CN1061213A - Emulsified powdered nitramon and manufacture method thereof - Google Patents

Emulsified powdered nitramon and manufacture method thereof Download PDF

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CN1061213A
CN1061213A CN 91107080 CN91107080A CN1061213A CN 1061213 A CN1061213 A CN 1061213A CN 91107080 CN91107080 CN 91107080 CN 91107080 A CN91107080 A CN 91107080A CN 1061213 A CN1061213 A CN 1061213A
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water
phase material
explosive
ammonium nitrate
emulsification
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CN1027637C (en
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俞明熊
倪欧琪
罗鹏翼
葛建敏
孔德让
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East China Institute of Technology
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The invention belongs to a kind of powder ammonium nitrate explosive and manufacture method thereof, particularly a kind of emulsified powdered nitramon and manufacture method thereof.Explosive of the present invention is to be carried out emulsification, be atomized into powder through air flow type jet nozzle by water-phase material and oil phase material, directly makes the emulsified powdered nitramon finished product.Explosive of the present invention has not only kept the advantage of existing powder ammonium nitrate explosive, and blast performance obviously improves, and water repelling property and storge quality are good.The manufacture method of explosive of the present invention is easy, and processing performance is good, both has been fit to industrialization discontinuity and has produced, and also is fit to industrialization continuity production.

