CN106468935B - A kind of segmented fitting seeks solar cell peak power point methods - Google Patents

A kind of segmented fitting seeks solar cell peak power point methods Download PDF

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CN106468935B
CN106468935B CN201610829689.8A CN201610829689A CN106468935B CN 106468935 B CN106468935 B CN 106468935B CN 201610829689 A CN201610829689 A CN 201610829689A CN 106468935 B CN106468935 B CN 106468935B
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solar cell
power point
maximum power
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CN106468935A (en
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孙建延
王继东
许春香
雷钢
许海涛
杨永友
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Zhongzhou University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05FSYSTEMS FOR REGULATING ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G05F1/00Automatic systems in which deviations of an electric quantity from one or more predetermined values are detected at the output of the system and fed back to a device within the system to restore the detected quantity to its predetermined value or values, i.e. retroactive systems
    • G05F1/66Regulating electric power
    • G05F1/67Regulating electric power to the maximum power available from a generator, e.g. from solar cell
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/10Photovoltaic [PV]

Abstract

Solar cell peak power point methods are sought the invention discloses a kind of segmented fitting, mathematical analysis model is initially set up:Then a plurality of maximum power point reference line coefficient under different temperatures is obtained according to above-mentioned formula the Fitting Calculation, the electric current I that finally measurement target solar cell is exported respectively at different temperaturesOUT, voltage VOUT, substitute into formula (1) and calculated and adjusted up and down until obtaining the maximum power point tracking of target solar cell under condition of different temperatures.The present invention is proposed using the relation curve between many maximum power points under different illumination during two fitting a straight line known temperatures, to improve the fitting precision under the conditions of low irradiance, it can be used to realize efficient opened loop control MPPT, it is easy to accomplish and it is with low cost.

Description

A kind of segmented fitting seeks solar cell peak power point methods
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of photovoltaic cell technical field, the optimization analysis side of especially a kind of photovoltaic solar cell Method.
Background technology
Photovoltaic generation is more and more widely used in daily production and living.Solar cell is basic group of photovoltaic generation Part.Solar cell can generated energy influenceed by sunlight irradiation degree and temperature, irradiation level is stronger, can generated energy it is bigger, temperature Degree it is lower can generated energy it is also bigger.In irradiation level and the timing of temperature one, solar cell reality output electricity, the electricity exported with it Pressure or electric current are closely related.Therefore, in solar cell working, it is necessary to allow the state for working in specific voltage or electric current, This state point turns into the maximum power point (MPP) of solar cell.In real work, the light irradiance residing for solar cell With temperature always in dynamic change, therefore its maximum power point also changes always.In order to make the reality output of solar cell electric Amount close to can generated energy, it is necessary to follow the trail of maximum power point always, this algorithm turns into maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT).
Simplest method solar cell is connected by diode with energy-storage units (such as battery or super capacitor).Pass through This mode, the working condition of solar cell is determined by the voltage of energy-storage units, sometimes widely different from its maximum power point, Energy acquired in this mode even can be lower than MPP by 35%.
Open-circuit voltage rule of three is the simplest classic algorithm of numerous MPPT algorithms, and the algorithm thinks that solar cell is maximum Voltage and its open-circuit voltage (no current output) are into fixed proportionate relationship, V during power pointsMPP≈KFOC*Voc, KFOCValue 0.71-0.78.This is a kind of open loop control algorithm.The algorithm needs to pre-set the voltage parameter of solar cell, has the disadvantage Same high MPPT maximum power point tracking efficiency can not be all obtained in the range of irradiation level and temperature all changes.
Some researchers measure several shapes near maximum power point according to the output voltage current characteristics of solar cell The voltage x current of state point, maximum power point is obtained using the mathematic(al) representation of maximum power point, can not influence solar-electricity Real-time completion MPPT on the premise of the normal work of pond.The method amount of calculation is larger, it is desirable to configure the strong DSP of operational capability Or microprocessor.
Also certain methods have studied the mutual pass of solar cell maximum power point under different illumination and temperature conditionss System, and it is fitted with straight line expression.It is special according to its maximum power point under the conditions of a certain kind to specific solar cell Property, the voltage-current relationship of the maximum power point under other conditions can be extrapolated.The method amount of calculation is smaller, can be with simply MCU is realized, it is also possible to which pure analog circuit is realized.This method is fitted under different illumination under known temperature using straight line Maximum power point voltage current relationship, the fitting a straight line at a temperature of other is then calculated by this straight line to be obtained, but in low irradiation The lower actual characteristic of degree and non-rectilinear, therefore error is larger.
