CN106112505B  Doubleshaftandhole assembly system and its control method  Google Patents
Doubleshaftandhole assembly system and its control method Download PDFInfo
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 CN106112505B CN106112505B CN201610519794.1A CN201610519794A CN106112505B CN 106112505 B CN106112505 B CN 106112505B CN 201610519794 A CN201610519794 A CN 201610519794A CN 106112505 B CN106112505 B CN 106112505B
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 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B23—MACHINE TOOLS; METALWORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
 B23P—METALWORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
 B23P19/00—Machines for simply fitting together or separating metal parts or objects, or metal and nonmetal parts, whether or not involving some deformation; Tools or devices therefor so far as not provided for in other classes
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 B23P19/12—Alignment of parts for insertion into bores
Abstract
The present invention provides a kind of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system and its control method, Doubleshaftandhole assembly system includes：Pedestal；Mechanical arm；Laser tracking measurement instrument；Sensor senses contact force and contact torque in Doubleshaftandhole assembling process between each axis and the corresponding aperture of diplopore workpiece of twin shaft workpiece in real time；And upper computer control system, it is electrically connected to mechanical arm, and be communicatively coupled to the contact force of sensor and receiving sensor transmission and the data of contact torque with real time management manipulator motion.In Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, the pose for twin shaft workpiece, diplopore workpiece and the mechanical arm tail end that upper computer control system is measured based on the selfcalibration program inside mechanical arm, laser tracking measurement instrument completes the preliminary alignment of twin shaft workpiece and diplopore workpiece, and it is based further on the communication partner of sensor with real time management manipulator motion, and then complete the assembly of twin shaft workpiece and diplopore workpiece, its assembly precision is high, stability is good, applied widely.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to largescale more shaft hole part assembly fields more particularly to a kind of Doubleshaftandhole assembly systems and its controlling party
Method.
Background technology
In production manufacturing process, assembling work is very important link, which will directly affect final production
Quality.According to statistics, in the entire manufacture work of mechanical electric subclass product, assembly work amount accounts for 20%~70%, assembly
Expense has also accounted for the 1/3~1/2 of totle drilling cost.There are many assembling link at present in industry or completed by assembler, still
Manual assembly is of high cost there are many problems, such as efficiency are low, and operation requires high, but also is easy to happen safety accident.
Particularly with the assembly of largescale workpiece, workpiece is too heavy, and manual assembly is very inconvenient.In this context, it can carry out automatic
The robot of assembly is just particularly important.Compared to manual assembly, the applicable range of robot is wider, is particularly suitable for heavy type
Assembly under the particular surroundings such as workpiece.
It is found by being investigated to published document, patent and industrial products, robotic asssembly mainly may be used two kinds
Mode, one is the assembly method of viewbased access control model servo, visual servo is by acquiring image and being compared, to judge this
When workpiece pose, and will determine that result feeds back to a kind of method that mechanical arm is adjusted.However Visual servoing control is mechanical
There is also following deficiencies for the method for arm progress automatic assembling：(1) Visual servoing control can not accurately control connecing for assembly workpiece
Touch size, it is possible to serious collide with so that disfiguring workpiece occur；(2) it there are when partial occlusion and characteristic point unobvious, makes
The problem of judging error at pose or can not judge.
Another assembly method is the assembly felt based on power, and the power for also becoming robot controls.Power control can be divided into
It is controlled by dynamic Control and active force.It is the submissive end joint of design by dynamic Control, helps workpiece not exclusively accurate in position
Assembly is completed in the case of really.Active force control is measured in real time robot end's stress using force snesor,
By comparing reference load and true power, current contact situation is judged, control machinery arm is used to reduce contact force, so as to
Preferably complete assembly.However existing power control assembly method also has following Railway Project：(1) soft by powercontrol method
It along limitation, and needs to design different submissive mechanical devices for different workpiece, appropriate is limited.And it is because flexible
Device free space is too big, it has not been convenient to accurately control；(2) existing active force control assembly method is primarily adapted for use in uniaxial hole
Assembly is seldom suitable for multi peginhole, and the method without finding to be suitable for flexible multi peginhole.For largescale work
Part, such as aircraft, the workpiece such as automobile, the big quality of volume is high, itself can cause to deform because of the effects that gravity, thus cannot be complete
It is considered as rigid body entirely, and the assembly of these largescale workpieces is mainly multi peginhole, it is therefore desirable to the assembly to flexible multiaxis hole
Method is studied.
Invention content
The problem of in view of background technology, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system and its controls
Method processed, applied widely, assembly precision is high, and stability is good.
To achieve the goals above, in a first aspect, the present invention provides a kind of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system, being used for will be double
Shaftlike work is assemblied in diplopore workpiece, including：Pedestal；Mechanical arm is fixed on pedestal and is fixedly connected with twin shaft workpiece；Laser with
Track measuring instrument measures the pose of twin shaft workpiece, diplopore workpiece and mechanical arm tail end；Sensor senses Doubleshaftandhole assembly in real time
Contact force between each axis and the corresponding aperture of diplopore workpiece of twin shaft workpiece and contact torque in the process；And PC control system
System, is electrically connected to mechanical arm, and is communicatively coupled to the data of the contact force and contact torque of sensor and receiving sensor transmission
With real time management manipulator motion.
To achieve the goals above, in second aspect, the present invention provides a kind of control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system,
It is used to control the Doubleshaftandhole assembly system described in first aspect present invention, including step S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6.