Description

Emulsified powdered nitramon and manufacture method thereof
The invention belongs to a kind of powder ammonium nitrate explosive and manufacture method thereof, particularly a kind of emulsified powdered nitramon and manufacture method thereof.
Powder ammonium nitrate explosive is the bigger industrial explosive of present usage quantity, mainly contains ammonium ladder class explosive and ammonium oils explosive two big classes.Generally speaking, ammonium ladder class explosive contains high explosive sensitizing agent tritonal, and its blast performance is better than ammonium oils explosive.But tritonal is toxic substance, and is harmful, and the cost height.Ammonium oils explosive cost is low, and production technique is simple, but blast performance is relatively poor, and easily oil impregnate is rotten, poor storage performance.The all easy moisture absorption caking of two class explosives, water repelling property is poor, and because explosion velocity is low, can not satisfy the requirement of big ore bed of hardness and Rock Blasting Engineering.
The powdery an-tnt-oil explosive has been studied and has promoted by China since the eighties, tritonal content is reduced to 3~7%, blast performance approaches the level of No. 2 rock powdery an-tnt explosives, improved the anti-caking ability of powder ammonium nitrate explosive to a certain extent, reduce the pollution of tritonal dust in the production process, but fundamentally do not overcome the shortcoming of prior art.
In order to overcome the shortcoming of prior art, Changsha Mining ﹠ Metallurgy Inst has proposed " powdery anfo explosive with high dispersivity ", it adopts emulsifying manner to prepare oil-in-water (O/W) the type milk sap of ammonium nitrate saturated aqueous solution and mineral oil, and mineral oil is dispersed in the ammonium nitrate solution.Mixed with additive and wood powder etc. by milk sap in wheel roller then, drying forms powdered ammonium nitrate-fuel oil explosive.The advantage of this explosive is under the condition that does not contain the tritonal composition, by increasing the homogeneity between each composition, improve the blast performance of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture, its main blast performance is suitable with No. 2 rock powdery an-tnt explosives, and has certain anti-caking ability and anti-outlet capacity.But still have following problem: (1) oil-in-water (O/W) type milk sap mixes in wheel roller, in the exsiccant process, ammonium nitrate begins crystallization, and mix with additives such as oil phase material and wood powders, this process still belongs to mechanically mixing basically, can only improve the cladding situation of prior art oil film to a certain extent, can not thoroughly solve the moistureproof problem of this explosive and obviously improve anti-outlet capacity at ammonium nitrate surface.In addition, because the developmental process of crystal grain can not get effective control, its dispersing uniformity is still relatively poor, and it directly influences the raising of the blast performance of powdered ammonium nitrate-fuel oil explosive.(2) water content is 3~10% when preparation ammonium nitrate saturated aqueous solution, and the water content of the finished product requires less than 0.3%, and wasteful calorimetric energy is wanted in the evaporation of moisture, so technological design is unreasonable, and its production cycle is long, and product cost is higher.
The objective of the invention is in order to overcome the shortcoming of prior art, and a kind of novel emulsion powder ammonium nitrate explosive and manufacture method are provided.Emulsified powdered nitramon of the present invention has not only kept the advantage of powdery anfo explosive with high dispersivity, and blast performance obviously improves, and anti-water and storge quality are good; The manufacture method of emulsified powdered nitramon of the present invention is easy, and processing performance is good, both has been suitable for industrialization discontinuity and has produced, and also is suitable for industrialization continuity production.
The novel emulsion powder ammonium nitrate explosive that designs according to the present invention is characterized in that by (quality %): 86~88 ammonium nitrate, 1.5~2.5 saltpetre, 0.1~0.2 sodium lauryl sulphate, 3~5 water, 1.5~2.0 polyisobutene succinimides (calling 8045 emulsifying agents in the following text), 1.0~1.5 rosin, 0.75~1.0 paraffin, 0.75~1.0 ceresine and 0.5~1.0 activated carbon mix and form; Or by (quality %): 84.0~87.5 ammonium nitrate, 2.0~2.5 saltpetre, 0.1~0.2 sodium lauryl sulphate, 3~5 water, 1.5~2.0(8054 emulsifying agent), 1.0~2.0 rosin, 0.75~1.2 paraffin, 0.5~1.0 ceresine, 0.3~0.5 activated carbon and 1.6~4.5 wood powders.