Relevant references are as follows:
[1] Zhao Zhengming, Liu Jianzheng, Sun Xiao beautiful jade solar energy power generatings and its application [M] Beijing:Science Press, 2005.
[2] Wang Hong China's photovoltaic generations principles and current situation [J] mechanicnl manufacture and automations, 2010,4:186-189.
[3] Ai Xin, Han Xiaonan, Sun Ying cloud photovoltaic power generation grid-connectings and its correlation technique present status and prospect [J] are modern Electric power, 2013,1:1-7.
[4] Chen Zixiang, Wu family's great waves photovoltaic generations China the scientific and technological visual field of current situation and Prospect Analysis [J], 2012, 35:196.
[5] Production trend and market analysis [J] power technologies of the global photovoltaic cells of Hou Yan, 2011,35 (3):338- 341.
[6] Cai Xuan tri-, solar energy power generatings development status and trend [J] power electronics, 2007,2:3-6.
[7] wild village is expanded, and the rattan original youth of constitution one, Jitian is just stretching and learning Power Electronic Technique basis [M] Xi'an using PSIM:West Pacify publishing house of university of communications, 2009.
[8]T.Esram,P.L.Chapman.Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques[J].IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion,2007,22: 439-449.
[9]D.Dondi,D.Brunelli and L.Benini.Photovoltaic cell modeling for solar energy powered sensor networks[C].The Second IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces,2007,105-110.
[10]A.Pandey,N.Dasgupta and A.K.Mukerjee.A simple single-sensor MPPT solution[J].IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,2007,22(2):698-700.
[11]W.Li,Y.Zheng and W.Li.A smart and simple PV charger for portable applications[C].2010Twenty-fifth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition.2010:2080-2084.
[12]G.J.Yu,Y.S.Jung and I.Choi.A novel two-mode MPPT control algorithm based on comparative study of existing algorithms[C].Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth IEEE of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference,2002: 1531-1534.
[13]R.Faranda,S.Leva and V.Maugeri.Energy comparison of MPPT techniques for PV systems[J].WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems,2008,3(6):9: 1-6.
[14]F.J.Toledo,J.M.Blanes,A.Garrigos.Analytical resolution of the electrical four-parameters model of a photovoltaic module using small perturbation around the operating point[J].Renew Energy,2012,43:83-89.
[15]J.E.M.Blanes,F.J.Toledo and S.Montero.In-site real-time photovoltaic I-V curves and maximum power point estimator[J].IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,2013,28(3):1234-1240.
[16]V.V.R.Scarpa,S.Buso and G.Spiazzi.Low-complexity MPPT technique exploiting the PV module MPP locus characterization[J].IEEE Transactions on Inductrial Electronics,2009,56(5):1531-1538.
[17]M.Park,I.K.Yu.A study on the optimal voltage for MPPT obtained by surface temperature of solar cell[C].30th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society,2004,3:2040-2045.
The content of the invention
Solar cell peak power point methods are sought the technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of segmented fitting.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows.
