CN106223393B - A kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine - Google Patents

A kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine Download PDF

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CN106223393B
CN106223393B CN201610826381.8A CN201610826381A CN106223393B CN 106223393 B CN106223393 B CN 106223393B CN 201610826381 A CN201610826381 A CN 201610826381A CN 106223393 B CN106223393 B CN 106223393B
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hydraulic
oil
cylinder
branch
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CN106223393A (en
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唐忠盛
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02FDREDGING; SOIL-SHIFTING
    • E02F9/00Component parts of dredgers or soil-shifting machines, not restricted to one of the kinds covered by groups E02F3/00 - E02F7/00
    • E02F9/20Drives; Control devices
    • E02F9/22Hydraulic or pneumatic drives
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02FDREDGING; SOIL-SHIFTING
    • E02F9/00Component parts of dredgers or soil-shifting machines, not restricted to one of the kinds covered by groups E02F3/00 - E02F7/00
    • E02F9/20Drives; Control devices
    • E02F9/22Hydraulic or pneumatic drives
    • E02F9/2264Arrangements or adaptations of elements for hydraulic drives

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mining & Mineral Resources (AREA)
  • Civil Engineering (AREA)
  • General Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Structural Engineering (AREA)
  • Operation Control Of Excavators (AREA)

Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine, and the input terminal of each control handle and computer controller is electrically connected by it;Boom cylinder, bucket arm cylinder, bucket cylinder and walking mechanism are separately connected a hydraulic pump, and hydraulic pump connects motor, and swing mechanism is driven by turning motor to be rotated;The input terminal of each motor is connected with the output end of rotational speed governor respectively, the input terminal of rotational speed governor is connected with the output end of computer controller and battery simultaneously, speed probe is separately installed on each motor, variable controller is installed respectively on each hydraulic pump, the output end of speed probe is connected with the input terminal of computer controller, the input terminal of variable controller is connected with the output end of computer controller, and computer controller also connects man-machine interface simultaneously.The present invention uses battery, motor and closed type hydraulic system, and carries out Operation control by computer controller, has energy recycling system, belongs to environmentally protective zero-emission.

Description

A kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of engineering machinery, specifically a kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine.
Background technique
Engineering machinery robotization is considered as the trend of industry development all the time, to realize that the premise of automatic control is institute There is movement to realize Digital Control.For hydraulic crawler excavator as machinery most common in engineering machinery, its working environment is severe, behaviour Make operating condition complexity, adaptation range is broad, the working principle of the hydraulic crawler excavator of the prior art be by Engine driven Hydraulic Pump, Output hydraulic pressure flows to multi-way valve, by the control of multi-way valve, is output to each operation movement.Under this operating mode, Ge Gedong Work cannot achieve Digital Control, can only manually manipulate.Meanwhile there are oil consumption height, row for excavator on the market at present Poor, the low disadvantage of capacity usage ratio is put, is on the rise under situation in energy shortage and problem of environmental pollution, how energy conservation is arranged with reduction It puts, is increasingly paid attention to by people.Current excavator structure is all to use driven by engine hydraulic pump, will be hydraulic by multi-way valve It can be assigned to each executing agency, hydraulic system is the valve control principle based on open type, and a large amount of energy consumptions are in restriction and overflow On, cause capacity usage ratio low.A kind of digital, all-hydraulic intelligence that China Patent Publication No. is 202466676 U of CN is dug Pick machine device proposes and controls digital servo valve using encoder, and then controls the technical solution of hydraulic cylinder, but still be base In the valve control principle of open type, can not solve the above problems.
During the work time, there are the rotary motion inertia of a large amount of over-running load, such as swing mechanism for hydraulic crawler excavator Greatly, gravitional force and kinetic energy are all bigger when swing arm declines, and usually all consumption is on the valve port of hydraulic valve for this portion of energy, not only Energy is wasted, the reduction of system heat generation and component life is also resulted in.Current many power-saving technologies, are intended to that energy can be recycled Amount, as China Patent Publication No. be CN103882904A a kind of excavator electrohydraulic mixed power structure and excavator;China Patent publication No. is the hybrid shovel of CN102318181B, is all by increasing accumulator or increasing hydraulic motor and hair Motor recycles hydraulic energy, but effect is all undesirable, while also causing equipment cost increase.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by the invention is to provide a kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machines, realize Digital Control Each actuating mechanism, while the excavator can realize zero-emission, operation process reduces hydraulic heat producing losses, can recycle operation process The over-running load energy of middle generation has energy conservation and environmental protection advantage.