S1, determine twin shaft workpiece mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system transition matrix T_{t} ^{p}, diplopore workpiece is in mechanical arm base
The transition matrix of seat coordinate systemAnd twin shaft workpiece is in the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate systemIncluding step：S11,
Using laser tracking measurement instrument, under laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system, the threedimensional in the twin shaft bottom surface center of circle of twin shaft workpiece is measured
Coordinate is respectively (X_{plm}, Y_{plm}, Z_{plm})、(X_{prm}, Y_{prm}, Z_{prm}), the normal vector of twin shaft bottom surface is (X_{pnm}, Y_{pnm}, Z_{pnm}), diplopore work
The threedimensional coordinate in the diplopore top surface center of circle of part (H) is respectively (X_{hlm}, Y_{hlm}, Z_{hlm})、(X_{hrm}, Y_{hrm}, Z_{hrm}), the normal direction of diplopore top surface
Amount is (X_{hnm}, Y_{hnm}, Z_{hnm}), the threedimensional coordinate at the center of mechanical arm tail end is (X_{tm}, Y_{tm}, Z_{tm})；S12 establishes biaxial coordinates system
With diplopore coordinate system, and calculate laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to biaxial coordinates system transition matrixIt is tracked with laser
Transition matrix of the measuring instrument coordinate system to diplopore coordinate systemS13, mechanical arm read the center of mechanical arm tail end in machinery automatically
Threedimensional coordinate (X under arm base coordinate system_{tw}, Y_{tw}, Z_{tw}) and Eulerian angles (EX, EY, EZ), and calculate mechanical arm tail end center
Transition matrix of the coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemWith laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system
Transition matrixS14 is acquired according to step S12It is acquired with S13WithIt respectively obtainsWithExpression formula, i.e.,：
S2, upper computer control system initialization check whether all the sensors work normally and sensor and host computer
It whether normally to be communicated between control system, and back to zero calibration is carried out to sensor.
S3 manipulates mechanical arm to adjust the relative position of axis hole in real time by upper computer control system, including step S31,
S32 and S33.
S31, adjustment mechanical arm is so that biaxial coordinates system and diplopore coordinate system are tentatively aligned, at this timeWithIn in addition to right
Other values are equal except answering the Z coordinate value of origin unequal, alignment front mechanical arm distal center coordinate system to mechanical arm pedestal
The transition matrix of coordinate system isTransition matrix of the twin shaft workpiece coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemIt is adjusted right to enable
The transition matrix of mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system after neat isAfter adjusted alignment
The transition matrix of twin shaft workpiece coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system be
S32, according in S31Initial value, calculate adjustment afterIf before and after adjustment alignment
The transformation matrices of biaxial coordinates system to the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate system are dT, mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to machine
The transformation matrices of the transition matrix of tool arm base coordinate system are dT2, and calculating process is：
S33, according to what is obtained in S32The center of mechanical arm tail end after adjusting is calculated in mechanical arm pedestal coordinate
Threedimensional coordinate (X in system_{tw2}, Y_{tw2}, Z_{tw2}) and Eulerian angles (EX2, EY2, EZ2), solution formula be：
The threedimensional coordinate that the center of mechanical arm tail end is adjusted to obtain in step S33 is by S4, upper computer control system
(X_{tw2}, Y_{tw2}, Z_{tw2}), Eulerian angles be (EX2, EY2, EZ2) pose, complete axis hole alignment.
S5, upper computer control system are sat using incremental P control methods and the position feedback based on twin shaft workpiece and twin shaft
The Z coordinate value of mark system origin and the size of the difference of the Z coordinate value of diplopore coordinate origin manipulate manipulator motion, so that twin shaft work
Part is vertically lowered, gradually it is close with diplopore workpiece, until contacting.
S6, upper computer control system uses impedance adjustment and the Doubleshaftandhole sensed in real time based on sensor was assembled
Contact force and contact torque in journey between each axis and the corresponding aperture of diplopore workpiece of twin shaft workpiece manipulate manipulator motion, with
Twin shaft workpiece is set to continue to decline until fully mated with diplopore workpiece.
Beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows：
In Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, upper computer control system is based on the selfcalibration journey inside mechanical arm
The pose of twin shaft workpiece, diplopore workpiece and the mechanical arm tail end that sequence, laser tracking measurement instrument are measured complete twin shaft workpiece and
The preliminary alignment of diplopore workpiece, and be based further on the communication partner of sensor with real time management manipulator motion, and then it is complete
The assembly of shaftlike work and diplopore workpiece in pairs, assembly precision is high, and stability is good, applied widely.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the whole installation diagram of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention；
Fig. 2 to Fig. 5 is the mistake of the control method control Doubleshaftandhole assembly system of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention
Journey schematic diagram, wherein Fig. 2 are the position views that twin shaft workpiece P is installed on before diplopore workpiece H, Fig. 3 be twin shaft workpiece P with it is double
Position view when hole workpiece H installation and when twin shaft workpiece P is aligned with diplopore workpiece H, Fig. 4 be twin shaft workpiece P move down and with
Position view when the H contacts of diplopore workpiece, Fig. 5 are schematic diagrames when twin shaft workpiece P and diplopore workpiece H is assembled completely；
Fig. 6 is the transformational relation signal of each coordinate system in the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention
Figure；
Fig. 7 is the control stream of the incremental P control methods in the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention
Cheng Tu；
Fig. 8 is the control flow of the impedance adjustment in the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention
Figure.
