CN106253735A - Charging and the step inverter of brake energy recovery is driven for electric automobile - Google Patents

Charging and the step inverter of brake energy recovery is driven for electric automobile Download PDF

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CN106253735A
CN106253735A CN201610835283.0A CN201610835283A CN106253735A CN 106253735 A CN106253735 A CN 106253735A CN 201610835283 A CN201610835283 A CN 201610835283A CN 106253735 A CN106253735 A CN 106253735A
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inverter
inversion unit
electric automobile
different
igbt module
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CN106253735B (en
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亓明
陈钢
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陈钢
亓明
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M7/00Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
    • H02M7/42Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal
    • H02M7/44Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters
    • H02M7/48Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M7/53Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
    • H02M7/537Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only, e.g. single switched pulse inverters
    • H02M7/5387Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only, e.g. single switched pulse inverters in a bridge configuration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/32Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from a charging set comprising a non-electric prime mover rotating at constant speed
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile.It is characterized in that: step inverter uses three kinds of different H bridges composition inversion unit bridges, and inversion unit bridge includes main inversion unit and two auxiliary inversion unit;Three kinds of different H bridges share a direct voltage source, and different H bridges produces the voltage of different amplitude, and the voltage of different amplitudes is by the sinusoidal wave form of the transformator synthesis approximation of series connection.The step inverter of the present invention is obtained near sinusoidal alternating current wave driven motor by the voltage of the different amplitude of synthesis, and can be by motor-driven function, and car battery charge function and brake energy reclaim function and share on same parts.This step inverter is in parallel with super capacitor, can be greatly improved the speed of discharge and recharge, improves electric automobile brake and energy regenerating effect thereof, increases the startup power of electric automobile.

Description

Charging and the step inverter of brake energy recovery is driven for electric automobile
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile.
Background technology
The unidirectional current that existing AC inverter used for electric vehicle utilizes accumulator to export is converted into three by inverter and intersects Stream electricity output drives automobile to motor, and its control uses PWM, control signal frequency height to disturb greatly to external world mostly, Additionally the aberration rate of inverter output waveforms is the biggest, it is most important that inverter switching device loss is big.
Summary of the invention
For problems of the prior art, it is an object of the invention to provide and drive charging for electric automobile and stop The technical scheme of the step inverter of car energy regenerating, utilizing the step inverter with new topological structure is near by DC inversion As AC sine waveform drive threephase motor thus towing motorcar moves ahead or falls back;And it is double to utilize step inverter to have To the characteristic of current direction, accumulator is charged;And when brake, motor can become generator operation pattern and produce Brake torque, at this moment step inverter will give accumulator and super capacitor charging, namely gives storage by the energy of braking automobile Store away.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that: step Inverter uses three kinds of different H bridges composition inversion unit bridges, and inversion unit bridge includes that main inversion unit and two auxiliary are inverse Become unit;
Three kinds of different H bridges share a direct voltage source, and different H bridges produces the voltage of different amplitude, the electricity of different amplitudes Press the sinusoidal wave form that the transformator synthesis by series connection approximates;
Single-phase or three-phase step inverter by the described inversion unit bridging order phase of three kinds of different rated values or three-phase different around Group ratio, the transformator composition of different capabilities, one of them inversion unit bridge is main inversion unit, two other auxiliary inversion unit It is the first auxiliary inversion unit and the second auxiliary inversion unit respectively;The output of main inversion unit power accounts for 80%, the first auxiliary inversion Unit and the output of the second auxiliary inversion cell power account for 16% and 3% respectively;
Step inverter can be by changing its output frequency of angle adjustment of H bridge pulse, it is possible to is driven by frequency conversion and changes Become the rotating speed of ac motor.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that described master The voltage waveform of inversion unit and the first auxiliary inversion unit and the output of the second auxiliary inversion unit is by different in width difference number The pulse composition of amount, if the amplitude of minimum inversion unit output voltage is 1, the most main inversion unit and the first auxiliary inversion unit It is 1+3+9=13 with the summation of the second auxiliary inversion unit output voltage, and the amplitude of each waveform is respectively relative to total amplitude 1/13,3/13 and 9/13, amplitude can be plus or minus;