A kind of segmented fitting seeks solar cell peak power point methods, initially sets up mathematical analysis model:Then difference is obtained according to above-mentioned formula the Fitting Calculation At a temperature of a plurality of maximum power point reference line coefficient, finally measurement target solar cell output respectively at different temperatures Electric current IOUT, voltage VOUT, substitute into formula (1) and calculated and adjusted up and down until obtaining target solar energy under condition of different temperatures The maximum power point tracking of battery.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, the method includes the steps of:
A, analysis model foundation:
The maximum power point reference line of solar cell at different temperatures and non-rectilinear, cut-point PTThe maximum work of both sides Rate point reference line uses L respectivelyHAnd LLRepresent, represent L with straight line to be fitted respectivelyHAnd LL, set up following mathematic(al) representation mould Type:
Wherein, V, I are respectively the output voltage and electric current of solar cell, VmppFor maximum power point voltage, a, b, c, d For fitting a straight line coefficient, at、ct、b0、d0、VPTFor the constant under specified temp, T is temperature;
B, Mathematical Fitting method enter row coefficient solution:
B-1, open-circuit voltage, short circuit current flow, temperature coefficient of the solar cell under normal temperature be input to solar energy In battery simulation softward, the solar cell of one piece of simulation is set up;
B-2, calculate solar cell different irradiation level and at a temperature of output characteristics;
B-3, calculated using solar cell simulation softward and obtain solar-electricity under the conditions of different temperatures and different irradiation level The maximum power point of pond output characteristics and its solar cell;
B-4, the data point of maximum power point is plotted in the I-V characteristic figure of a solar cell, fitting is obtained not Maximum power point reference line collection of illustrative plates under synthermal;
B-5, the data for every maximum power point reference line, formula is obtained using the fitting of solar cell simulation softward (1) coefficient to be solved, obtains a plurality of maximum power point reference line coefficient under different temperatures;
C, maximum power point tracking algorithm:
C-1, the Temperature numerical for measuring target solar cell local environment, from corresponding maximum power point reference line curve In obtain corresponding coefficient;
C-2, the electric current I of measurement target solar cell outputOUT, voltage VOUT, by IOUTFormula (1) is updated to be managed The V of opinioncal
C-3, calculating VOUTWith VcalDifference ev, according to evPositive negative characteristic, adjust IOUTSize;
C-4, adjust to evFor 0 when, solar cell reaches maximum power point, completes the peak power under the temperature conditionss Point tracking;
C-5, the maximum power point tracking for repeating target solar cell under said process, completion condition of different temperatures.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, in step B-1, the normal temperature uses 25 DEG C.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, in step B-1, the open-circuit voltage, short circuit current flow, temperature coefficient The parameter provided using battery production manufacturer.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, in step B-1, the solar cell simulation softward uses PSIM 9.3 software.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, in step B-2, solar cell is calculated not using equation below With output characteristics of the irradiation level with a temperature of:
In formula, n is ideal factor, and k is Boltzmann constant 1.38 × 10-23J/K, q are electronic charge 1.6 × 10- 19C, T are kelvin rating, RsFor equivalent series resistance series resistance, RSHFor equivalent parallel resistance, ILFor photoproduction Electric current, IsFor reverse saturation current, VpvAnd IpvIt is solar cell output voltage and electric current respectively.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, in step C-4, e is made using PID adjusting methodsvLevel off to 0, it is complete Maximum power point tracking under the temperature conditionss.
It is using the beneficial effect produced by above-mentioned technical proposal:The present invention is fitted the expression sun using segmented fitting Can battery at a certain temperature under the conditions of different light irradiances many maximum power points line MPPRL, while being intended using mathematics Conjunction method tries to achieve every MPPRL coefficient.The present invention is proposed using under different illumination during two fitting a straight line known temperatures Relation curve between many maximum power points, to improve the fitting precision under the conditions of low irradiance, can be used to realize efficiently Opened loop control MPPT, the MPPT control accuracy of rate are high, and amount of calculation is small, can use process with pure circuit or Implementation of Embedded System In need not measure solar irradiance, it is easy to accomplish, it is with low cost.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 shows the I-V characteristic of solar cell and the MPPRL and its segmented fitting of different temperatures.
It is visible in figure, in the case where temperature is fixed, the line of solar cell maximum power point under different light irradiances Light irradiance be higher than some strength after be near linear, and light irradiance it is weaker when, the linearity is then poor;Solar cell is most The line of high-power point is maximum power point reference line (Maxim Power Point Reference Line, MPPRL), in figure Each bar dotted line is the MPPRL under different temperatures.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in detail in following examples.Various raw materials used in the present invention and items of equipment are conventional city Product is sold, can be directly obtained by market purchase.