Wherein, the reference numerals are as follows：
W pedestal P1 axis
T mechanical arm P2 connecting plates
M laser tracking measurement instrument H diplopore workpiece
The holes sensor H1
C upper computer control system H2 bottom plates
P twin shaft workpiece
Specific implementation mode
It is described in detail Doubleshaftandhole assembly system and its control method according to the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Illustrate the Doubleshaftandhole assembly system of first aspect present invention first.
Referring to Fig.1, Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention is wrapped for twin shaft workpiece P to be assemblied in diplopore workpiece H
It includes：Pedestal W；Mechanical arm T (interior to be equipped with selfcalibration program), is fixed on pedestal W and is fixedly connected with twin shaft workpiece P；Laser tracks
Measuring instrument M measures the pose of twin shaft workpiece P, diplopore workpiece H and mechanical arm tail end T1；Sensor S, senses Doubleshaftandhole in real time
Contact force in assembling process between each axis P1 and the corresponding aperture H1 of diplopore workpiece H of twin shaft workpiece P and contact torque；On and
Position machine control system C, is electrically connected to mechanical arm T, and be communicatively coupled to sensor S and receiving sensor S transport contact force and
The data of torque are contacted to move with real time management mechanical arm T.
In Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, upper computer control system C is based on the selfcalibration inside mechanical arm T
The pose for twin shaft workpiece P, diplopore workpiece H and the mechanical arm tail end T1 that program, laser tracking measurement instrument M are measured is completed double
The preliminary alignment of shaftlike work P and diplopore workpiece H, and be based further on the communication partner of sensor S with real time management mechanical arm T
Movement, and then the assembly of twin shaft workpiece P and diplopore workpiece H are completed, assembly precision is high, and stability is good, applied widely.
In Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, twin shaft workpiece P is connected including two axis P1 with by two axis P1
The connecting plate P2 being integrated.Twin shaft workpiece P can be rigid workpiece or flexible workpiece.
In Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, diplopore workpiece H includes two hole H1 and is used to that two holes to be arranged
The bottom plate H2 of H1.Diplopore workpiece H can be rigid workpiece or flexible workpiece.
It remarks additionally herein, the pose of mechanical arm tail end T1 refers specifically to mechanical arm tail end T1 in the present invention
Center position coordinates.The position of diplopore workpiece H should be within the motion range of mechanical arm tail end T1.
Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, in one embodiment, sensor S can be force snesor.
Secondly the control method of the Doubleshaftandhole assembly system of explanation according to a second aspect of the present invention.
With reference to Fig. 2 to Fig. 8, the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system is used to control the twin shaft described in first aspect present invention
Hole assembly system, including step S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6.
S1, with reference to Fig. 6, determine twin shaft workpiece P mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system transition matrix T_{t} ^{p}, diplopore workpiece H
In the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate systemAnd twin shaft workpiece P is in the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate systemPacket
Include step：S11 under laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system, measures two in twin shaft workpiece P using laser tracking measurement instrument M
The threedimensional coordinate in the bottom surface center of circle of axis P1 is respectively (X_{plm}, Y_{plm}, Z_{plm})、(X_{prm}, Y_{prm}, Z_{prm}), the normal vector of twin shaft bottom surface is
(X_{pnm}, Y_{pnm}, Z_{pnm}), the threedimensional coordinate in the diplopore top surface center of circle of diplopore workpiece H is respectively (X_{hlm}, Y_{hlm}, Z_{hlm})、(X_{hrm}, Y_{hrm},
Z_{hrm}), the normal vector of diplopore top surface is (X_{hnm}, Y_{hnm}, Z_{hnm}), the threedimensional coordinate at the center of mechanical arm tail end T1 is (X_{tm}, Y_{tm},
Z_{tm})；S12 establishes biaxial coordinates system and diplopore coordinate system, and calculates laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to biaxial coordinates system
Transition matrixWith laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to the transition matrix of diplopore coordinate systemS13, mechanical arm T are read automatically
Take threedimensional coordinate (X of the center of mechanical arm tail end T1 under mechanical arm base coordinate system_{tw}, Y_{tw}, Z_{tw}) and Eulerian angles (EX, EY,
EZ), and calculate mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system transition matrixAnd laser tracking measurement
Transition matrix of the instrument coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemS14 is acquired according to step S12It is asked with S13
WithRespectively obtain T_{t} ^{p}、WithExpression formula, i.e.,：
Wherein,ForInverse matrix,ForInverse matrix.
It remarks additionally herein, " mechanical arm T is read (the selfcalibration program based on inside setting) automatically " belongs to machine
Tool arm T carries function, belongs to common knowledge.
S2, upper computer control system C initialization, check all the sensors S whether work normally and sensor S with it is upper
It whether normally to be communicated between machine control system C, and back to zero calibration is carried out to sensor S.
S3 manipulates mechanical arm T to adjust the relative position of axis hole, including step in real time by upper computer control system C
S31, S32 and S33.