The present invention solves above-mentioned technical problem with following technical solution:
A kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine of the present invention, including walking mechanism, swing mechanism, swing arm and boom cylinder, Dipper and bucket arm cylinder, scraper bowl and bucket cylinder, each input terminal electric connection for controlling handle and computer controller;Swing mechanism It is driven and is rotated by turning motor, walking mechanism is by movable motor or hydraulic pump driving walking, boom cylinder, bucket arm cylinder, scraper bowl Oil cylinder is separately connected a hydraulic pump, and each hydraulic pump is connected with the output end of a motor respectively, hydraulic by motor driven Pump work, swing mechanism is driven by turning motor to be rotated;The input terminal of each motor output end with a rotational speed governor respectively It is connected, the input terminal of each rotational speed governor is connected with the output end of computer controller and battery simultaneously, passes through battery Power supply is provided to motor;It is separately installed with speed probe on each motor, variable controller, revolving speed are installed respectively on each hydraulic pump The output end of sensor is connected with the input terminal of computer controller, the output of the input terminal and computer controller of variable controller End is connected, and to realize the movement for controlling hydraulic pump according to the revolving speed of motor, computer controller also connects man-machine interface simultaneously.
Battery and rotational speed governor of the present invention are also connected with battery management system simultaneously, pass through battery management System control battery is supplied to the electricity of rotational speed governor.
Boom cylinder, bucket arm cylinder and bucket cylinder of the present invention are connected using closed hydraulic loop with hydraulic pump It connects, specific structure is: being connected between hydraulic pump and oil cylinder by oil inlet branch and oil return branch, oil inlet branch connection oil cylinder has Rod cavity end, oil return branch connect the rodless cavity end of oil cylinder, oil inlet branch and oil return branch and are serially connected with respectively in one end by oil cylinder Rod cavity solenoid directional control valve and rodless cavity solenoid directional control valve, rodless cavity solenoid directional control valve and rod chamber solenoid directional control valve and computer control Device is electrically connected;Two branches are parallel between oil inlet branch and oil return branch, wherein a branch road concatenates two check valves, Safety valve is connected between two check valves, another branch road concatenates two check valves, connect repairing between two check valves Pump and low pressure relief valve, slippage pump are connect with hydraulic pump, and the inlet end and an outlet end of slippage pump is separately installed with check valve, outlet It holds and concatenates oil extraction solenoid directional control valve between oil return branch;The both ends of a low pressure relief valve small branch in parallel, ramuscule road Concatenate a check valve.
Walking mechanism of the present invention is connected using closed hydraulic loop with hydraulic pump, and specific structure is: hydraulic pump It is connect with the drive motor of walking mechanism by oil inlet branch and oil return branch, two branches are gone here and there respectively in one end close to motor It is connected to solenoid directional control valve, two branches also in parallel between oil inlet branch and oil return branch, wherein a branch road concatenates two lists To valve, connection safety valve between two check valves, another branch road concatenates two check valves, connects and mends between two check valves Oil pump and low pressure relief valve, slippage pump are connect with hydraulic pump, and the inlet end and an outlet end of slippage pump is separately installed with check valve, low The both ends of a pressurized overflow valve small branch in parallel, ramuscule road concatenate a check valve.
Two position sensors, the output end and electricity of position sensor are at least installed on swing mechanism of the present invention The input terminal of brain controller is connected, and the rotation angle of excavator is determined by position sensor.
The engine body exterior of excavator is equipped with multiple rangefinders, the input of the output end and computer controller of each rangefinder End is connected.
The motor of use is digital servomotor, has the function of reverse power generation.
The variable controller used on the hydraulic pump is numerical variable controller, can be digitized and drive by computer controller It is dynamic.
Charging interface and external generator stand are installed, convenient for filling to battery on the body of excavator of the present invention Electricity.
The present invention digitizes electric hydraulic excavating machine and has the following beneficial effects:
1. the Digital Control of excavator may be implemented by using technical solution of the present invention, in addition automatic Pilot journey Sequence can also be achieved unmanned operation function.Excavator everything is all driven by digital motor, controls system by motor speed System, can accurately calculate and control motor rotating cycle and rotation speed, and all hydraulic cylinder is all directly driven by hydraulic pump, The stroke of hydraulic cylinder can accurately be controlled by hydraulic pump rotating cycle, therefore, by computerized control system, excavator institute of the present invention There is movement that can digitize accurate control, precise manipulation and automated job may be implemented.