First technical scheme according to the present invention and the manufacture method of the novel emulsion powder ammonium nitrate explosive that designs, the first step is by ammonium nitrate, saltpetre, sodium lauryl sulphate and the water miscible water-phase material of forming under 140~160 ℃ of conditions; Second step was formed oil phase material by rosin, paraffin, ceresine and 8045 emulsifying agents consolute under 140~160 ℃ of conditions; The 3rd step joined water-phase material under stirring condition is arranged carries out emulsification in the oil phase material, emulsifying temperature is 140~155 ℃, and emulsification times is 1~2min; Add activated carbon finally again in emulsification, puddle time 20~30s; It is characterized in that the 4th step was that the emulsification material that the 3rd step made is atomized into powder through the air-flowing type nozzle, directly make the emulsified powdered nitramon finished product, the mass ratio of its air-flow and streams is that temperature of charge is 130~150 ℃ before Ma/Ml=0.38~0.57, the atomizing, atomizing back temperature of charge≤40 ℃, the diameter of air-flow nozzle is φ 10~15mm.Second kind of technical scheme according to the present invention and the manufacture method of the novel emulsion powder ammonium nitrate explosive that designs, the technology in its first three step is with first kind of manufacture method, it is characterized in that the 4th step was that the emulsification material that the 3rd step made is sprayed into powder through the air-flowing type nozzle, the mass ratio of its air-flow and streams is Ma/Ml=0.38~0.57, temperature of charge is 130~150 ℃ before the spraying, temperature of charge after the spraying≤40 ℃, the diameter of nozzle is φ 10~15mm; The 5th step was to add wood powder in the pulverulent material that obtains in the 4th step and stir, and promptly made the emulsified powdered nitramon finished product.
Improve the blast performance of powder ammonium nitrate explosive, oxygenant must fully contact with combustiblematerials; Improve the water repelling property and the shelf characteric of powder ammonium nitrate explosive, must have one deck hydrophobic nature material to exist on the ammonium nitrate grain surface of easily moisture absorption.In water in oil latex system, water-phase material can be dispersed into a large amount of fine droplets by the cladding of the oil phase material of external phase, and fully contacts with oil phase material.The principle of design of explosive of the present invention is conceived just in this specific character of emulsoid and is proposed to use emulsifying technology, make the oil phase with forming combustiblematerials of the water of forming oxygenant form uniform water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsoid, make this latex system solidify and form powdered granule then, thereby obtain to have oily peritectic microtexture and oxygenant and the fully tight emulsified powdered nitramon that contacts of combustiblematerials.The water of introducing relatively large (3~5%) in explosive system is big characteristics of explosive of the present invention, and it makes inorganic oxidizer salt formation saturated oxygen agent aqueous solution.Under emulsification condition, the size droplet diameter of aqueous oxidizing agent solution disperse phase becomes very little, and the contact area of oxygenant and combustiblematerials enlarges markedly, and when particle dia was 0.3 micron, contact area was about 1cm 340,000 times of ball surface.Obviously, this combustible agent closely contacts with oxygenant with approximate molecular size, helps exciting and transmitting of detonation, has improved the detonation susceptibility of explosive, and owing to the increase of density, has improved the explosion velocity and the brisance of explosive.Thermal capacity owing to water is bigger in addition, thereby makes that the mechanical sensitivity of this explosive is very little.Introducing 8045 emulsifying agents in explosive system is another characteristics of explosive of the present invention, it is a kind of macromolecule emulsifier, can be under the pyritous condition, water and the oil phase material of forming this explosive had good emulsifying effectiveness, thereby make oxidizing agent solution be dispersed into the drop at several microns to several microns of zero points, with the combustiblematerials thorough mixing.And the structure of its macromolecular chain has enhancement to oil film, thereby makes this explosive have good blast performance, shelf characteric and water repelling property.
The principle of design of the emulsified powdered nitramon manufacture method that the present invention proposes: mainly be to adopt the air-flowing type nozzle to spray into the powder novel process.The characteristics of this technology are: in the exit of nozzle, when gas contacts with material, because the speed of gas is very high, is generally 200~340m/s, also can reach supersonic velocity, but the effusive speed of material is also little, generally be no more than 2m/s, therefore produce very big speed of relative movement between two fluids, thereby produce very big frictional force, make the material atomizing, can obtain the fine droplet below 5 microns; In material atomizing, all are processes of a step-down quenching for two fluids, thereby make the curing of when being dispersed into fine drop, lower the temperature of high temperature, heavy-gravity emulsoid material, the solid state powder particle that formation has the emulsoid microtexture.