Embodiment 1
A kind of segmented fitting seeks solar cell peak power point methods, comprises the steps of:
A, analysis model foundation:
The maximum power point reference line of solar cell at different temperatures and non-rectilinear, cut-point PTThe maximum work of both sides Rate point reference line uses L respectivelyHAnd LLRepresent, represent L with straight line to be fitted respectivelyHAnd LL, set up following mathematic(al) representation mould Type:
Wherein, V, I are respectively the output voltage and electric current of solar cell, VmppFor maximum power point voltage, a, b, c, d For fitting a straight line coefficient, at、ct、b0、d0、VPTFor the constant under specified temp, T is temperature;
B, Mathematical Fitting method enter row coefficient solution:
B-1, (can be by battery by open-circuit voltage, short circuit current flow, temperature coefficient of the solar cell under 25 DEG C of normal temperatures Production firm provides) it is input in solar cell simulation softward PSIM 9.3, set up the solar cell of one piece of simulation;
B-2, using equation below calculate solar cell different irradiation level and at a temperature of output characteristics:
In formula, n is ideal factor, and k is Boltzmann constant 1.38 × 10-23J/K, q are electronic charge 1.6 × 10- 19C, T are kelvin rating, RsFor equivalent series resistance series resistance, RSHFor equivalent parallel resistance, ILFor photoproduction Electric current, IsFor reverse saturation current, VpvAnd IpvIt is solar cell output voltage and electric current respectively;For convenience, practical application In can be by the integrally disposed simulation softward to solar cell of this formula;
Calculate output characteristics of the solar cell in different irradiation level with a temperature of;
B-3, calculated using solar cell simulation softward and obtain solar-electricity under the conditions of different temperatures and different irradiation level The maximum power point of pond output characteristics and its solar cell;
B-4, the data point of maximum power point is plotted in the I-V characteristic figure of a solar cell, fitting is obtained not Maximum power point reference line collection of illustrative plates under synthermal;
B-5, the data for every maximum power point reference line, formula is obtained using the fitting of solar cell simulation softward (1) coefficient to be solved, obtains a plurality of maximum power point reference line coefficient under different temperatures;
C, maximum power point tracking algorithm:
C-1, the Temperature numerical for measuring target solar cell local environment, from corresponding maximum power point reference line curve In obtain corresponding coefficient;
C-2, the electric current I of measurement target solar cell outputOUT, voltage VOUT, by IOUTFormula (1) is updated to be managed The V of opinioncal
C-3, calculating VOUTWith VcalDifference ev, according to evPositive negative characteristic, adjust IOUTSize;
C-4, adjust to evFor 0 when, solar cell reaches maximum power point, completes the peak power under the temperature conditionss Point tracking;In practical application, e can be made using PID adjusting methodsvLevel off to 0, the maximum power point completed under the temperature conditionss is chased after Track;
C-5, the maximum power point tracking for repeating target solar cell under said process, completion condition of different temperatures.
Foregoing description only proposes as enforceable technical scheme of the invention, not as to its technical scheme single in itself Restrictive condition.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of segmented fitting seeks solar cell peak power point methods, it is characterised in that:Initially set up mathematical analysis model:Then not equality of temperature is obtained according to above-mentioned formula the Fitting Calculation A plurality of maximum power point reference line coefficient under degree, the electricity that finally measurement target solar cell is exported respectively at different temperatures Flow IOUT, voltage VOUT, substitute into formula (1) and calculated and adjusted up and down until obtaining target solar-electricity under condition of different temperatures The maximum power point tracking in pond;
The method includes the steps of:
A, analysis model foundation:
The maximum power point reference line of solar cell at different temperatures and non-rectilinear, cut-point PTThe maximum power point of both sides Reference line uses L respectivelyHAnd LLRepresent, represent L with straight line to be fitted respectivelyHAnd LL, set up following mathematic(al) representation model:
<mrow> <mfenced open = "{" close = ""> <mtable> <mtr> <mtd> <mrow> <msub> <mi>L</mi> <mi>H</mi> </msub> <mo>:</mo> <mi>V</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mi>a</mi> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>I</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mi>b</mi> <mo>=</mo> <msub> <mi>a</mi> <mi>t</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>I</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mrow> <msub> <mi>b</mi> <mn>0</mn> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <msub> <mi>n</mi> <mi>b</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>T</mi> </mrow> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>,</mo> <msub> <mi>V</mi> <mrow> <mi>m</mi> <mi>p</mi> <mi>p</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>&amp;GreaterEqual;</mo> <msub> <mi>V</mi> <mrow> <mi>P</mi> <mi>T</mi> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </mtd> </mtr> <mtr> <mtd> <mrow> <msub> <mi>L</mi> <mi>L</mi> </msub> <mo>:</mo> <mi>V</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mi>c</mi> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>I</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mi>d</mi> <mo>=</mo> <msub> <mi>c</mi> <mi>t</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>I</mi> <mo>+</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mrow> <msub> <mi>d</mi> <mn>0</mn> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <msub> <mi>n</mi> <mi>d</mi> </msub> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <mi>T</mi> </mrow> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>,</mo> <msub> <mi>V</mi> <mrow> <mi>m</mi> <mi>p</mi> <mi>p</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>&lt;</mo> <msub> <mi>V</mi> <mrow> <mi>P</mi> <mi>T</mi> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </mtd> </mtr> </mtable> </mfenced> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>;</mo> </mrow>