2. the present invention does not use engine, constant output pump and multi-way valve unlike existing excavator, also do not use Complicated servo hydraulic system passes through computer control by using battery, motor and electric-controlled type hydraulic pump, closed type hydraulic system Device processed carries out Operation control, and has energy recycling system,
3. walking mechanism and swing mechanism of the invention use motor driven, the cylinder action of swing arm, dipper and scraper bowl is adopted With closed type hydraulic system, multi-way valve complicated on existing excavator is eliminated, compared with existing excavator open type hydraulic system, nothing The closed type hydraulic system of valve control improves capacity usage ratio, while hydraulic heat producing losses are greatly reduced, and effectively reduce excavation The heating problem of machine hydraulic system.It is not only energy saving, big heat sink needed for also reducing system radiating and large hydraulic fuel tank. In addition, everything is driven by motor, without idling loss, energy-saving effect is significant.
4. hydraulic in hydraulic cylinder when making swing arm, dipper and scraper bowl descending motion by using technical solution of the present invention Oil is connect by closed hydraulic loop with hydraulic pump, and when hydraulic pump inputs end pressure higher than output end, pump is in motor operating conditions, liquid Press pump drives Motor Over Speed operating, electric power generation braking, so that recycling swing arm, dipper and scraper bowl declines generated energy.Row The electronic energy that can be recycled and generate when walking braking is walked, turning motor can recycle the energy generated when rotary braking, due to The present invention recovers energy to excavator operation process everything, and energy consumption is effectively reduced.
5. compared with prior art, the present invention eliminate the engine on existing excavator, constant output pump, complexity multichannel Valve and Hydrauservo System, therefore equipment is simplified, failure rate reduces, maintenance cost reduces.
6., by being driven by pure electric power, realizing zero-emission compared with prior art, the present invention eliminating fuel engines, making an uproar Sound reduces, environmentally protective, and complete machine provides power using battery, and can charge use repeatedly.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of present invention digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine.
Fig. 2 is Fig. 1 from the schematic top plan view in terms of right direction.
Fig. 3 is the structural block diagram of the circuit control system by taking boom cylinder operation as an example.
Fig. 4 is the closed type hydraulic system schematic diagram by taking boom cylinder as an example.
Fig. 5 is the structural block diagram of the circuit control system of swing mechanism.
Fig. 6 is the hydraulic control system schematic diagram of left side traveling crawler.
In figure: 1-walking mechanism, 2-swing mechanisms, 3-top bodies, 4-driver's cabins, 5-movable motors, 6-is dynamic Arm, 7-boom cylinders, 8-bucket arm cylinders, 9-Dou bucket oil cylinder, 10-scraper bowls, 11-dippers, 12-rangefinders;21-electric power storages Pond, 22-swing arms pump, 23-turning motors, 24-external generator stands, 25-charging interfaces, 26-dippers pump, 27-scraper bowls Pump, 28-rotational speed governors, 29-swing arm motors, 30-dipper motors, 31-scraper bowl motors, 32-position sensors one, 33-position sensors two, 61-left movable motors, 62-left traveling pumps, 68-right movable motors, 69-right traveling pumps;41— Handle, 42-man-machine interfaces, 43-battery management systems, 44-rod chamber pressure sensors, 45-rodless cavity pressure sensors, 46-computer controllers, 47-speed probes, 48-variable controllers, 49-rotary handles, 50 --- oil cylinder position sensing Device, 51-slippage pumps, 52-check valves, 53-rod chamber solenoid directional control valves, 54-rodless cavity solenoid directional control valves, 55-safety Valve, 56-low pressure relief valves, 57-oil extraction solenoid directional control valves;64-solenoid directional control valves one, 65-solenoid directional control valves two, 67-is left Running motor.