The voltage export ratio of the different H bridges in step inverter is 1:3:9, and the ratio of the output voltage amplitude of each H bridge is divided It not 1/13,3/13,9/13;Minimum triggered time t is determined by formula below:, f is inverter Frequency, the triggered time of each pulse can change into 1/13 corresponding multiple by above formula by 1/13 and draw.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that described ladder The electronic power switch of rank inverter uses IGBT module, and each IGBT module includes 2 IGBT, every 2 IGBT module composition One H bridge, the emitter stage of 2 IGBT module of each H bridge is connected, and colelctor electrode one end of 2 IGBT module of each H bridge connects Main inversion unit or one end of two auxiliary inversion unit transformers, the colelctor electrode other end of 2 IGBT module of each H bridge is even Receiving main inversion unit or the other end of two auxiliary inversion unit transformers, the base stage of each IGBT connects control letter respectively Number;
Single-phase step inverter includes 6 IGBT module, and 2 IGBT module of its main inversion unit are the 80% of rated power;Two Each 2 IGBT module of individual auxiliary inversion unit, respectively the 16% and 3% of rated power;
Three-phase step inverter includes 18 IGBT module, and 6 IGBT module of its main inversion unit are the 80% of rated power; Two each 6 IGBT module of auxiliary inversion unit, respectively the 16% and 3% of rated power.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that described ladder Rank inverter is connected by battery management system direct current main circuit with the accumulator on electric automobile, and step inverter passes through three-phase Permutator is connected with motor and external charge power supply respectively, and step inverter is also by battery management system direct current main circuit It is arranged in parallel super capacitor.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that described ladder Rank inverter has bi-directional current flow characteristic, and when electric automobile is in driving condition, accumulator is connected by step inverter The stator winding of motor, the unidirectional current of accumulator output controls to be converted into alternating current by step inverter positive operation and exports To motor, motor operation towing vehicle moves ahead, or makes vehicle reverse by phase-change switch;
When electric automobile needs charging, available step inverter reverse operating controls to be changed by alternating current by external charge power supply Unidirectional current is become to export accumulator;
If the output frequency of step inverter is less than the rotational frequency of its motor driven, motor is changing to electromotor fortune Row mode, at this moment step inverter will charge a battery;
The characteristic utilizing step inverter commutation that motor can be made to reverse, can make motor stall immediately.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that described ladder Rank inverter can use open loop frequency to control to may be used without closed loop frequency control.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that described ladder The amplitude of the inversion unit of rank inverter and two auxiliary inversion unit outputs is by DC voltage control, the number of harmonic distortion Value keeps constant.
The described step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile, it is characterised in that described ladder Rank inverter includes microprocessor, drive circuit, IGBT module and testing circuit, testing circuit detection DC circuit and motor Operational factor also delivers to microprocessor, and microprocessor outputs a control signal to drive circuit, and drive circuit controls IGBT module;Micro- Processor includes Common Control Circuit and H bridge control circuit.
The step inverter of the present invention has used three kinds of different H bridge type unit to constitute main inversion unit and two kinds of auxiliary Inversion unit;Three kinds of H bridges share a direct voltage source, and different H bridges produces the voltage of different amplitudes, and these voltages exist The secondary side of the different transformators of series connection carries out adding and subtracting multiplication superposition, the sinusoidal wave form that synthesis approximates very much, therefore its output waveform Aberration rate the least.Additionally because the frequency of its output waveform main component is close to city's frequency, and account for the part that output composition is the least Its frequency is several times of city's frequency only, therefore its switching loss is the least.Because output frequency is not the highest, therefore its control signal frequency Rate is without the highest, so step inverter disturbs the most little to external world.
The step inverter of the present invention has the characteristic that bidirectional current flows to, and utilizes this characteristic, and step inverter is storing When battery needs charging, disconnect and achieve that the charging to accumulator with access charge power supply after the coupling of motor.So i.e. Save special charging device, in turn simplify the structure of electric automobile and reduce cost.