S31, mechanical arm T is so that biaxial coordinates system and diplopore coordinate system are tentatively aligned (the i.e. origin of biaxial coordinates system for adjustment
With the line of the origin of diplopore coordinate system perpendicular to diplopore top surface), can be at this time reference with mechanical arm base coordinate system, then
In in addition to biaxial coordinates system origin Z coordinate value withIn diplopore coordinate system origin Z coordinate value it is unequal except,WithIn other values be equal.Conversion square of the alignment front mechanical arm distal center coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system
Battle array beTransition matrix of the twin shaft workpiece P coordinate systems to mechanical arm base coordinate systemEnable the machinery after adjusted alignment
The transition matrix of arm distal center coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system isTwin shaft workpiece P after adjusted alignment is sat
Mark system is to the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate system
S32, according in S31Initial value, calculate adjustment afterIf before and after adjustment alignment
The transformation matrices of biaxial coordinates system to the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate system are dT, mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to machine
The transformation matrices of the transition matrix of tool arm base coordinate system are dT2, and calculating process is：
Wherein,For T_{t} ^{p}Inverse matrix,ForInverse matrix.
Remark additionally herein, twin shaft workpiece P and diplopore workpiece H collide in order to prevent, biaxial coordinates system and
Diplopore coordinate system will not move down always in preliminary alignment operation, i.e.,Wherein,It indicatesIn
The third line the 4th arrange value (i.e. alignment adjustment before biaxial coordinates system origin Z coordinate value),It indicatesIn
The third line the 4th arrange value (i.e. alignment adjustment after biaxial coordinates system origin Z coordinate value).
S33, according to what is obtained in S32The center for calculating mechanical arm tail end T1 after adjusting is sat in mechanical arm pedestal
Threedimensional coordinate (X in mark system_{tw2}, Y_{tw2}, Z_{tw2}) and Eulerian angles (EX2, EY2, EZ2), solution formula be：
The threedimensional coordinate that the center of mechanical arm tail end T1 is adjusted to obtain in step S33 is by S4, upper computer control system C
(X_{tw2}, Y_{tw2}, Z_{tw2}), Eulerian angles be (EX2, EY2, EZ2) pose, complete axis hole alignment (as shown in Figure 3).
S5, with reference to Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 7, upper computer control system C is using incremental P control methods and is based on twin shaft workpiece P
Position feedback and biaxial coordinates system origin Z coordinate value and diplopore coordinate origin Z coordinate value size of the difference manipulate machine
Tool arm T movement so that twin shaft workpiece P be vertically lowered, gradually it is close with diplopore workpiece H, until contacting (as shown in Figure 4), at this time
Z coordinate value of the origin of biaxial coordinates system under mechanical arm base coordinate system is Z_{0}(being preset as 100mm).
S6, with reference to Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 8, upper computer control system C is using impedance adjustment and realtime based on sensor S
Contact force in the Doubleshaftandhole assembling process sensed between each axis P1 and the corresponding aperture H1 of diplopore workpiece H of twin shaft workpiece P with
And contact torque manipulates mechanical arm T movements, so that twin shaft workpiece P continues to decline until fully mated with diplopore workpiece H.
The control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention can be connected in step s 12 with the twin shaft bottom surface center of circle
The center of line is origin, line Y_{p}Axis, twin shaft workpiece (P) connecting plate (P2) normal vector be Z_{p}Axis, by Y_{p}Multiplication cross Z_{p}Axis
Obtain X_{p}Axis establishes biaxial coordinates system (as shown in Figure 1), and the origin that laser tracking measurement instrument M measures biaxial coordinates system is used in combination to swash
Threedimensional coordinate O under light tracking measurement instrument coordinate system_{p}, then the transformational relation of laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system and biaxial coordinates system
It is as follows：
It can be using the center of diplopore top surface circle center line connecting as origin, line Y_{h}The normal direction of plane where axis, diplopore top surface
Amount is Z_{h}Axis, by Y_{h}Multiplication cross Z_{h}Axis obtains X_{h}Axis establishes diplopore coordinate system (as shown in Figure 1), and laser tracking measurement instrument M is used in combination to measure
Threedimensional coordinate O of the origin of diplopore coordinate system under laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system_{h}, then laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system with
The transformational relation of diplopore coordinate system is as follows：
In step s 13, transition matrix of the mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemCalculating
Formula is：
Transition matrix of the laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemCalculation formula be：
That is,
The control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention is arranged in upper computer control system C in step s 5
The contact force threshold for having vertical direction, it is upper after the contact force when twin shaft workpiece P and diplopore workpiece H is contacted reaches the threshold value
Machine control system C control twin shaft workpiece P stops declining.The threshold value for the contact force being arranged in usual upper computer control system C can be
1N~3N, but not only limit in this way, the threshold value of the contact force can be according to the different degrees of flexibility of twin shaft workpiece P and diplopore workpiece H
(or rigidity) is suitably adjusted.
The control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, in step s 5, with reference to Fig. 7, incremental P controlling parties
The algorithm of method is：
P1, transition matrix of the mechanical arm base coordinate system to biaxial coordinates system during calculating kth time recyclesAnd it is double at this time
The difference of the Z coordinate value of axis coordinate system origin and the Z coordinate value of diplopore coordinate origin, i.e.,：
Wherein,Indicate the Z coordinate value of the origin of diplopore coordinate system,Indicate the origin of biaxial coordinates system
Z coordinate value；
P2, the amount of moving down of biaxial coordinates system origin is dZ during kth time recycles_{k}, since incremental P controls are that ratio controls,
Then dZ_{k}=K_{p}e_{zk}, calculate the threedimensional coordinate (X at the center of mechanical arm tail end T1 in+1 cycle of kth_{tw(k+1)}, Y_{tw(k+1)},
Z_{tw(k+1)}), i.e.,：
(X_{tw(k+1)},Y_{tw(k+1)},Z_{tw(k+1)})=(X_{twk},Y_{twk},Z_{twk}+dZ_{k})
Wherein K_{p}It indicates scale factor, and is a constant.