Specific embodiment
The present invention will be further explained below with reference to the attached drawings and specific examples, but not as the limitation of the invention.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, it includes walking mechanism 1, swing mechanism 2, swing arm that the present invention, which digitizes electric hydraulic excavating machine, 6, boom cylinder 7, dipper 11, bucket arm cylinder 8, scraper bowl 10, bucket cylinder 9 and driver's cabin 4 etc., the mounting means of these components Identical as conventional excavators, walking mechanism 1 carries top body 3 by swing mechanism 2, and swing arm 6 extends from top body 3, moves The front end of arm 6 connects dipper 11, connects scraper bowl 10 in the front end of dipper 11, swing arm 6, dipper 11 and scraper bowl 10 respectively by with it is dynamic The hydraulic pump driving that arm oil cylinder 7, bucket arm cylinder 8 and bucket cylinder 9 are connected.Driver's cabin 4, battery are carried on top body 3 21 and multiple motors and multiple hydraulic pumps, multiple rangefinders 12 be mounted on above top body 3 and driver's cabin 4.Walking mechanism 1 is left The traveling crawler on right both sides is driven by movable motor 5 respectively, and top body 3 drives swing mechanism 2 by turning motor 23, can be carried out 360 degree rotation, battery 21 are mounted on 3 rear portion of top body, and plurality of groups of storage batteries 21 can be set, and swing arm motor 29 couples swing arm Pump 22, dipper motor 30 couple dipper pump 26, and scraper bowl motor 31 couples scraper bowl pump 27, and left movable motor 61 couples left traveling pump 62, right movable motor 68 couples right traveling pump 69.Rotational speed governor 28 is also equipped on top body 3, right side is equipped with outer sending and receiving Motor cabinet 24 and charging interface 25.Position sensor 1 and position sensor 2 33 are installed on swing mechanism 2, pass through position Rotation angle can be fed back to computer controller by sensor, to execute its rotation position of Digital Control.
The control principle of swing arm 6 of the present invention, dipper 11 and scraper bowl 10 be it is identical, below with the operation control of swing arm Illustrate its structure and working principle for system processed, circuit control principle as shown in Figure 3:
The output end of each rangefinder 12 and each control handle 41 form with the input terminal of computer controller 46 connect simultaneously, Boom cylinder 7 connects hydraulic movable arm pump 22, and hydraulic movable arm pump 22 is connected with the output end of swing arm motor 29, passes through swing arm motor 29 driving hydraulic movable arm pump, 22 work, the input terminal of swing arm motor 29 are connected with the output end of rotational speed governor 28, revolving speed control The input terminal of device 28 processed is connected with the output end of the output end of computer controller 46 and battery 21 simultaneously, passes through battery 21 Power supply is provided to swing arm motor 29, speed probe 47 is installed on swing arm motor 29, variable control is installed on hydraulic movable arm pump 22 The output end of device 48 processed, speed probe 47 is connected with the input terminal of computer controller 46, the input terminal of variable controller 48 It is connected with the output end of computer controller 46, the dynamic of hydraulic movable arm pump 22 is controlled according to the revolving speed of swing arm motor 29 to realize Make, man-machine interface 42 is gone back while being connected to computer controller 46, instructs and show operating status to facilitate to receive.Battery 21 and turn Fast controller 28 is also connected with battery management system 43 simultaneously, is supplied to and is turned by the control battery 21 of battery management system 43 The electricity of fast controller 28 and swing arm motor 29.
Under manual working mode, when needing to act, operating control handle 41 issues instructions to computer controller 46, electricity 46 output order of brain controller is to rotational speed governor 28, and rotational speed governor 28 obtains electric power energy from battery 21, according to instruction Corresponding electric energy is exported to swing arm motor 29, motor 29 drives 22 rotation of swing arm pump, and swing arm pumps 22 output hydraulic pressure energy, drives swing arm Oil cylinder 7, to realize that operation acts.Action command and adjustment parameter can be inputted by man-machine interface 42, man-machine interface 42 with Computer controller 46 connects, and realizes automatic control and parameter regulation function.Battery 21 is filled by battery management system 43 Optimum Working is realized in the management of electric electricity consumption.
Under automatic job mode, surrounding enviroment situation is obtained by rangefinder 12, is needed by man-machine interface 42 It excavates entrucking and still repairs the requirements instruction such as slope and target, computer controller 46, can be under the operation of automatic Pilot program Carry out unmanned automatic job.
In operation, computer controller 46 is according to the rod chamber pressure sensor 44 and rodless cavity pressure on boom cylinder 7 Sensor 45 obtains the pressure of 7 two chambers of boom cylinder immediately, and after operation, output order passes through the change on swing arm pump 22 Amount controller 48 adjusts the discharge capacity of swing arm pump 22, and the revolving speed of swing arm motor 29, and slave arm are adjusted by rotational speed governor 28 The revolving speed that speed probe 47 on motor 29 accurately obtains swing arm motor 29 can by the operation control of computer controller 46 So that the working efficiency of boom cylinder 7 is optimal.