When running car, if the output frequency of step inverter is less than the rotational frequency of motor, motor will become For generator operation pattern and produce brake torque, at this moment step inverter will charge a battery, and is namely stopped by automobile The energy of car is stored.Brake is the fundamental need of car steering, but is intended to consume multi-energy, if can be by Brake Energy Amount recovery is got up, significant.Step inverter coordinates further with super capacitor, and the brake organic efficiency of electric automobile can be non- Chang Gao, and the starting power of vehicle can be improved.It addition, the characteristic utilizing step inverter commutation that motor can be made to reverse, can allow Motor stall immediately, this is very effective for electric automobile brake in case of emergency, and is avoided brake locking phenomenon.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is that step inverter drives charging and brake energy recovery system schematic diagram for electric automobile;
Fig. 2 is single-phase step inverter structure figure;
Fig. 3 is 27 grades of step inverter basic circuit diagrams of three-phase;
Fig. 4-1 is the voltage waveform of main inversion unit output;
Fig. 4-2 is the voltage waveform of the first auxiliary inversion unit output;
Fig. 4-3 is the voltage waveform of the second auxiliary inversion unit output;
Fig. 5 is the Open-loop Control Principles figure of an IGBT switch;
Fig. 6 is the control principle drawing of first H bridge;
Fig. 7 is the output waveform of single-phase step inverter;
Fig. 8 is the output waveform of three-phase step inverter;
Fig. 9 is the control program flow diagram of three-phase step inverter;
Figure 10 is the line chart that three-phase step inverter is connected with each parts in electric automobile is applied;
In figure: 1-step inverter, 2-accumulator, 3-three-phase change-over switch, 4-motor, 5-external charge power supply, 6-is super Electric capacity, 7-battery management system direct current main circuit.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with Figure of description, the invention will be further described:
The present invention drives charging and the step inverter of brake energy recovery for electric automobile, and step inverter uses three kinds Different H bridge composition inversion unit bridges, inversion unit bridge includes main inversion unit and two auxiliary inversion unit.
Three kinds of different H bridges share a direct voltage source, and different H bridges produces the voltage of different amplitude, different amplitudes Voltage by series connection transformator synthesis approximation sinusoidal wave form.
Single-phase or three-phase step inverter is by the described inversion unit bridging order phase of three kinds of different rated values or three-phase not Same ratio of winding, the transformator composition of different capabilities, one of them inversion unit bridge is main inversion unit, two other auxiliary inversion Unit is the first auxiliary inversion unit and the second auxiliary inversion unit respectively;The output of main inversion unit power accounts for 80%, the first auxiliary Inversion unit and the output of the second auxiliary inversion cell power account for 16% and 3% respectively.
Step inverter can be by changing its output frequency of angle adjustment of H bridge pulse, thus it can pass through frequency conversion Driving and change the rotating speed of ac motor, ac motor includes asynchronous motor or permasyn morot here, changes Yan Zhi, step inverter is a kind of novel frequency conversion motor driving means.
The electronic power switch of step inverter uses IGBT module, and each IGBT module includes 2 IGBT, every 2 IGBT module one H bridge of composition, the emitter stage of 2 IGBT module of each H bridge is connected, the collection of 2 IGBT module of each H bridge Electrode one end connects main inversion unit or one end of two auxiliary inversion unit transformers, the collection of 2 IGBT module of each H bridge The electrode other end is connected to main inversion unit or the other end of two auxiliary inversion unit transformers, and the base stage of each IGBT is respectively Connection control signal.
Single-phase step inverter includes 6 IGBT module, and 2 IGBT module of its main inversion unit are rated power 80%;Two each 2 IGBT module of auxiliary inversion unit, respectively the 16% and 3% of rated power.
Three-phase step inverter includes 18 IGBT module, and 6 IGBT module of its main inversion unit are rated power 80%;Two each 6 IGBT module of auxiliary inversion unit, respectively the 16% and 3% of rated power.
As it is shown in figure 1, step inverter 1 and the accumulator 2 on electric automobile are by battery management system direct current main circuit 7 Connecting, step inverter 1 is connected with motor 4 and external charge power supply 5 respectively by three-phase change-over switch 3, step inverter It is arranged in parallel super capacitor 6 also by battery management system direct current main circuit 7.
Inversion unit bridge forms single-phase step inverter with single-phase transformer connection, and its circuit diagram is as shown in Figure 2.Three-phase ladder Rank inverter is connect three-phase transformer by the above-mentioned inversion unit bridging of three kinds of different rated values and forms, and its circuit diagram is as shown in Figure 3. According to the needs of different voltages, main inversion unit transformator can save, i.e. main inversion unit transformator shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 Short circuit between secondary.
When electric automobile is in driving condition, accumulator output unidirectional current controls to turn by step inverter positive operation Changing three-phase alternating current into and export motor, motor operation thus towing motorcar move ahead, if by three-phase alternating current commutation, motor reversal Car reversed.