It remarks additionally herein, the control process of incremental P control methods is：Kth time cycle is measured into obtained Z
(k) value and Z_{0}Value is (abovementioned to have set Z_{0}=100mm) it is compared, when Z (k) values are more than Z_{0}When, illustrate that axis P1 is not moved down also at this time
To designated position, therefore site error e_{zk}For negative value, at this time multiplied by with Proportional coefficient K_{p}Obtained positional increment dZ_{k}Also it is negative
Value, axis P1 will continue to decline (otherwise explanation moves down excessively, and positional increment is just just that axis P1 will be shifted up) and then carry out kth
+ 1 cycle.Wherein, k round numbers.
In one embodiment, K_{p}=0.9.
The control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, during incremental P control loops, when twin shaft is sat
Difference (the i.e. dZ of the Z coordinate value of mark system origin and the Z coordinate value of diplopore coordinate origin_{k}=Z_{tw(k+1)}Z_{twk}) it is less than 0.001mm
When, cycle stops.
The control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to the present invention, in step s 6, with reference to Fig. 8, impedance adjustment
Algorithm be：
K1, setting relevant parameter (parameter can be adjusted with the specific experiment of operator), K_{p}=0.02, K_{d}=
0.002, K_{v}=5, [F_{x0},F_{y0},F_{z0}]=[5,10,20] (N), [M_{x0},M_{y0},M_{z0}]=[0,0,0] ((Nm), Z_{C}=5mm,
Middle K_{p}For the scale factor in impedance control, K_{d}For the differential parameter in impedance control, K_{v}For the damping ginseng in resistance impedance control
Number, [F_{x0},F_{y0},F_{z0}] it is contact force reference value, [M_{x0},M_{y0},M_{z0}] it is contact torque reference value, Z_{C}For in mechanical arm tail end T1
The total amount of moving down of the Z coordinate of the heart；
K2 is respectively [F by the collected contact forces of force snesor S and contact torque in kth time cycle_{xk},F_{yk},
F_{zk}]、[M_{xk},M_{yk},M_{zk}], i.e.,：
F_{k}=[F_{xk},F_{yk},F_{zk},M_{xk},M_{yk},M_{zk}]
dF_{k}=[F_{x0}F_{xk},F_{y0}F_{yk},F_{z0}F_{zk},M_{x0}M_{xk},M_{y0}M_{yk},M_{z0}M_{zk}]
Wherein, F_{k}For the sixdimensional force that contact force in kth time cycle and contact torque are constituted, dF_{k}Join for contact force and contact force
Examine the difference of value and the sixdimensional force of contact torque and the difference composition for contacting torque reference value；
K3 is calculated in kth time cycle and is needed the pose adjusted, i.e. the origin translation amount of mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system
(dX_{k},dY_{k},dZ_{k}) and each reference axis amount of spin, calculation formula is：
Wherein, dX_{k}Translational movement, dY of the origin of mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system in Xdirection in being recycled for kth time_{k}It is
Translational movement, the dZ of the origin of mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system in the Y direction in k cycle_{k}For mechanical arm tail end in kth time cycle
Translational movement, d θ of the origin of centre coordinate system in Zdirection_{xk}Be in kth time cycle mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system around Xcoordinate axle
Amount of spin, d θ_{yk}For amount of spin, d θ of the mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system around Ycoordinate axle in kth time cycle_{zk}It is followed for kth time
Mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system is around the amount of spin of Z coordinate axis, dX in ring_{k1}It is sat for mechanical arm tail end center in 1 cycle of kth
Mark translational movement, dY of the origin of system in Xdirection_{k1}For mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system in the cycle of kth 1 time origin in the side Y
To translational movement, dZ_{k1}For mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system in the cycle of kth 1 time origin in the translational movement of Zdirection, dF_{k}For
The 6 DOF that the difference and contact torque of contact force and contact force reference value are constituted with the difference for contacting torque reference value in kth time cycle
Power, dF_{k1}For the difference and contact torque and contact torque reference value of contact force in 1 cycle of kth and contact force reference value
The sixdimensional force that difference is constituted, dF_{k2}For contact force in the cycle of kth 2 times and contact force reference value difference and contact torque and contact
The sixdimensional force that the difference of torque reference value is constituted, V_{Zk}Twin shaft workpiece P's moves down speed in being recycled for kth time.dF_{k}(1) it is dF_{k}Expression
First value in formula, dF_{k}(2) it is dF_{k}Second value in expression formula, dF_{k}(3)、dF_{k}(4)、dF_{k}(5)、dF_{k}(6) class successively
It pushes away.Similarly, dF_{k1}(1) it is dF_{k1}First value in expression formula, dF_{k2}(1) it is dF_{k2}First value in expression formula, successively
Analogize.
