CN106002481A - Testing system and method for evaluating lead screw prestretching force and dynamic performance of feeding system - Google Patents

Testing system and method for evaluating lead screw prestretching force and dynamic performance of feeding system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106002481A
CN106002481A CN201610309535.6A CN201610309535A CN106002481A CN 106002481 A CN106002481 A CN 106002481A CN 201610309535 A CN201610309535 A CN 201610309535A CN 106002481 A CN106002481 A CN 106002481A
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China
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test
feed system
leading screw
shaft sleeve
workbench
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CN201610309535.6A
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CN106002481B (en
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丛郁楠
牛文铁
李宝宇
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Tianjin University
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Tianjin University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/007Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for managing machine functions not concerning the tool

Abstract

Provided are a testing system and method for evaluating lead screw prestretching force and dynamic performance of a feeding system. The testing system is provided with a motor arranged on a base, a lead screw connected with the motor through a coupler, a nut arranged on the lead screw, a workbench fixedly connected with the nut through a nut base at the bottom, a laser interference testing system, a modal testing system and a thermal feature testing system. A guide rail is arranged on the base through a guide rail supporting frame. The lead screw is positioned through a front bearing mechanism and a tail bearing mechanism, and the front bearing mechanism and the tail bearing mechanism are fixed to the base. The testing method includes the steps that an elastic shaft sleeve is calibrated through an elastic shaft sleeve calibration device, and a calibrated linear relation expression of the elastic shaft sleeve is obtained; and modal testing, motion performance index testing and thermal feature testing of the feeding system are carried out correspondingly under different axial prestretching forces of different gradients. According to the testing system and method, testing data are processed based on an evaluation index, the rule of influences of the prestretching force of the lead screw to the dynamic performance of the feeding system is analyzed, and the prestretching force state of the lead screw is evaluated comprehensively.