The control of bucket arm cylinder 8 and bucket cylinder 9 of the present invention is identical as the control principle of boom cylinder 7.This hair Closed type hydraulic system is all used for boom cylinder, bucket arm cylinder, bucket cylinder in bright electric excavator, due to having for oil cylinder Rod cavity is different from the volume of rodless cavity, therefore during exercise, it is necessary to which the flow asymmetry for solving two chamber of asymmetrical cylinder is asked Topic.For this purpose, when closed type hydraulic system drives hydraulic cylinder, being changed by the way that electromagnetism is arranged present invention employs closed type hydraulic system It to hydraulic units such as valve, slippage pumps, is controlled by computer controller, the flow asymmetry that can solve two chamber of asymmetrical cylinder is asked Topic.
By taking the hydraulic control system of boom cylinder 7 as an example, as shown in Figure 4,7 end of boom cylinder is equipped with an oil cylinder position Sensor 50 is used for computer system effect hydraulic cylinder travel.Between hydraulic movable arm pump 22 and boom cylinder 7 by oil inlet branch and Oil return branch is connected, and oil inlet branch connects the rod chamber end of boom cylinder 7, and oil return branch connects the rodless cavity of boom cylinder 7 End, oil inlet branch and oil return branch concatenate rod chamber solenoid directional control valve 53 and rodless cavity electricity in one end by boom cylinder 7 respectively Magnetic reversal valve 54, rodless cavity solenoid directional control valve 53 and rod chamber solenoid directional control valve 54 and computer controller 46 are electrically connected, oil cylinder Information is fed back to computer controller 46 by position sensor 50.Branch A and branch are parallel between oil inlet branch and oil return branch Two check valves 52 are concatenated on B, branch B, are connected with safety valve 55 between two check valves, the outlet connected tank of safety valve 55, Concatenate two check valves on branch A, connect slippage pump 51 and low pressure relief valve 56 between two check valves, slippage pump 51 with it is hydraulic 22 connection of pump, the inlet end and an outlet end of slippage pump 51 are separately installed with check valve, concatenate between outlet end and oil return branch Oil extraction solenoid directional control valve 57;The both ends of a low pressure relief valve 56 small branch in parallel, ramuscule road concatenate a check valve.
When work, swing arm motor 29 drives swing arm hydraulic pump 22, and when boom cylinder 7 needs to lift, rod chamber electromagnetism is changed Opened to valve 53 and rodless cavity solenoid directional control valve 54, rodless cavity pump oil from swing arm hydraulic pump 22 to boom cylinder 7, due to swing arm oil The rod chamber oil mass of cylinder 7 is less than rodless cavity, the oil suction from fuel tank of slippage pump 51, by the check valve 52, Xiang You close to rod chamber Rod cavity oil circuit repairing, slippage pump 51 choose the sufficiently large slippage pump of discharge capacity, meet 7 rodless cavity fuel feeding demand of boom cylinder.If The oil mass that slippage pump 51 exports is more than demand, then passes through low pressure relief valve 56, the oil spill having more is flowed back to fuel tank.Low pressure relief valve 56 check valves in parallel, if the low on fuel that slippage pump 51 exports, can directly from fuel tank oil suction add into Oily end.The rod chamber oil mass of boom cylinder 7 enters the oil inlet end of swing arm hydraulic pump 22 together with 51 pump oil amounts of slippage pump, dynamic Under arm motor 29 drives, hydraulic oil is directly pumped the rodless cavity to boom cylinder 7 by swing arm hydraulic pump 22, to realize that lifting is dynamic Make.The stroke of boom cylinder 7 determines by the discharge capacity of 29 rotating cycle of swing arm motor and swing arm hydraulic pump 22, can be by computer controller 46 carry out Digital Control.