K4, according to the dX obtained in K3_{k}、dY_{k}、dZ_{k}、dθ_{xk}、dθ_{yk}、dθ_{zk}, the original of calculating machine arm distal center coordinate system
Point needs the transformation matrix dT adjusted_{kpos}And each reference axis needs the transformation matrix dT adjusted_{kx}、dT_{ky}、dT_{kz}, calculation formula
For：
K5, according to the dT obtained in K4_{kx}、dT_{ky}、dT_{kz}, calculating machine arm distal center coordinate system needs total change for adjusting
Change matrix dT_{k}, and transformation after mechanical arm base coordinate system to mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system transition matrixMeter
Calculating formula is：
dT_{k}=dT_{kx} dT_{ky} dT_{kz} dT_{kpos}
K6 calculates separately the center of the mechanical arm tail end T1 after cycle adjustment every time according to the calculating formula provided in K2K5
Pose, until the center of mechanical arm tail end T1 Z coordinate always the amount of moving down close to setting Z_{C}Value (Z in this step_{C}=5mm).
It remarks additionally herein, the Z in Fig. 8_{k}(T1) it is mechanical arm T is read out automatically when kth recycles machine
The Z coordinate value at the center of tool arm end T1, dZ_{k}(T1) it is the amount of moving down at the center of mechanical arm tail end T1 in kth time cycle.Its
In, in impedance control, because contact force direction is negative, as the contact force F measured in kth time cycle_{k}It is absolute
Reference load F of the value less than setting_{0}Absolute value when, the contact force error dF that calculates at this time_{k}For negative value, contact force error dF_{k}
It is multiplied by scale factor K_{p}The Z coordinate increment dZ obtained afterwards_{k}(T1) also it is negative value, illustrates at this time without card resistance, twin shaft workpiece P can be with
Continue to decline (obtained Z coordinate increment dZ on the contrary_{k}(T1) it is positive value, illustrates that axis P1 is stuck at this time, needs extraction a bit, axis
P1 is just moved up) and+1 cycle of kth is then carried out, until the Z coordinate always close setting of the amount of moving down at the center of mechanical arm tail end T1
Z_{C}Value, cycle stop.Wherein, k round numbers.
K7 changes the relevant parameter in K1, i.e. contact force reference value is [F_{x},F_{y},F_{z}]=[0,0,50] (N), contact torque
Reference value is [M_{x},M_{y},M_{z}]=[0,0,0] (Nm), the total amount of the moving down Z of Z coordinate_{C}=100mm continues according to being provided in K2K5
Calculating formula calculate every time cycle adjustment after mechanical arm tail end T1 center pose, until the center of mechanical arm tail end T1
Z coordinate always the amount of moving down close to setting Z_{C}Value (Z in this step_{C}=100mm).
Claims (6)
1. a kind of control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system, Doubleshaftandhole assembly system is used to twin shaft workpiece (P) being assemblied in diplopore
In workpiece (H), the Doubleshaftandhole assembly system includes：
Pedestal (W)；
Mechanical arm (T) is fixed on pedestal (W) and is fixedly connected with twin shaft workpiece (P)；
Laser tracking measurement instrument (M) measures the pose of twin shaft workpiece (P), diplopore workpiece (H) and mechanical arm tail end (T1)；
Sensor (S) senses the phase of each axis (P1) and diplopore workpiece (H) of twin shaft workpiece (P) in Doubleshaftandhole assembling process in real time
Answer the contact force and contact torque between hole (H1)；And
Upper computer control system (C) is electrically connected to mechanical arm (T), and is communicatively coupled to sensor (S) and receiving sensor (S)
The contact force of transmission and the data of contact torque are moved with real time management mechanical arm (T)；
Twin shaft workpiece (P) includes two axis (P1) and the connecting plate (P2) for being connected as one two axis (P1)；
Twin shaft workpiece (P) is rigid workpiece or flexible workpiece；
Diplopore workpiece (H) includes two holes (H1) and the bottom plate (H2) for two holes (H1) to be arranged；
Diplopore workpiece (H) is rigid workpiece or flexible workpiece；
Sensor (S) is force snesor；
The control method of the Doubleshaftandhole assembly system includes step：
S1, determine twin shaft workpiece (P) mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system transition matrix T_{t} ^{p}, diplopore workpiece (H) is in mechanical arm
The transition matrix of base coordinate systemAnd twin shaft workpiece (P) is in the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate systemIncluding step
Suddenly：
S11 measures the twin shaft of twin shaft workpiece (P) using laser tracking measurement instrument (M) under laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system
The threedimensional coordinate in the bottom surface center of circle is respectively (X_{plm}, Y_{plm}, Z_{plm})、(X_{prm}, Y_{prm}, Z_{prm}), the normal vector of twin shaft bottom surface is (X_{pnm},
Y_{pnm}, Z_{pnm}), the threedimensional coordinate in the diplopore top surface center of circle of diplopore workpiece (H) is respectively (X_{hlm}, Y_{hlm}, Z_{hlm})、(X_{hrm}, Y_{hrm},
Z_{hrm}), the normal vector of diplopore top surface is (X_{hnm}, Y_{hnm}, Z_{hnm}), the threedimensional coordinate at the center of mechanical arm tail end (T1) is (X_{tm}, Y_{tm},
Z_{tm})；
S12 establishes biaxial coordinates system and diplopore coordinate system, and calculates laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to biaxial coordinates system
Transition matrixWith laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to the transition matrix of diplopore coordinate system
S13, mechanical arm (T) read threedimensional coordinate of the center of mechanical arm tail end (T1) under mechanical arm base coordinate system automatically
(X_{tw}, Y_{tw}, Z_{tw}) and Eulerian angles (EX, EY, EZ), and mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system is calculated to mechanical arm base coordinate system
Transition matrixWith laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate system