When electric automobile needs charging, outside three-phase alternating current is input to step inversion by three permutatoies Device, controls to be converted into unidirectional current by step inverter reverse operating and is charged accumulator, at this moment, and step inverter and electricity Motivation connects disconnection.
When electric automobile is in braking state, the output frequency of step inverter is less than the rotational frequency of motor, electricity Motivation is changing to generator operation pattern and produces brake torque.At this moment step inverter will charge a battery, the most just It is to storing by the energy of braking automobile.Circuit accesses super capacitor, braking efficiency can be improved, and improve electric power storage The charge condition in pond, also can improve the starting power of electric automobile.
The number of phases of the coil windings of above-mentioned motor is 3.
Above-mentioned step inverter has used three kinds of different H bridge type unit to constitute main inversion unit and two auxiliary are inverse Become unit.Three kinds of general direct voltage sources of H bridge, and different H bridges produces the voltage of different amplitudes, these voltages are at string The secondary side of different transformators of connection carries out adding and subtracting multiplication superposition, the sinusoidal wave form that synthesis approximates very much, therefore its output waveform Aberration rate is the least.Additionally because the frequency of its output waveform main component is close to city's frequency, and account for the output the least part of composition its Frequency is several times of city's frequency only, therefore its switching loss is the least.Because output frequency is not the highest, therefore its control signal frequency Without the highest, so step inverter disturbs the most little to external world.
Voltage waveform such as Fig. 4-Isosorbide-5-Nitrae-2 of each inversion unit of step inverter output, shown in 4-3.Main inversion unit with And first auxiliary inversion unit and the second auxiliary inversion unit output voltage waveform by the pulse group of different in width varying number Become, if the amplitude of minimum inversion unit output voltage is 1, the most main inversion unit and the first auxiliary inversion unit and the second auxiliary The summation of inversion unit output voltage is 1+3+9=13, and the amplitude of each waveform is respectively 1/13,3/13 relative to total amplitude With 9/13, amplitude can be plus or minus.
Owing to the voltage export ratio of the different H bridges in step inverter is 1:3:9, the output voltage amplitude of each H bridge Ratio be 1/13,3/13,9/13 respectively;Minimum triggered time t is determined by such as following formula (1): (1),
F is the frequency of inverter, and the triggered time of each pulse can be changed into 1/13 corresponding multiple by above formula by 1/13 and draw.
Three each pulses of inversion unit of step inverter change such as following formula (2) in following angle:
[0° 4.117° 8.8499° 13.3424° 17.9202° 22.6199° 27.4864° 32.5790° 37.9799° 43.8131 ° 50.2849 ° 57.7959 ° 67.3801 °] (2)
Step inverter harmonic level (THD) can be calculated by following formula:
(3)
Wherein, P is the number of minimum switching angle,It is all angles in formula (2), for 27 grades of step inverters, four In/mono-cycle, P is equal to 13, substitutes into formula (3), and THD result is 4.07%.Width due to the output of step inverter inversion unit Value is surely by DC voltage control, and no matter what change unidirectional current is pressed with, and the numerical value of THD is to maintain constant, and this is step The place that inverter is dramatically different with other inverter.
Step inverter can use open loop frequency to control to may be used without closed loop frequency control, its basic Open-loop Control Principles As shown in Figure 5.For its control circuit of H bridge as shown in Figure 6.Basic control circuit based on step inverter, multiple shape The control principle of formula is as PID, neuroid, and waiting all can the practical control system of matched formation different characteristics.
Step inverter includes microprocessor, drive circuit, IGBT module and testing circuit, testing circuit detection unidirectional current Road and motor running parameter also deliver to microprocessor, and microprocessor outputs a control signal to drive circuit, and drive circuit controls IGBT module;Microprocessor includes Common Control Circuit and H bridge control circuit.The concrete structure of each circuit above-mentioned is existing skill Art, does not repeats them here.
As shown in Figure 3.Here Common Control Circuit gives the frequency signal that different H bridge offer is identical, and different H bridges controls And drive circuit then provides control and driving according to the topological structure of step inverter to IGBT electrical switch.H1 in Fig. 3, H2 and H3 is the A phase of main inversion unit respectively, B phase, the H-bridge inverter circuit of C phase;H4, H5 and H6 are the first auxiliary inversion unit respectively A phase, B phase, the H-bridge inverter circuit of C phase;H7, H8 and H9 are the A phase of the second auxiliary inversion unit respectively, B phase, the H bridge of C phase Inverter circuit.Approximate sine wave is through what these nine H-bridge circuit synthesized in three transformators.