When boom cylinder 7 needs to contract drop, rod chamber solenoid directional control valve 53 and rodless cavity solenoid directional control valve 54 are opened, oil extraction Solenoid directional control valve 57 opens simultaneously, and swing arm hydraulic pump 22 is lowered in variable controller movement and rotates into fuel-displaced direction, 7 nothing of boom cylinder The oil of rod cavity first meets 22 oil inlet end demand of swing arm hydraulic pump, has more part and then flows to slippage pump by oil extraction solenoid directional control valve 57 51, fuel tank is flowed back to by low pressure relief valve 56.If swing arm decline process is driven by gravity reversal, 7 rodless cavity of boom cylinder The hydraulic fluid pressure for leading to 22 oil inlet end of swing arm hydraulic pump can be higher than oil outlet, and swing arm hydraulic pump 22 is driven in the reverse direction, and become horse Up to operating condition, then swing arm motor 29 is driven to rotate, swing arm motor 29 switchs to generator operating condition, and the potential energy that swing arm declines is switched to electricity Can, it is stored into power accumulator 21 through battery management system 43, realizes the energy regenerating of swing arm.
Solenoid directional control valve 53 and solenoid directional control valve 54 are mounted on as close as possible to 7 oil inlet position of boom cylinder, are not being needed When movement, latch functions are played to boom cylinder 7.Just in case when there is booster or other accidents in system oil-way, solenoid directional control valve 53 Boom cylinder 7 can be kept not act with solenoid directional control valve 54, play safety effect.
Safety valve 55 is connected in oil circuit both ends by two check valves 52, when the pressure of certain one end is higher than setting pressure, Fuel tank is returned to by 55 emptying of safety valve, is played a protective role to hydraulic system.
The present invention can solve Closed Hydraulic by hydraulic units such as setting computer controller, solenoid directional control valve, slippage pumps The flow asymmetry problem of two chamber of system drive asymmetrical cylinder.It should be clear that Fig. 4 is only the one of solution Kind, it is not as a limitation of the invention, by the utilization of computer controller, a variety of solutions can also be deformed out, all should As protection scope of the present invention.
Swing mechanism 2 of the present invention is driven by turning motor 23, circuit control principle as shown in Figure 5: revolution hand Instruction is dealt into computer controller 46 by handle 49, and computer controller 46 is connected to signal, and output corresponding instruction to turning motor 23 turns Fast controller 28, rotational speed governor 28 export corresponding electric energy to turning motor 23, drive turning motor 23 to rotate, to drive Swing mechanism 2 moves, and is equipped with speed probe 47 on turning motor 23, revolving speed and rotational angle are sent to computer controller 46.Position sensor 1 and position sensor 2 33 are installed on swing mechanism, signal is dealt on computer controller 46, it can Whether 23 gyrations of effect turning motor are consistent with actual rotation amount.When needing deceleration to stop, computer controller 46 is connected to 49 signal of rotary handle, issues instructions to the rotational speed governor of turning motor 23, and due to the effect of rotator inertia, swing mechanism will It is driven in the reverse direction turning motor 23, at this moment turning motor 23 switchs to generator working condition, carries out power generation and braking deceleration, realizes Energy regenerating.
Walking mechanism 1 of the present invention can use crawler type walking mechanism, the hydraulic control that left and right traveling crawler uses System is Closed Hydraulic control system, and the left side by taking the crawler belt of the left side as an example, is seen as with the traveling crawler control principle on the right being Shown in Fig. 6, left side crawler belt couples left traveling pump 62 by left movable motor 61, drives left running motor by closed hydraulic loop 67, it is connected between left traveling pump 62 and left running motor 67 by oil inlet branch and oil return branch, two branches are close to motor One end concatenate solenoid directional control valve 1 and solenoid directional control valve 2 65 respectively, between oil inlet branch and oil return branch also parallel branch Two check valves are concatenated on C and branch D, branch D, connection safety valve 55 between two check valves, on branch C concatenation two it is unidirectional Valve connects slippage pump 51 between two check valves and low pressure relief valve 56, slippage pump 51 is connect with left traveling pump 62, slippage pump 51 Inlet end and an outlet end be separately installed with check valve 52, the both ends of a low pressure relief valve 56 small branch in parallel, the small branch One check valve 52 of upper concatenation.
When the left side, crawler belt needs to act, solenoid directional control valve 1 and solenoid directional control valve 2 65 are opened simultaneously, left traveling pump 62 according to the instruction of computer controller 46, adjusts direction and displacement size, left movable motor 61 drive left traveling pump 62, Xiang Zuohang 67 pump oil of motor is walked, left running motor 67 drives driving wheel to realize walking motion through speed reducer.Since closed type hydraulic system has Certain leakage, therefore it is provided with slippage pump 51, it keeps to low-pressure side repairing.When the oil mass that slippage pump 51 exports exceeds demand, Fuel tank is flowed back to by low pressure relief valve 56.If when the low on fuel demand that slippage pump 51 exports, passing through the unidirectional of its parallel connection Valve 52, oil suction supplements from fuel tank.Safety valve 55 is by two check valves 52 and both sides oil circuit connection, and when certain one side, pressure is more than When setting pressure, safety valve 55 is opened, and pressure oil is unloaded oil return box, is played a protective role to hydraulic system.Solenoid directional control valve one 64 and solenoid directional control valve 2 65 must not electricity when be in close state, locking effect is played to left running motor 67.