S14 is acquired according to step S12It is acquired with S13WithRespectively obtain T_{t} ^{p}、WithTable
Up to formula, i.e.,：
S2, upper computer control system (C) initialization, check all the sensors (S) whether work normally and sensor (S) with it is upper
It whether normally to be communicated between position machine control system (C), and back to zero calibration is carried out to sensor (S)；
S3 manipulates mechanical arm (T) to adjust the relative position of axis hole, including step in real time by upper computer control system (C)：
S31, adjustment mechanical arm (T) is so that biaxial coordinates system and diplopore coordinate system are tentatively aligned, at this timeWithIn in addition to correspondence
Other values are equal except the Z coordinate value of origin is unequal, alignment front mechanical arm distal center coordinate system to mechanical arm pedestal seat
Marking the transition matrix for being isTransition matrix of twin shaft workpiece (P) coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemIt enables adjusted
The transition matrix of mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system after alignment isAdjusted alignment
The transition matrix of twin shaft workpiece (P) coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate system afterwards is
S32, according in S31Initial value, calculate adjustment afterIf the front and back twin shaft of adjustment alignment
The transformation matrices of coordinate system to the transition matrix of mechanical arm base coordinate system are dT, mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to mechanical arm
The transformation matrices of the transition matrix of base coordinate system are dT2, and calculating process is：
S33, according to what is obtained in S32The center of mechanical arm tail end (T1) after adjusting is calculated in mechanical arm base coordinate system
In threedimensional coordinate (X_{tw2}, Y_{tw2}, Z_{tw2}) and Eulerian angles (EX2, EY2, EZ2), solution formula be：
The threedimensional coordinate that the center of mechanical arm tail end (T1) is adjusted to obtain in step S33 is by S4, upper computer control system (C)
(X_{tw2}, Y_{tw2}, Z_{tw2}), Eulerian angles be (EX2, EY2, EZ2) pose, complete axis hole alignment；
S5, upper computer control system (C) is using incremental P control methods and based on the position feedback and twin shaft of twin shaft workpiece (P)
The size of the difference of the Z coordinate value of coordinate origin and the Z coordinate value of diplopore coordinate origin manipulates mechanical arm (T) and moves, so that
Twin shaft workpiece (P) is vertically lowered, gradually it is close with diplopore workpiece (H), until contacting；
S6, the Doubleshaftandhole assembly that upper computer control system (C) is sensed in real time using impedance adjustment and based on sensor (S)
Contact force between each axis (P1) of twin shaft workpiece (P) and the corresponding aperture (H1) of diplopore workpiece (H) and contact torque in the process
It manipulates mechanical arm (T) to move, so that twin shaft workpiece (P) continues to decline until fully mated with diplopore workpiece (H).
2. the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in step s 12,
Using the center of twin shaft bottom surface circle center line connecting as origin, line Y_{p}Axis, twin shaft workpiece (P) connecting plate (P2) normal vector
For Z_{p}Axis, by Y_{p}Multiplication cross Z_{p}Axis obtains X_{p}Axis establishes biaxial coordinates system, and laser tracking measurement instrument (M) is used in combination to measure biaxial coordinates system
Threedimensional coordinate O of the origin under laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system_{p}, laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system and biaxial coordinates system
Transformational relation is as follows：
Using the center of diplopore top surface circle center line connecting as origin, line Y_{h}The normal vector of plane where axis, diplopore top surface is Z_{h}Axis,
By Y_{h}Multiplication cross Z_{h}Axis obtains X_{h}Axis establishes diplopore coordinate system, and the origin that laser tracking measurement instrument (M) measures diplopore coordinate system is used in combination to exist
Threedimensional coordinate O under laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system_{h}, the transformational relation of laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system and diplopore coordinate system
It is as follows：
In step s 13, transition matrix of the mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemCalculation formula
For：
Transition matrix of the laser tracking measurement instrument coordinate system to mechanical arm base coordinate systemCalculation formula be：
3. the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in step s 5, upper
The contact force threshold of vertical direction is provided in machine control system (C), when twin shaft workpiece (P) and diplopore workpiece (H) contact
After contact force reaches the threshold value, upper computer control system (C) controls twin shaft workpiece (P) and stops declining.
4. the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in step s 5, increment
The algorithm of type P control methods is：
P1, transition matrix of mechanical arm (T) base coordinate system to biaxial coordinates system during calculating kth time recyclesAnd twin shaft at this time
The difference of the Z coordinate value of coordinate origin and the Z coordinate value of diplopore coordinate origin, i.e.,：
Wherein,Indicate the Z coordinate value of the origin of hole coordinate system,Indicate the Z coordinate value of the origin of axis coordinate system；
P2, the amount of moving down of biaxial coordinates system origin is dZ during kth time recycles_{k}, controlled for ratio since incremental P controls, then dZ_{k}
=K_{p}e_{zk}, calculate the threedimensional coordinate (X at the center of mechanical arm tail end (T1) in+1 cycle of kth_{tw(k+1)}, Y_{tw(k+1)}, Z_{tw(k+1)}),
I.e.：
(X_{tw(k+1)},Y_{tw(k+1)},Z_{tw(k+1)})=(X_{twk},Y_{twk},Z_{twk}+dZ_{k})
Wherein K_{p}It indicates scale factor, and is a constant.