Generally, the speed of motor is to be adjusted by the output frequency of increase or reduction step inverter , its transient process can be described by step inverter mathematical model is presented herein below.
The switch function of all inversion unitsCan be expressed as follows,
Main inversion unit
First auxiliary inversion unit
The new design of three-phase step inverter.
Second auxiliary inversion unit
Here i represents different inversion units, (i=1,2,3), such as main inversion unit, the first auxiliary inversion unit, second auxiliary Help inversion unit, and j is for different phases, i.e. A phase, B phase and C phase.
For A phase, the switching function of whole inversion units is as shown in table 1:
Table 1: the A phase switch function of step inverter
Similar with A phase, the switch function of the step inverter of B phase and C phase can also be expressed in an identical manner.
For the main inverter of step inverter, transient state loop equation can be expressed as follows:
(4)
Equally, the transient circuit equation of first auxiliary inversion unit can be expressed as:
(5)
Also it is the same for the second auxiliary inversion unit:
(6)
A new equation can be obtained by addition equation (4), (5), (6), as follows
(7)
Wherein:
: the circuital current of inversion unit,
: the circuitous resistance of inversion unit,
: the circuit inductance of inversion unit,
: the ac output voltage of step inverter,
: the output mid-point voltage of step inverter,
: step inverter direct-current voltage,
I represents different inversion units, (i=1,2,3), such as main inversion unit, the first auxiliary inversion unit, the second auxiliary inversion Unit,
J is different phase, i.e. A phase, B phase and C phase.
Above step inverter is simulated by MATLAB, and the Trigger Function of each electronic power switch passes through programming Realize.Waveform such as Fig. 7 that transformator (1:1,1:3,1:9) superposition afterwards by different ratios of single-phase step inverter gets up Shown in, it can be seen that it is in close proximity to sine wave.Three-phase step inverter ground output waveform such as Fig. 8.
Three-phase step inverter is connect three-phase transformer by the inversion unit bridging of three kinds of different rated values and forms, three kinds of H bridges A general direct voltage source, and different H bridges produces the voltage of different amplitudes, these voltages are in the different changes of three series connection The secondary side of depressor carries out adding and subtracting multiplication superposition, the sinusoidal wave form that synthesis approximates very much.Needs according to different voltages and cost Considering, main inversion unit transformator can save, i.e. short circuit between the secondary of main inversion unit transformator shown in Fig. 3, so First auxiliary inversion unit transformer no-load voltage ratio is 3:1, and the second auxiliary inversion unit transformer is 9:1.
Control System Design:
What step inverter used is not PWM, but controls there is certain queueing discipline not on three inversion units Same waveform, then the secondary side of transformator in series connection is overlapped, the sinusoidal wave form that synthesis approximates very much, and this is it is avoided that PWM Modulator control signal frequency is high, and interference is big to external world, and the aberration rate of output waveform is big, the shortcoming that switching loss is big.
The control that step inverter is most basic is as it is shown in figure 5, its basic function is to control each electrical switch to produce institute The switch off time interval required.Shown in Fig. 6 is that the control to a H bridge makes it produce certain queueing discipline impulse waveform.
The whole control of step inverter as shown in Fig. 9 flow chart, its basic function be allow main inversion unit and two auxiliary Help inversion unit to produce the impulse waveform each needed, then control step inverter synthesis approximate sine wave.According to detection electricity The speed that road is sent here, signal combination PID such as angle, neuron control is theoretical adds feedback control to above-mentioned basic control function.
Accumulator is connected to battery management system BMS, battery management system BMS and is connected with step inverter control unit logical Letter.In order to step inverter when charging more safe and reliable, the information of outside three-phase alternating-current supply voltage and motor generating Time voltage step to be input to inverter control unit in, according to different situations determine charging waveform and size of current, make Charge loss is little, and efficiency is high, and the most quick.

