CN106092479B - Slab and girder load identifies and the multi-function test stand of non-destructive tests - Google Patents

Slab and girder load identifies and the multi-function test stand of non-destructive tests Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106092479B
CN106092479B CN201610609054.7A CN201610609054A CN106092479B CN 106092479 B CN106092479 B CN 106092479B CN 201610609054 A CN201610609054 A CN 201610609054A CN 106092479 B CN106092479 B CN 106092479B
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China
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vibrator
slab
destructive tests
steel wire
function test
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CN201610609054.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106092479A (en
Inventor
缪炳荣
杨忠坤
李旭娟
王名月
史艳民
陈翔宇
周凤
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西南交通大学
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M7/00Vibration-testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures
    • G01M7/02Vibration-testing by means of a shake table

Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests, including T-slot platform, support device, mobile lifting tables, support device includes support post, the bottom of support post is mounted on T-slot platform, support post has 4, two row arrangement of two rows, mobile lifting tables are removably mounted on T-slot platform, the top surface of mobile lifting tables is equipped with vibrator A.The present invention can be used for plate, the load identification of girder construction sample and Study on Damage Identification simultaneously, or the theoretical application study of identification and the structure optimization etc. of Structure dynamic characteristics parameter provides basis.

Description

Slab and girder load identifies and the multi-function test stand of non-destructive tests

Technical field

The present invention relates to Structural Dynamics field more particularly to more work(of a kind of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests It can testing stand.

Background technology

Structural loads identify and non-destructive tests belong to the second class inverse problem research category in Structural Dynamics.

Load identification technology is also known as Load Reconstruction or load deconvolution.It is according to the dynamic characteristic of known structure and The dynamic response of actual measurement carrys out a special kind of skill of the dynamic load of reverse structure.Load identification is used as a kind of round-about way, is used for The load that calculates load in the presence of a harsh environment or cannot be directly acquired by sensor.In order to solve inverse identification problem, knot Structure model must be known.Under most of practical matters, load identifies that problem is ill, because of not every state Variable or primary condition are known.The concept of the dynamics problem of one good state meets the following conditions:1. solution is unique; 2. all there is the solution of global definition in all reasonable datas;3. solution continuously depends on given data (stable state criterion).Load identification is asked Inscribe relatively complicated, non-linear component, ill-condition equation influences, theoretical to be limited with the degree that is consistent of actual conditions etc., is allowed to Research is difficult to be increased, though proposing some feasible methods and theoretical system there are many scholar at present, but still is current one The research subject of a hot topic, lacks effective recognition methods and laboratory facilities.

Load identification problem is related to bearing the skyscraper of more complicated external dynamic load, wind turbine, and high speed arranges The structural vibration problem of vehicle and aircraft etc..Known structure characteristic is easy to measure dynamic response, but excitation load is but not easy really It is fixed, but it is strong for the dynamic response of former vibrational structure and new vibrational structure analysis calculating, dynamics Optimization Design and structure The problems such as health monitors, it is necessary to solve dynamic load.Dynamic state loading identification and non-destructive tests inverse problem are related to linear system reason By, well-posedness theory, numerical modeling emulation, dynamic testing method, Digital Signal Analysis and Processing, updating dynamic model, calculate reverse Multiple subjects such as method and factor, therefore proposed dynamic state loading identification and damage knowledge are only verified by numerical simulation example The feasibility and validity of other solution of inverse problems method are inadequate, it is necessary to be carried out further to it by the method for experiment Verification.Firstly, it is necessary to carry out mode experiment to test specimen, the result of mode experiment for the verification of numerical simulation model and is repaiied Just;Secondly, one group of structural response of test specimen under various loadings is tested, by the response data of this group experiment for suffered by test specimen Dynamic load and damage inverting identification.

With the continuous development of science and technology, project planner, must in order to ensure the reasonability and reliability of structure It need consider the external dynamic load that it is born, and it is correctly estimated.Although structural outer dynamic loading is difficult to directly Acquisition is measured, but the system response that structure generates under dynamic load incentive action (strains, displacement, speed, accelerates Degree) it can measure to obtain under normal circumstances, it is to have established certain test basis for Dynamic Load Identification technology.

The damage of structure first appears as the appearance and extension of crackle, and Crack Damage causes large and complex structure to destroy One of the main reasons.Since early stage initial fine crack is not easy to be found, it is easy to be ignored by people, but the deep extension of crackle is past Toward lead to major disaster sexual behavior thus generation, the fracture of such as aviation disaster, bridge caves in, the collapsing of ocean platform, Oil/Gas Pipe Fracture leakage of line etc., huge loss is caused to state and society.Therefore, monitor and indicate the position that infant cracking occurs With depth, prevent major accident, is an important research direction in non-destructive tests field.In recent years, structural crack damages The research of monitoring and recognition methods causes the extensive concern of domestic and foreign scholars, becomes engineering structure health diagnosis and security evaluation One of advanced subject of research.