Hoofing part another way of the present invention is that walking mechanism is directly driven after speed reducer using movable motor.Row When walking, left and right movable motor directly drives driving wheel to walk after speed reducer, when needing to act, operates left and right travelling control hand Handle, computer controller 46 are connected to signal, the rotational speed governor 28 of output corresponding instruction to movable motor, and rotational speed governor 28 exports Corresponding electric energy gives left and right movable motor, and left and right movable motor drives driving wheel through speed reducer, so that left and right walking mechanism is driven, Carry out forward-reverse and divertical motion.In down hill braking or when needing ramp to stop, since driving wheel reversely drives movable motor, Computer controller 46 issues instructions to the rotational speed governor of movable motor, and movable motor is switched to generator working condition, carries out Power generation and braking deceleration realize energy regenerating.
From the foregoing, it will be observed that the everything of electric excavator of the present invention all by computer controller 46 issue numerical control instruction into Row, all motors use digital servomotor, can be with the rotating cycle of accurate perception motor.For walking motion and back rotation Make, the speed and distance that can be walked with Direct digital control, the speed and rotation angle of Digital Control revolution.For swing arm The discharge capacity of the movement of oil cylinder, rotating cycle and the swing arm pump of swing arm motor can digitize accurate perception, to be output to dynamic The The hydraulic oil of arm oil cylinder can accurately calculate out, can by the The hydraulic oil of output due to the incompressible characteristic of hydraulic oil Accurately to obtain the stroke of boom cylinder 7, that is to say, that the stroke of each oil cylinder can digitize accurate control, therefore, this Invention can realize automated job, accurately realize various operation movements by inputting program to computer controller.It is being equipped with phase After answering positioning system and range-measurement system, by process control, unmanned automatic job function is may be implemented in the present invention.
Under normal circumstances, electric excavator of the present invention can charge in down time, but encounter particular field It closes, when can not be charged, to guarantee work, the present invention is additionally provided with external generator fixing seat 24, can be by one Diesel-driven generator or gasoline engine generator or natural gas generator are mounted above, and connect charging interface 25, can be filled with side working edge Electricity.Since electric excavator of the present invention uses motor driven, capacity usage ratio is more much higher than fuel engines, while using enclosed Hydraulic system, be lost without overflow and throttle loss, is also lost without idling, and all recover energy to everything, therefore The existing excavator of the energy ratio needed wants much less.External generator only charges to power accumulator 21, not by excavator work Energy fluctuation influences when making, so as to issue electricity output in optimum efficiency operating condition.In summary factor, even if using completely In the case that external generator charging is worked, electric excavator of the present invention is also more fuel-efficient than prior art excavator, and It is more efficient.
All motors of the present invention are digital servomotor, have the function of reverse power generation.
Walking mechanism of the invention can also use the walking mechanism of other way, wheel type traveling mechanism such as be used, by four A movable motor connects speed reducer, and four groups of tires of driving are walked.
Hydraulic pump of the present invention is closed type hydraulic pump, and is numerical variable pump, big by computer control discharge capacity Small and direction, has the function of reverse motor.It is not compressed characteristic since hydraulic oil has, the circle number that control motor rotates, that is, controllable The flow of hydraulic pump output processed, to control the stroke of hydraulic cylinder, that is, passes through digital servomotor for the stroke of hydraulic cylinder Digitlization.
The present invention is mainly made of computer processor using computer controller, and computer processor is from manipulation device and man-machine boundary Face receives instruction, in conjunction with feedback data such as displacement sensor, rangefinders, after operation, exports control instruction to each motor With automatically controlled variable pump, fulfil assignment movement.Computer controller can carry out intelligence and assist driving, and can also be obtained by rangefinder Surrounding condition realizes automatic Pilot operation by automatic Pilot program.
