is preferably box-packed, controller, actuator and feedback device is all encapsulated, using modular Mentality of designing, is only reserved interface and is interacted with outside, above box designs a graduated disc, and direct current generator is fixed on box Sub- inner side, direct current generator output shaft is stretched out from directly over box, and is connected with a pointer;
Hardware space position annexation:Box-packed experimental box is can to deposit experiment to need between sealed in unit, storing Connecting line, graduated disc are used for showing that the angle that mechanical arm is rotated, pointer are used for the rotation for assuming machinery that direct current jack is straight The optional direct current 12V of stream motor supplies electrical outlet, and usb data interface/DC source connector is that experimental facilitiess are connected with PC host computers The interface for connecing, and ARM slave computers are powered, motor power switching is that the switching of motor supply voltage high and low shift (5V/12V) is pressed Button, on and off switch are the main switchs of proof box.
6. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as claimed in claim 5, its feature It is:PC host computer platform aided educations:The experimental selection unit of host computer platform aided education is used for necessary before the experiments The experiment carried out required for selecting;Parameter modifying unit:It is that student must fill in phase in parameter modification inframe before experiment starts The experiment parameter that answers, if do not filled in, will be using default parameterss;Data Computation Unit:The real time data returned by ARM slave computers It is analyzed and calculates, the real time information for receiving is carried out calculating analysis, common data is converted into Theory of Automatic Control The flag information for applying to, facilitates the viewing and understanding of student;Data display unit:Student not only can field observation experiment existing As, every real time data of the quantitative observation experiment system of host computer platform can also be passed through, in addition the unit can also be controlled The real-time curve of object is shown in upper computer software;Experiment control unit:The progress of Control release, experiment can be with office Start between when, stop, terminate, it is also possible to after experiment terminates, the experimental data before calling, observation contrast;Communication unit: Be responsible for real-time Communication for Power being carried out with experimental provision, also receive the data message of experimental provision return while transmitting control commands.
7. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as claimed in claim 6, its feature It is:The control strategy of described PC host computers includes:
PID controller design:The mathematical model of control system, control law is:
u ( k ) = [ K p + K p T T I + K P T d T ] e ( k ) + [ K p T T I - K P T d T ] e ( k - 1 ) + K p T T I Σ ( e ( k - 2 ) )
Therefore, in PID control experiment, 3 parameters, respectively Kp, Ti, Td are devised altogether;When being tested, by modification These three parameters, are contrasted, and can be obtained PID link and be acted in the controller;
Lead-lag controller design:Similar with PID control experiment, in lead-lag Control release, devise 3 ginsengs altogether Number, respectively Kp, TI, Td;When being tested, student can change the parameter of controller by PC PC controls platform, lead to Cross using different control parameters, obtain the function of lead-lag controller;
Custom algorithm is designed:The algorithm that oneself the writes whether control action that can have been reached can be verified in this module student, The Program transformation that oneself can be write is uploaded to PC host computers, and operation program into dynamic link library (.dll) form, from obtaining Curve in analyze associated dynamic and static performance index, it is possible to obtain the parameter of measure algorithm control performance, by modification To verify the control algolithm of oneself;
Root locus correction experiment:By designing the transmission function of corrective network, the performance indications of system are made to meet given requirement, Including anticipatory control and the cascade lag controller of connecting;
Frequency method correction experiment, similar with root locus, by designing the transmission function of corrective network, make the performance indications of system full The given requirement of foot, including anticipatory control and the cascade lag controller of connecting;
POLE PLACEMENT USING is tested, and by the analysis to original system, obtains the pole and zero of system stability, by POLE PLACEMENT USING side Method, carries out POLE PLACEMENT USING to system, is that system meets given target;
The last control algolithm Control release of Linear-Quadratic Problem, including LQR control algolithms, the emulation of LQR controllers, eliminates stable state and misses Difference and the actual control of LQR controllers
Direct current generator modeling experiment, by starting collection and the data analysiss of hour angle degree position to direct current generator, from specific experiment In obtain the model parameter of direct current generator.
8. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as claimed in claim 7, its feature It is:Theory of Automatic Control PID Experimental Teaching Method, comprises the steps,
Step one:Experimental facilitiess are connected electricity, slave computer and host computer operating system is connected by USB interface;
Step 2:Open host computer operating system;
Step 3:System is initialized, including the selection of the selection of serial ports, signaling rate, data bit etc.;
Step 4:PID experiments are selected, K is configuredp, TI, TdThree parameters, click on and start to test, and system brings into operation, now can bullet Go out to represent the empirical curve of arm angle, observe the trend of curve, see whether system tends towards stability, if in unstable return One layer, reconfigure parameter and tested, until system stability.
9. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as claimed in claim 7, its feature It is:Theory of Automatic Control lead-lag Experimental Teaching Method, comprises the steps,
Step one:Experimental facilitiess are connected electricity, slave computer and host computer operating system is connected by USB interface;
Step 2:Open host computer operating system;
Step 3:System is initialized, including the selection of the selection of serial ports, signaling rate, data bit etc.;
Step 4:Lead-lag experiment is selected, K, T is configured1, T2Three parameters, click on and start to test, and system brings into operation, now The empirical curve for representing arm angle can be ejected, the trend of curve is observed, is seen whether system tends towards stability, if unstable return Last layer is returned, parameter is reconfigured and is tested, until system stability.
10. a kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment teaching system based on portable mechanical arm as described in claim 1,2 or 3, It is characterized in that:Described feedback device is preferably realized by photoelectric encoder.
CN201611079546.6A 2016-11-30 2016-11-30 A kind of automatic Control Theory Experiment tutoring system based on portable mechanical arm Expired - Fee Related CN106502162B (en)

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