Damage Assessment Method includes the content of four aspects:(1) judgement of existence is damaged;(2) construction damage positioning; (3) calibration and evaluation of structural damage degree;(4) remaining life is estimated.Calibration of the construction damage positioning than degree of injury is more held Easily realize.Damage reason location can meet monitors most basic needs in real time, if it is possible to be accurately judged to the position of damage, so that it may Further to measure injury severity score by traditional damage detection technology.Although ultrasonic wave, current vortex, magnetic powder, infrared identification The detection methods such as method achieve certain achievement in crack detection, but these methods are usually applicable only to the inspection to static object It surveys.Damnification recognition method based on structural vibration is commonly referred to as non-destructive tests (damage identification), belongs to structure Whole detection scope has non-destructive, easily and fast, inexpensively and be easy to online reality compared with the static detection method of part The advantages that existing, becomes structural damage detection and the indispensable important means of identification, have a good application prospect.As big The mostly important component units of type labyrinth, beam structure or component have in civil engineering structure extremely widely answers With the vibration analysis theory and damnification recognition method for studying the plate-girder class formation containing crackle are of great significance.

The physical quantity for being commonly used in non-destructive tests has intrinsic frequency, the displacement vibration shape, camber mode, strain mode, frequency response Function etc..Wherein intrinsic frequency can reflect the overall permanence of structure, it is convenient to measure, and can be shaken by any point in structure It is dynamic to obtain, and high certainty of measurement, low-frequency range error are generally less than 1%.Therefore the use of the damnification recognition method of intrinsic frequency is most It is practical, how the use of intrinsic frequency data identification of damage state to be always studying a question of being keen to of people.Due to intrinsic frequency It is not high enough to susceptibility to damage, while some are difficult for identification of damage position and severity, can first take identification of damage position, so The method of identification of damage degree again afterwards.

The general analysis method of damage includes:CRACKED BEAM recognition methods based on vibration, wherein what is be mainly used for is frequency With Mode Shape;And application of other intelligent algorithms in Identification of Cracks:Neural network algorithm, wavelet analysis method, heredity Algorithm etc..Main damage method has, the method for crack based on observing frequency.In application practice, changed based on frequency There is deficiencies for the recognition methods of ratio:Intrinsic frequency is not very sensitive to structure earlier damage, and stiffness injury is less than 60% slight damage is sometimes difficult to obtain correct recognition result;If damage position is in the low stress zones of structure, profit It will be unable to carry out non-destructive tests with the variation of intrinsic frequency;And it is required enough that measurement frequency is not enough to offer non-destructive tests Information is typically only capable to determine the presence of breakage, and can not determine damaged position and degree.(2) crackle based on the observation vibration shape Recognition methods.The vibration shape is more sensitive to the localized variation of structure, may be used to determine the possible damage position of structure.In vibration shape base On plinth, it is proposed that many other derivative damage criterions, as mode confidence standard surveys (MAC), modal scale factor (MSF), coordinate Mode confidence standard surveys (COMAC), coordinate modal scale factor (COMSF), Mode Shape curvature, Mode Shape curvature difference etc., this A little damage criterions can characterize the damage characteristic of structure.Such method faces problems with:The identification of the vibration shape is easy by noise Pollution, vibration shape variation caused by damaging usually are covered by these test errors;Actual observation Data of Mode there is endless Whole property;Although high order mode is more sensitive to damaging, it is difficult to accurately measure or even be unable to measure at all in Practical Project.

According to literature research, identified there is presently no the load that can be used for slab and girder sample simultaneously and non-destructive tests it is comprehensive Close test platform.

Invention content

The present invention is intended to provide a kind of multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests, can be used for simultaneously Slab and girder sample load identifies and non-destructive tests, or identification and structure optimization of Structure dynamic characteristics parameter etc. Theoretical application study provide basis.

In order to achieve the above objectives, realization that the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:

The multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests disclosed by the invention, including T-slot platform, branch Support arrangement, mobile lifting tables, the support device include support post, and the bottom of the support post is flat mounted on T-slot On platform, support post has 4, and two row arrangement of two rows, the mobile lifting tables are removably mounted on T-slot platform, are removable The top surface of dynamic lifting platform is equipped with vibrator A.

Further, the top surface of the vibrator A and mobile lifting tables is slidably matched.

Further, the top of the support post is equipped with air spring.