Claims (8)

1. drive charging and the step inverter of brake energy recovery for electric automobile, it is characterised in that: step inverter is adopted With three kinds of different H bridges composition inversion unit bridges, inversion unit bridge includes main inversion unit and two auxiliary inversion unit;
Three kinds of different H bridges share a direct voltage source, and different H bridges produces the voltage of different amplitude, the electricity of different amplitudes Press the sinusoidal wave form that the transformator synthesis by series connection approximates;
Single-phase or three-phase step inverter by the described inversion unit bridging order phase of three kinds of different rated values or three-phase different around Group ratio, the transformator composition of different capabilities, one of them inversion unit bridge is main inversion unit, two other auxiliary inversion unit It is the first auxiliary inversion unit and the second auxiliary inversion unit respectively;The output of main inversion unit power accounts for 80%, the first auxiliary inversion Unit and the output of the second auxiliary inversion cell power account for 16% and 3% respectively;
Step inverter can be by changing its output frequency of angle adjustment of H bridge pulse, it is possible to is driven by frequency conversion and changes Become the rotating speed of ac motor.
The step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile the most according to claim 1, it is special Levy and be that the voltage waveform of described main inversion unit and the first auxiliary inversion unit and the output of the second auxiliary inversion unit is not by Form with the pulse of width varying number, if the amplitude of minimum inversion unit output voltage is 1, the most main inversion unit and first The summation of auxiliary inversion unit and the second auxiliary inversion unit output voltage is 1+3+9=13, and the amplitude of each waveform relative to Total amplitude is respectively 1/13,3/13 and 9/13, and amplitude can be plus or minus;
The voltage export ratio of the different H bridges in step inverter is 1:3:9, and the ratio of the output voltage amplitude of each H bridge is divided It not 1/13,3/13,9/13;Minimum triggered time t is determined by formula below:, f is inverter Frequency, the triggered time of each pulse can change into 1/13 corresponding multiple by above formula by 1/13 and draw.
The step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile the most according to claim 1 and 2, its Being characterised by that the electronic power switch of described step inverter uses IGBT module, each IGBT module includes 2 IGBT, every 2 Individual IGBT module one H bridge of composition, the emitter stage of 2 IGBT module of each H bridge is connected, 2 IGBT module of each H bridge Colelctor electrode one end connects main inversion unit or one end of two auxiliary inversion unit transformers, 2 IGBT module of each H bridge The colelctor electrode other end is connected to main inversion unit or the other end of two auxiliary inversion unit transformers, and the base stage of each IGBT is divided Other connection control signal;
Single-phase step inverter includes 6 IGBT module, and 2 IGBT module of its main inversion unit are the 80% of rated power;Two Each 2 IGBT module of individual auxiliary inversion unit, respectively the 16% and 3% of rated power;
Three-phase step inverter includes 18 IGBT module, and 6 IGBT module of its main inversion unit are the 80% of rated power; Two each 6 IGBT module of auxiliary inversion unit, respectively the 16% and 3% of rated power.
The step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile the most according to claim 1, it is special Levying and be that described step inverter is connected by battery management system direct current main circuit with the accumulator on electric automobile, step is inverse Becoming device to be connected with motor and external charge power supply respectively by three-phase change-over switch, step inverter is also by battery management system System direct current main circuit is arranged in parallel super capacitor.
The step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile the most according to claim 4, it is special Levying and be that described step inverter has bi-directional current flow characteristic, when electric automobile is in driving condition, accumulator is by ladder Rank inverter connects the stator winding of motor, and the unidirectional current of accumulator output controls conversion by step inverter positive operation Becoming alternating current to export motor, motor operation towing vehicle moves ahead, or makes vehicle reverse by phase-change switch;
When electric automobile needs charging, available step inverter reverse operating controls to be changed by alternating current by external charge power supply Unidirectional current is become to export accumulator;
If the output frequency of step inverter is less than the rotational frequency of its motor driven, motor is changing to electromotor fortune Row mode, at this moment step inverter will charge a battery;
The characteristic utilizing step inverter commutation that motor can be made to reverse, can make motor stall immediately.
The step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile the most according to claim 1, it is special Levy and be that described step inverter can use open loop frequency to control to may be used without closed loop frequency control.
The step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile the most according to claim 2, it is special Levy and be that the inversion unit of described step inverter and the amplitude of two auxiliary inversion unit outputs are by DC voltage control, The numerical value of harmonic distortion keeps constant.
The step inverter driving charging and brake energy to reclaim for electric automobile the most according to claim 1, it is special Levy and be that described step inverter includes microprocessor, drive circuit, IGBT module and testing circuit, testing circuit detection direct current Circuit and motor running parameter also deliver to microprocessor, and microprocessor outputs a control signal to drive circuit, drive circuit control IGBT module processed;Microprocessor includes Common Control Circuit and H bridge control circuit.
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