5. the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to claim 4, which is characterized in that followed in incremental P controls
During ring, when the difference of the Z coordinate value of the Z coordinate value and diplopore coordinate origin of biaxial coordinates system origin is less than 0.001mm
When, cycle stops.
6. the control method of Doubleshaftandhole assembly system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in step s 6, impedance
The algorithm of control method is：
Relevant parameter, K is arranged in K1_{p}=0.02, K_{d}=0.002, K_{v}=5, [F_{x0},F_{y0},F_{z0}]=[5,10,20] (N), [M_{x0},M_{y0},
M_{z0}]=[0,0,0] ((Nm), Z_{C}=5mm, wherein K_{p}For the scale factor in impedance control, K_{d}For the differential in impedance control
Parameter, K_{v}For the damping parameter in resistance impedance control, [F_{x0},F_{y0},F_{z0}] it is contact force reference value, [M_{x0},M_{y0},M_{z0}] it is contact force
Square reference value, Z_{C}For the total amount of moving down of Z coordinate at the center of mechanical arm tail end T1；
K2 is respectively [F by sensor (S) collected contact force and contact torque in kth time cycle_{xk},F_{yk},F_{zk}]、
[M_{xk},M_{yk},M_{zk}], i.e.,：
F_{k}=[F_{xk},F_{yk},F_{zk},M_{xk},M_{yk},M_{zk}]
dF_{k}=[F_{x0}F_{xk},F_{y0}F_{yk},F_{z0}F_{zk},M_{x0}M_{xk},M_{y0}M_{yk},M_{z0}M_{zk}],
Wherein, F_{k}For the sixdimensional force that contact force in kth time cycle and contact torque are constituted, dF_{k}For contact force and contact force reference value
Difference and contact torque with contact torque reference value difference constitute sixdimensional force；
K3 is calculated in kth time cycle and is needed the pose adjusted, i.e. the origin translation amount (dX of mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system_{k},
dY_{k},dZ_{k}) and each reference axis amount of spin, calculation formula is：
Wherein, dX_{k}Translational movement, dY of the origin at mechanical arm tail end center in Xdirection in being recycled for kth time_{k}For in kth time cycle
Translational movement, the dZ of the origin at mechanical arm tail end center in the Y direction_{k}The origin at mechanical arm tail end center is in the side Z in being recycled for kth time
To translational movement, d θ_{xk}For amount of spin, d θ of the mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system around Xcoordinate axle in kth time cycle_{yk}For kth time
Amount of spin, d θ of the mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system around Ycoordinate axle in cycle_{zk}It is sat for mechanical arm tail end center in kth time cycle
Mark system is around the amount of spin of Z coordinate axis, dX_{k1}For mechanical arm tail end center in the cycle of kth 1 time origin Xdirection translational movement,
dY_{k1}For the origin translational movement in the Y direction at mechanical arm tail end center in the cycle of kth 1 time, dZ_{k1}For machine in 1 cycle of kth
The origin of tool arm distal center is in the translational movement of Zdirection, dF_{k1}For the difference of contact force and contact force reference value in 1 cycle of kth
And the sixdimensional force that contact torque is constituted with the difference for contacting torque reference value, dF_{k2}For contact force in the cycle of kth 2 times with contact
The sixdimensional force that the difference and contact torque of power reference value are constituted with the difference for contacting torque reference value, dF_{k}(1) it is dF_{k}In expression formula
First value, dF_{k}(2) it is dF_{k}Second value in expression formula, dF_{k}(3)、dF_{k}(4)、dF_{k}(5)、dF_{k}(6) and so on, together
Reason, dF_{k1}(1) it is dF_{k1}First value in expression formula, dF_{k2}(1) it is dF_{k2}First value in expression formula, and so on；
K4, according to the dX obtained in K3_{k}、dY_{k}、dZ_{k}、dθ_{xk}、dθ_{yk}、dθ_{zk}, the origin of calculating machine arm distal center coordinate system need to
The transformation matrix dT to be adjusted_{kpos}And each reference axis needs the transformation matrix dT adjusted_{kx}、dT_{ky}、dT_{kz}, calculation formula is：
K5, according to the dT obtained in K4_{kx}、dT_{ky}、dT_{kz}, calculating machine arm distal center coordinate system needs total transformation square for adjusting
Battle array dT_{k}, and transformation after mechanical arm base coordinate system to mechanical arm tail end centre coordinate system transition matrixIt calculates public
Formula is：
dT_{k}=dT_{kx}dT_{ky}dT_{kz}dT_{kpos}
K6 calculates separately the center of the mechanical arm tail end (T1) after cycle adjustment every time according to the calculating formula provided in K2K5
Pose, until the Z of the Z coordinate always close setting of the amount of moving down at the center of mechanical arm tail end (T1)_{C}Value；
K7 changes the relevant parameter in K1, i.e. contact force reference value is [F_{x},F_{y},F_{z}]=[0,0,50] (N), contact torque reference
Value is [M_{x},M_{y},M_{z}]=[0,0,0] (Nm), the total amount of the moving down Z of Z coordinate_{C}=100mm continues according to the meter provided in K2K5
Formula calculates the pose at the center of the mechanical arm tail end (T1) after cycle adjustment every time, until in mechanical arm tail end (T1)
The Z of the Z coordinate of the heart always close setting of the amount of moving down_{C}Value.
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