Wherein, V, I are respectively the output voltage and electric current of solar cell, VmppFor maximum power point voltage, a, b, c, d are straight Line fitting coefficient, at、ct、c0、d0、VPTFor the constant under specified temp, T is temperature;
B, Mathematical Fitting method enter row coefficient solution:
B-1, open-circuit voltage, short circuit current flow, temperature coefficient of the solar cell under normal temperature be input to solar cell In simulation softward, the solar cell of one piece of simulation is set up;
B-2, calculate solar cell different irradiation level and at a temperature of output characteristics;
B-3, calculated using solar cell simulation softward obtain different temperatures and different irradiation level under the conditions of solar cell it is defeated Go out the maximum power point of characteristic and its solar cell;
B-4, the data point of maximum power point is plotted in the I-V characteristic figure of a solar cell, fitting obtains not equality of temperature Maximum power point reference line collection of illustrative plates under degree;
B-5, the data for every maximum power point reference line, formula (1) is obtained using the fitting of solar cell simulation softward Coefficient to be solved, obtains a plurality of maximum power point reference line coefficient under different temperatures;
C, maximum power point tracking algorithm:
C-1, the Temperature numerical for measuring target solar cell local environment, from corresponding maximum power point reference line curve To corresponding coefficient;
C-2, the electric current I of measurement target solar cell outputOUT, voltage VOUT, by IOUTIt is updated to formula (1) and obtains theory Vcal
C-3, calculating VOUTWith VcalDifference ev, according to evPositive negative characteristic, adjust IOUTSize;
C-4, adjust to evFor 0 when, solar cell reaches maximum power point, and the maximum power point completed under the temperature conditionss is chased after Track;
C-5, the maximum power point tracking for repeating target solar cell under said process, completion condition of different temperatures.
2. segmented fitting according to claim 1 seeks solar cell peak power point methods, it is characterised in that:Step B- In 1, the normal temperature uses 25 DEG C.
3. segmented fitting according to claim 1 seeks solar cell peak power point methods, it is characterised in that:Step B- In 1, the open-circuit voltage, short circuit current flow, temperature coefficient use the parameter that battery production manufacturer provides.
4. segmented fitting according to claim 1 seeks solar cell peak power point methods, it is characterised in that:Step B- In 1, the solar cell simulation softward uses the softwares of PSIM 9.3.
5. segmented fitting according to claim 1 seeks solar cell peak power point methods, it is characterised in that:Step B- In 2, output characteristics of the solar cell in different irradiation level with a temperature of is calculated using equation below:
<mrow> <msub> <mi>I</mi> <mrow> <mi>p</mi> <mi>v</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>=</mo> <msub> <mi>I</mi> <mi>L</mi> </msub> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>I</mi> <mi>s</mi> </msub> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mi>exp</mi> <mo>(</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <mi>q</mi> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <msub> <mi>V</mi> <mrow> <mi>p</mi> <mi>v</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <msub> <mi>I</mi> <mrow> <mi>p</mi> <mi>v</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <msub> <mi>R</mi> <mi>s</mi> </msub> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow> <mrow> <mi>n</mi> <mi>k</mi> <mi>T</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>)</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mn>1</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>-</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <msub> <mi>V</mi> <mrow> <mi>p</mi> <mi>v</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>+</mo> <msub> <mi>I</mi> <mrow> <mi>p</mi> <mi>v</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo>&amp;CenterDot;</mo> <msub> <mi>R</mi> <mi>s</mi> </msub> </mrow> <msub> <mi>R</mi> <mrow> <mi>S</mi> <mi>H</mi> </mrow> </msub> </mfrac> <mo>,</mo> </mrow>
In formula, n is ideal factor, and k is Boltzmann constant 1.38x10-23J/K, q are electronic charge 1.6x10-19C, T are exhausted To temperature value, RsFor equivalent series resistance series resistance, RSHFor equivalent parallel resistance, ILFor photogenerated current, IsFor Reverse saturation current, VpvAnd IpvIt is solar cell output voltage and electric current respectively.
6. segmented fitting according to claim 1 seeks solar cell peak power point methods, it is characterised in that:Step C- In 4, e is made using PID adjusting methodsvLevel off to 0, complete the maximum power point tracking under the temperature conditionss.
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