The present invention compared with the prior art, its distinguishing feature is: contain the water of 3~5 quality % in (1) explosive of the present invention, both increased the density of explosive, improved the safety performance of explosive again; (2) blast performance of explosive obviously improves.This is because the oxygenant and the fully tight microtexture that contacts of combustiblematerials that has kept the invert emulsion system to form in the solid granulates; (3) because the main body composition ammonium nitrate crystal surface of this explosive is had the oil phase material of hydrophobic nature fully to clad, so the water repelling property of this explosive is good; What (4) use in the explosive system of the present invention is dystectic oil phase material entirely, and the oil film that the high-melting-point oil phase material forms has very high intensity, significantly reduced microtexture over time, so the shelf characteric of this explosive is good; (5) adopt emulsification to mix, spray into the manufacture method of powder, technology is simple, and processing performance is good.Both be suitable for industrialization discontinuity and produced, also be suitable for industrialization continuity production; (6) material cost of this explosive descends 300 yuan/ton than No. 2 rock explosives, descends 200 yuan/ton than new No. 2 rock explosives, descends 100 yuan/ton than high dispersive powdered ammonium nitrate-fuel oil explosive.The salient features of the present invention and prior art relatively sees the following form.
Specific embodiments of the present invention is provided by drawings and Examples.
Fig. 1 be the emulsified powdered nitramon manufacture method (one of) process flow diagram.
Fig. 2 is the process flow diagram of emulsified powdered nitramon manufacture method (two).
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is described in further detail.
The various starting material that adopted in the manufacturing process of the emulsified powdered nitramon that the present invention proposes all meet the Ministry of Chemical Industry's ministerial standard or company standard.
Embodiment one (is example to produce the 3kg emulsified powdered nitramon):
Figure 91107080X_IMG1
Select the mass percent of emulsified powdered nitramon to be: ammonium nitrate 88, saltpetre 2.5, sodium lauryl sulphate 0.1, paraffin 1.0, ceresine 1.0, rosin 1.5, (8045 emulsifying agent) 2.0, water 3.0 and activated carbon 0.9.
According to the accurate weighing ammonium nitrate of said ratio 2640g, saltpetre 75g, sodium lauryl sulphate 3g, paraffin 30g, ceresine 30g, rosin 45g, 8045 emulsifying agent 60g, water 90g and activated carbon 27g.
Operation steps: the first step is with ammonium nitrate, saltpetre, sodium lauryl sulphate and water miscible composition water-phase material under 145 ℃ of conditions; Second step was that rosin, paraffin, ceresine and 8045 emulsifying agents consolute under 145 ℃ of conditions is formed oil phase material; The 3rd step joined water-phase material under agitation condition carries out emulsification in the oil phase material, emulsifying temperature is 140 ℃, emulsification times 1.5min adds activated carbon finally in emulsification, puddles time 20s, the emulsoid that the 4th step made for the 3rd step is atomized into powder through the air-flowing type nozzle, the emulsified powdered nitramon finished product that directly makes, the mass ratio Ma/Ml=0.57 of its air-flow and streams, temperature of charge is 140 ℃ before the atomizing, the diameter phi 10mm of air-flowing type nozzle, the temperature of charge after the atomizing≤40 ℃.
The powder stick of this emulsified powdered nitramon being dressed up φ 32mm records blast performance with No. 8 blasting cap initiations and is: explosion velocity 4167m/s, brisance 16.0mm, quick-fried power 375ml, gap distance 7cm.
Embodiment two (is example to produce the 3kg emulsified powdered nitramon):
Select the mass percent of emulsified powdered nitramon to be: ammonium nitrate 86.5, saltpetre 2.3, sodium lauryl sulphate 0.1, water 3.0,8045 emulsifying agents 2.0, rosin 1.4, paraffin 0.9, ceresine 0.9, activated carbon 0.9 and wood powder 2.5.
According to the accurate weighing ammonium nitrate of said ratio 2595g, saltpetre 68g, sodium lauryl sulphate 3g, water 90g, 8045 emulsifying agent 60g, rosin 42g, paraffin 27g, ceresine 27g, activated carbon 12g and wood powder 75g.
Operation steps: first, second, third and fourth goes on foot with embodiment one, but processing condition are: the water immiscible phase temperature: 150 ℃, 150 ℃ of oil phase consolute temperatures, emulsifying temperature: 147 ℃, nozzle diameter: φ 12mm, Ma/Ml=0.38; The pulverulent material that the 5th step obtained for the 4th step mixes with wood powder in having the container of agitator, and mixing time is 1min, promptly makes the emulsified powdered nitramon finished product.
This emulsified powdered nitramon is dressed up φ 32mm powder stick to be recorded blast performance with No. 8 blasting cap initiations and is: brisance 17.5mm, quick-fried power 356ml, explosion velocity 4237m/s, gap distance 6cm.
Embodiment three (is example to produce the 3kg emulsified powdered nitramon):
Select the mass percent of emulsified powdered nitramon to be: ammonium nitrate 84.6, saltpetre 2.5, sodium lauryl sulphate 0.2, water 5.0,8045 emulsifying agents 2.0, rosin 1.8, paraffin 1.2, ceresine 0.5, activated carbon 0.4 and wood powder 2.5.
According to the accurate weighing ammonium nitrate of said ratio 2538g, saltpetre 75g, sodium lauryl sulphate 6g, water 150g, 8045 emulsifying agent 60g, rosin 54g, paraffin 36g, ceresine 15g, activated carbon 12g and wood powder 54g.
Operation steps: first, second, third and fourth goes on foot with embodiment one, but processing condition are: 160 ℃ of water consolute temperatures, and 160 ℃ of oil phase consolute temperatures, 155 ℃ of emulsifying temperatures, the nozzle diameter: φ 15mm, Ma/Ml=0.57, the 5th step is with embodiment two.
This emulsified powdered nitramon is dressed up φ 32mm powder stick to be recorded blast performance with No. 8 blasting cap initiations and is: brisance 16.1mm, explosion velocity 4000m/s, capacity for work 368ml, gap distance 8cm.