Further, beam sample holding device, same row is respectively set in the opposite flank of two support posts of same row Two support posts on two beam sample holding devices between be provided with traction steel wire, removable counterweight pedestal and be oriented to steel Silk, the traction steel wire are connected with removable counterweight pedestal, and the driving device of traction steel wire is motor, and traction steel wire level is set It sets, the both ends for being oriented to steel wire are separately connected two beam sample holding devices, the removable counterweight pedestal and guiding steel wire It is slidably matched, further includes vibrator B, the bottom of the vibrator B is adapted to T-slot platform.

Preferably, the beam sample holding device liftable, support post are used for the side of mounting rail sample holding device Indent.

Preferably, the size of the T-slot platform is 1500*1000*100mm, and material is 45# steel.

Further, the vibrator A, vibrator B are equipped with vibrator mounting base.

Further, the bottom of the support post, vibrator mounting base bottom be laid with vibration isolation material.

Preferably, the vibration isolation material includes marble.

Further, it the invention also includes multiple acceleration transducers for acquiring pumping signal and response signal and answers Stress-strain piece, the acceleration transducer and ess-strain piece are all connected with computer;The acceleration transducer and ess-strain Piece is arranged on test plate or test beam.

Beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows:

One, load identification, Study on Damage Identification, entire test platform structure can be carried out to structures such as plate-girders using the testing stand Simply, practical function is easily installed, practical.

When two, carrying out structure sample testing using the testing stand, integral plate, beam and damage plate, Liang Jie can be carried out at the same time The presence or absence of structure and different materials, different type of impairment damage plate, girder construction carry out comparative experiment and analysis.

Three, entire experimental bench system cost is relatively low, strong operability, is convenient for basic research.

Four, setting is optimized to sensor arrangement, obtained to structural loads identification and the most effective data of non-destructive tests.

Five, rack resonance effects is studied, theoretical and experiment basis is provided for Optimal Structure Designing.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of embodiment 1;

Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of embodiment 2;

In figure:1-T type grooves platform, 2- support posts, 3- air springs, 4- tests plate, 5- vibrators A, 6- are removable Lifting platform, 7- traction steel wires, 8- are oriented to steel wire, 9- tests beam, the removable counterweight pedestal of 10- vibrators B, 11-, 12- beam samples Clamping device.

Specific implementation mode

In order to make the purpose , technical scheme and advantage of the present invention be clearer, below in conjunction with attached drawing, to the present invention into Row is further described.

Embodiment 1

As shown in Figure 1, the present embodiment includes T-slot platform 1, support device, mobile lifting tables 6, T-slot platform 1 Size is 1500*1000*100mm, and material is 45# steel;Support device includes support post 2, and the top of support post 2 is equipped with sky The bottom of gas spring 3, support post 2 is mounted on T-slot platform 1, and support post 2 has 4, and two row arrangement of two rows moves 6 bottom of lifting platform is removably mounted on T-slot platform 1, and the top surface of mobile lifting tables 6 is equipped with vibrator A5, vibrator A5 It is slidably matched with the top surface of mobile lifting tables 6, vibrator A5 is equipped with vibrator mounting base;The bottom of support post, vibrator The bottom of mounting base is laid with vibration isolation material, and vibration isolation material includes marble.

The present embodiment further includes multiple acceleration transducer and ess-strain for acquiring pumping signal and response signal Piece, acceleration transducer and ess-strain piece are all connected with computer.

The present embodiment is suitable for the test of plate sample coupon, in use, test plate 4 is placed on air spring 3, it is multiple Acceleration transducer and ess-strain piece are distributed on test plate 4, in order to carry out structural loads identification and non-destructive tests, are needed Modal test, the natural frequency value of test structure, damping ratio, Mode Shape etc., analysis spectrum data and response are carried out first Time history provides basis for the research of platform system resonance effects and structure optimization.Secondly, it needs to vibrate slab and girder Response test acquires response time course signal, can be hammered into shape by power or vibrator provides dynamic load signal, signal generator hair Go out simple signal, exciting force is generated by power amplifier.It finally chooses different response measuring points and carries out load identification and damage Identification, the measured value of the load value of identification and force snesor is compared.Verify the natural frequency value and driving frequency of rack Value range avoids resonant frequency.

Processing for test data acquires the number passed back in acceleration transducer and foil gauge by data acquisition instrument According to computer stores data.And voltage signal is converted into corresponding acceleration signal, speed signal, displacement signal, stress letter Number or strain signal etc..Abnormal value elimination is carried out to experimental data simultaneously, eliminates trend term, is filtered, statistical analysis is sensitive Degree analysis and processing.The deployment scenarios of acceleration transducer and ess-strain piece for slab and girder subjects, due to plate Girder construction is all the structure of comparison rule, therefore more intensive acceleration can be arranged in the case where sensor model number allows Sensor and ess-strain piece.And as possible in the position of loaded load and location arrangements sensing as much as possible with damage Device and foil gauge.