Rangefinder of the present invention can be laser range finder, radar inductor, ultrasonic wave detector, image recognition system Deng being mounted on each orientation of body, can incude periphery body form and distance, feedback arrives computer controller.
Two groups or plurality of groups of storage batteries can be set according to need of work in the present invention.Due to excavator operating characteristic, operation When each movement carry out constantly repeatedly, the present invention needs to recycle kinetic energy and potential energy, therefore it is frequent to charge, it is preferred that configuration is super Grade capacitor, can frequent charge and discharge provide high-power power demand and in multiple movements while when moving.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of digitlization electric hydraulic excavating machine, including walking mechanism, swing mechanism, swing arm and boom cylinder, dipper and bucket Rod oil cylinder, scraper bowl and bucket cylinder, which is characterized in that the input terminal of each control handle and computer controller is electrically connected;Revolution Mechanism by turning motor drive rotate, walking mechanism by movable motor or hydraulic pump driving walking, boom cylinder, bucket arm cylinder, Bucket cylinder is separately connected a hydraulic pump, and boom cylinder, bucket arm cylinder, bucket cylinder use closed hydraulic loop and hydraulic pump It is connected, specific structure is: is connected between hydraulic pump and oil cylinder by oil inlet branch and oil return branch, oil inlet branch connects oil cylinder Rod chamber end, oil return branch connects the rodless cavity end of oil cylinder, and oil inlet branch and oil return branch are gone here and there respectively in one end by oil cylinder It is connected to rod cavity solenoid directional control valve and rodless cavity solenoid directional control valve, rodless cavity solenoid directional control valve and rod chamber solenoid directional control valve and computer Controller is electrically connected;Two branches are parallel between oil inlet branch and oil return branch, wherein a branch road concatenates two lists To valve, safety valve is connected between two check valves, another branch road concatenates two check valves, connect between two check valves Slippage pump and low pressure relief valve, slippage pump are connect with hydraulic pump, and the inlet end and an outlet end of slippage pump is separately installed with check valve, Oil extraction solenoid directional control valve is concatenated between outlet end and oil return branch;The both ends of a low pressure relief valve small branch in parallel, the ramuscule Road concatenates a check valve;Each hydraulic pump is connected with the output end of a motor respectively, passes through motor-driven hydraulic pumps work Make, the input terminal of each motor is connected with the output end of a rotational speed governor respectively, and the input terminal of each rotational speed governor is simultaneously It is connected with the output end of computer controller and battery, provides power supply to motor by battery;It is installed respectively on each motor Have speed probe, variable controller be installed respectively on each hydraulic pump, the output end of speed probe and computer controller it is defeated Enter end to be connected, the input terminal of variable controller is connected with the output end of computer controller, to realize the revolving speed according to motor The movement of hydraulic pump is controlled, computer controller also connects man-machine interface simultaneously;The motor of the use is digital servomotor, Has the function of reverse power generation;The variable controller used on the hydraulic pump is numerical variable controller, can be controlled by computer Device digital driving.
2. digitizing electric hydraulic excavating machine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the battery and rotational speed governor Also it is connected simultaneously with battery management system, the electricity that battery is supplied to rotational speed governor is controlled by battery management system.
3. digitizing electric hydraulic excavating machine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that walking mechanism is returned using Closed Hydraulic Road is connected with hydraulic pump, and specific structure is: the drive motor of hydraulic pump and walking mechanism passes through oil inlet branch and oil return branch Connection, two branches are serially connected with solenoid directional control valve in one end close to motor respectively, between oil inlet branch and oil return branch also simultaneously Join two branches, wherein a branch road concatenates two check valves, connection safety valve between two check valves, another branch road Two check valves are concatenated, slippage pump is connected between two check valves and low pressure relief valve, slippage pump is connect with hydraulic pump, slippage pump Inlet end and an outlet end be separately installed with check valve, the both ends of a low pressure relief valve small branch in parallel, ramuscule road is gone here and there Connect a check valve.
4. digitizing electric hydraulic excavating machine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that at least installed on the swing mechanism There are two position sensor, the output end of position sensor is connected with the input terminal of computer controller, passes through position sensor Determine the rotation angle of excavator.
5. digitizing electric hydraulic excavating machine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the engine body exterior of excavator is equipped with Multiple rangefinders, the output end of each rangefinder are connected with the input terminal of computer controller.
6. digitizing electric hydraulic excavating machine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that be equipped with and fill on the body of excavator Electrical interface and external generator stand, convenient for charging a battery.
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