Claims (4)

1, a kind of emulsified powdered nitramon that is used for engineering explosion is characterized in that by (quality %): 86~88 ammonium nitrate, 1.5~2.3 saltpetre, 0.1~0.2 sodium lauryl sulphate, 3.0~5.0 water, 1.5~2.0 (8045 emulsifying agent), 1~1.5 rosin, 0.75~1.0 paraffin, 0.75~1.0 ceresine and 0.5~1.0 activated carbon mix and form.
2, a kind of emulsified powdered nitramon that is used for engineering explosion is characterized in that by (quality %): 84.0~87.5 ammonium nitrate, 2.0~2.5 saltpetre, 0.1~0.2 sodium lauryl sulphate, 3.0~5.0 water, 1.5~2.0(8054 emulsifying agent), 1.0~2.0 rosin, 0.75~1.2 paraffin, 0.5~1.0 ceresine, 0.3~0.5 activated carbon and 1.6~4.5 wood powders mix and form.
3, a kind of method of making the described emulsified powdered nitramon of claim 1, the first step is by ammonium nitrate, saltpetre, sodium lauryl sulphate and the water miscible water-phase material of forming under 140~160 ℃ of conditions; Second step was formed oil phase material by rosin, paraffin, ceresine and 8045 emulsifying agents consolute under 140~160 ℃ of conditions; The 3rd step joined water-phase material under stirring condition carries out emulsification in the oil phase material, emulsifying temperature is 140~155 ℃, and emulsification times is 1~2min, adds activated carbon finally in emulsification, puddles time 20~30s; It is characterized in that the 4th step was that the emulsification material that the 3rd step made is atomized into powder through the air-flowing type nozzle, directly make the emulsified powdered nitramon finished product, the mass ratio of its air-flow and streams is that temperature of charge is that 130~150 ℃, the diameter of spraying back temperature of charge≤40 ℃, nozzle are φ 10~15mm before Ma/Ml=0.38~0.57, the spraying.
4, a kind of method of making the described emulsified powdered nitramon of claim 2, the first step is by ammonium nitrate, saltpetre, sodium lauryl sulphate and the water miscible water-phase material of forming under 140~160 ℃ of conditions; Second step was formed oil phase material by rosin, paraffin, ceresine and 8045 emulsifying agents consolute under 140~160 ℃ of conditions; The 3rd step joined water-phase material under stirring condition carries out emulsification in the oil phase material, emulsifying temperature is 140~155 ℃, and emulsification times is 1~2min, adds activated carbon finally in emulsification, puddles time 20~30s; It is characterized in that the 4th step was that the emulsification material that the 3rd step made is atomized into powder through the air-flowing type nozzle, mass ratio Ma/ml=0.38~0.57 of its air-flow and streams, temperature of charge is 130~150 ℃ before the spraying, spraying back temperature of charge≤40 ℃, and the diameter of nozzle is φ 10~15mm; The 5th step was to add wood powder in the pulverulent material that obtains in the 4th step and stir, and promptly made the emulsified powdered nitramon finished product.
CN 91107080 1991-06-14 1991-06-14 Emulsified powdered nitramon and its making method Expired - Fee Related CN1027637C (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1045428C (en) * 1996-04-19 1999-10-06 北京科技大学 Solid state emulsified compound granular explosive and its preparation method
CN1064945C (en) * 1996-08-20 2001-04-25 中国石油化工总公司 Compound wax for emulsified explosive
CN1314633C (en) * 2003-07-03 2007-05-09 赵忠和 Industrial powdery rock ammonium nitrate explosive
CN100364937C (en) * 2005-09-06 2008-01-30 南京理工大学 Powdery emulsified explosive preparation method
CN101328099B (en) * 2008-08-04 2011-05-04 耿一平 Gel type emulsion explosive and preparation thereof

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100443450C (en) * 2006-03-31 2008-12-17 南京理工大学 High-energy coal mine permitted powder emulsified explosive and preparation method thereof
CN100443449C (en) * 2006-03-31 2008-12-17 南京理工大学 High-energy powder emulsified explosive and preparation method thereof
CN100425580C (en) * 2006-12-04 2008-10-15 唐秋明 Method and equipment for preparing powder explosive

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1045428C (en) * 1996-04-19 1999-10-06 北京科技大学 Solid state emulsified compound granular explosive and its preparation method
CN1064945C (en) * 1996-08-20 2001-04-25 中国石油化工总公司 Compound wax for emulsified explosive
CN1314633C (en) * 2003-07-03 2007-05-09 赵忠和 Industrial powdery rock ammonium nitrate explosive
CN100364937C (en) * 2005-09-06 2008-01-30 南京理工大学 Powdery emulsified explosive preparation method
CN101328099B (en) * 2008-08-04 2011-05-04 耿一平 Gel type emulsion explosive and preparation thereof

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