Mobile lifting tables 6 can arbitrarily move on T-slot platform 1 in test process, realize vibrator A's thereon whereby It is mobile.

Embodiment 2

As shown in Fig. 2, the present embodiment and embodiment 1 difference lies in:

The mobile lifting tables 6 and vibrator A5 in embodiment 1 are removed, are increased with lower part:

Liftable beam sample holding device is respectively set in the opposite flank of the indent of two support posts 2 of same row 12, setting traction steel wire 7, removable counterweight between two beam sample holding devices 12 on two support posts 2 of same row Pedestal 11 and guiding steel wire 8, traction steel wire 7 are connected with removable counterweight pedestal 11, and traction steel wire 7 is driven using motor, is drawn Steel wire 7 is horizontally disposed, and the both ends for being oriented to steel wire 8 are separately connected above-mentioned two beam sample holding device 12, moves counterweight pedestal 11 are slidably matched with steel wire 8 is oriented to, and vibrator B10 is mounted on T-slot platform 1, and as needed, vibrator B10 can have more A, vibrator B10 is equipped with vibrator mounting base, and the bottom of vibrator mounting base is laid with vibration isolation material, and vibration isolation material includes big Reason stone.

The present embodiment is suitable for the test of beam sample coupon, in use, the both ends for testing beam 9 are connected to two beam examinations Sample clamping device 12, multiple acceleration transducers and ess-strain piece are arranged on test beam 9, and four support posts 2 support Two test beams 9, can be used for the contrast test of complete beam and the beam non-destructive tests for damaging beam and different materials.

The application for controlling the mobile load that motor speed is realized under friction speed, by removable counterweight pedestal 11 The counterweight of different quality is added to control loaded load size.The adjustable vibrator B10 in two positions can be placed under girder construction, with This applies sine sweep signal, linear frequency sweep, and sine determine the equal load signals of frequency, or can directly be hammered into shape as structure by modal forces Pulse shock load is provided;Carry out the acquisition of structural response data.

The processing of response data and embodiment 1 are similar, and so it will not be repeated.

Certainly, the present invention can also have other various embodiments, without deviating from the spirit and substance of the present invention, ripe Various corresponding change and deformations, but these corresponding change and deformations can be made according to the present invention by knowing those skilled in the art The protection domain of appended claims of the invention should all be belonged to.

Claims (7)

1. slab and girder load identifies and the multi-function test stand of non-destructive tests, it is characterised in that:Including T-slot platform, support Device, mobile lifting tables, the support device include support post, and the bottom of the support post is mounted on T-slot platform On, support post has 4, and two row arrangement of two rows, the mobile lifting tables are removably mounted on T-slot platform, are removable The top surface of lifting platform is equipped with vibrator A, the vibrator A and the top surface of mobile lifting tables is slidably matched, the support post Top be equipped with air spring, beam sample holding device is respectively set in the opposite flank of two support posts of same row, same Traction steel wire, removable counterweight pedestal and guiding are provided between two beam sample holding devices on two support posts of row Steel wire, the traction steel wire are connected with removable counterweight pedestal, and the driving device of traction steel wire is motor, and traction steel wire level is set It sets, the both ends for being oriented to steel wire are separately connected two beam sample holding devices, the removable counterweight pedestal and guiding steel wire It is slidably matched, further includes vibrator B, the bottom of the vibrator B is adapted to T-slot platform.
2. the multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: The beam sample holding device liftable, support post are used for the side indent of mounting rail sample holding device.
3. the multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: The size of the T-slot platform is 1500*1000*100mm, and material is 45# steel.
4. the multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: The vibrator A, vibrator B are equipped with vibrator mounting base.
5. the multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests according to claim 4, it is characterised in that: The bottom of the support post, the bottom of vibrator mounting base are laid with vibration isolation material.
6. the multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: The vibration isolation material includes marble.
7. the multi-function test stand of slab and girder load identification and non-destructive tests according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: Further include multiple acceleration transducers and ess-strain piece for acquiring pumping signal and response signal, the acceleration sensing Device and ess-strain piece are all connected with computer;The acceleration transducer and ess-strain piece are arranged in test plate or test Liang Shang.
CN201610609054.7A 2016-07-28 2016-07-28 Slab and girder load identifies and the multi-function test stand of non-destructive tests CN106092479B (en)

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