Description

Assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force dynamic performance testing system and method for testing
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of NC machine tool feed system dynamic performance testing system.Particularly relate to a kind of assessment feed system silk Thick stick prestretching force dynamic performance testing system and method for testing.
Background technology
In order to ensure machining accuracy and the efficiency of Digit Control Machine Tool, the dynamic property to feed system is needed to carry out on-line measurement.And In the case of feed system frame for movement and servo parameter give, feed system ball-screw prestretching force size becomes impact The principal element of its dynamic characteristic.In order to improve the rigidity of Ball-screw Drive Systems and compensate the change of leading screw heat to feed system location The impact of precision, generally to carry out prestretched, i.e. by completing the pretension of leading screw one end locking nut to ball-screw.Rolling Ballscrew prestretching force produces impact to feed system dynamic property, prestretching force cross conference cause leading screw bearing heating serious thus Affecting the life-span, the too small meeting of prestretching force causes system rigidity not enough, affects the positioning precision of feed system.Therefore for ball wire Thick stick prestretching force must reasonably be chosen.And in practical situations both, feed system ball-screw prestretching force state is commented Estimate and mainly rely on the experience of engineer to complete, lack corresponding quantizating index, cause the dynamic property of feed system not reach Optimum.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is to provide one and can complete leading screw prestretching force and feed system dynamic property Being used for of test data collection and process assesses feed system leading screw prestretching force dynamic performance testing system and method for testing.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is: a kind of dynamic performance testing system assessing feed system leading screw prestretching force, bag Include the base in NC machine tool feed system, the motor being arranged on base, by shaft coupling connect motor output shaft leading screw, Be arranged on leading screw can horizontal linear moves with the rotation of leading screw nut, fix attaching nut by the nut seat of bottom Workbench, described base is provided with the guide rail for guiding movable workbench by guide rail supporting frame, described leading screw divides Not front end Bearning mechanism and tail end Bearning mechanism by being fixed on base positions, and the workbench described in correspondence is respectively provided with Have: the laser interference test system of feed system exercise performance index during measuring working table movement, for measuring work Station applies the mould measurement system of feed system dynamic characteristic, the front end Bearning mechanism described in correspondence and tail end bearing machine during excitation Structure is provided with the performance test system of thermal characteristics during measuring guide screw movement, described laser interference test system, mould State test system and performance test system connect industrial computer respectively.
A kind of caliberating device of the dynamic performance testing system Elastic axle sleeve for assessing feed system leading screw prestretching force, including There is the staking-out work platform being formed with T-shaped groove, be bolted to the demarcation base on described staking-out work platform, institute by T-slot State and be disposed with locating clip lid and top cover from the bottom to top by studs on demarcation base, wherein, described locating clip lid and Demarcate between base for arranging the elastic shaft sleeve being calibrated, described elastic shaft sleeve is provided with foil gauge, the letter of described foil gauge Number outfan connects the signal input part testing signal gathering unit in static strain testing system, described test signal gathering unit Connect industrial computer, between described locating clip lid and top cover, be provided with the pressure transducer for gathering nominal pressure, described double end spiral shell Post upper end is threaded connection the force nut for applying nominal pressure, described demarcation base) on be additionally provided with for right Described locating clip lid and top cover carry out the lead guided.
Method of testing in a kind of dynamic performance testing system assessing feed system leading screw prestretching force, comprises the steps:
1) utilize the caliberating device of dynamic performance testing system Elastic axle sleeve of assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force to elastic shaft Pack into rower fixed, it is thus achieved that the demarcation linear relation F=a △ x+b of elastic shaft sleeve, wherein, a, b are coefficient to be calibrated, △ x Elastic shaft sleeve axial strain average, axial force suffered by F elastic shaft sleeve.At feed system ball-screw away from the pretension of motor one end Add the elastic shaft sleeve demarcated between the bearing inner race of nut and tail end Bearning mechanism, adjust pre-load nut and leading screw is applied by weight To four light axial prestretching forces of gradient, east China static strain testing system is utilized to gather four axial prestretching forces of different gradients Under elastic shaft sleeve axial strain data, demarcation linear relation F=a △ x+b based on elastic shaft sleeve, recycle MATLAB To strain testing system acquisition to elastic shaft sleeve axial deformation data process, obtain the axial prestretched of four different gradients Force data;
2) carry out feed system modal test test respectively under the axial prestretching force of different gradients, feed system exercise performance refers to Mapping examination and feed system thermal characteristics are tested.
The dynamic performance testing system of the assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force of the present invention and method of testing, it is possible to leading screw prestretching Stretch and feed system dynamic property are tested, collecting test data, and test data are processed by Utilization assessment index, point The analysis leading screw prestretching force affecting laws to feed system dynamic property, comprehensive assessment leading screw prestretching force state.
The assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force dynamic performance testing system of this and method of testing, bright can survey rapidly and accurately The size of amount leading screw prestretching force, comprehensive feed system modal test, exercise performance index test and thermal characteristic measurement result, Fully and effectively leading screw prestretching force state and feed system dynamic property are estimated, are used for instructing engineer to feed system Ball-screw carry out rational prestretched, improve the processing characteristics of Digit Control Machine Tool.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation that the present invention assesses feed system leading screw prestretching force dynamic performance testing system;
Fig. 2 is leading screw prestretching force test structural representation in the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the caliberating device perspective view testing system Elastic axle sleeve for the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the caliberating device front view testing system Elastic axle sleeve for the present invention.
In figure
1: base 2: motor
3: shaft coupling 4: front end Bearning mechanism
5: leading screw 6: nut
7: guide rail 8: workbench
9: power hammer 10: vibrator
11: acceleration transducer 12: laser instrument
13: interferoscope 14: reflecting mirror
15: temperature sensor 16: eddy current displacement sensor
17: industrial computer 18: bearing block
19: internal axle sleeve 20: elastic shaft sleeve
21: pre-load nut 22: back-up ring
23: foil gauge 24: end cap
25: location nut 26: tail end Bearning mechanism
27: nut seat 28: series connection bearing group
29: outer shaft 30: test signal gathering unit
31: control and test signal gathering unit 32: data acquisition unit
33:T type groove 34: staking-out work platform
35:T type slot bolt 36: demarcate base
37: lead 38: studs
39: force nut 40: top cover
41: locating clip lid 42: guide rail supporting frame
43: pressure transducer
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing to the assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force dynamic performance testing system of the present invention and test Method is described in detail.
The dynamic performance testing system of the assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force of the present invention and caliberating device, select according to test assignment Select suitable sensor, configuration data acquisition unit and industrial computer, build the test of feed system dynamic performance testing system hardware flat Platform.Described feed system dynamic performance testing system hardware test platform includes that feed system ball-screw prestretching force is demarcated and surveys Examination platform, feed system modal test platform, feed system exercise performance index test platform and the test of feed system thermal characteristics Platform.
As it is shown in figure 1, the dynamic performance testing system of the assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force of the present invention, including Digit Control Machine Tool Base 1 in feed system, the motor 2 being arranged on base 1, connected by shaft coupling 3 motor 2 output shaft leading screw 5, Be arranged on leading screw 5 can horizontal linear moves with the rotation of leading screw 5 nut 6, fixed by the nut seat 27 of bottom The workbench 8 of attaching nut 6, described base 1 is provided with for guiding workbench 8 to move by guide rail supporting frame 42 Guide rail 7, described leading screw 5 front end Bearning mechanism 4 and tail end Bearning mechanism 26 by being fixed on base 1 respectively positions, Workbench 8 described in correspondence is respectively arranged with: for measuring swashing of feed system exercise performance index in workbench 8 motor process Interference of light test system, when workbench 8 applying excitation for measuring, the mould measurement system of feed system dynamic characteristic, corresponding Described front end Bearning mechanism 4 and tail end Bearning mechanism 26 are provided with for measuring the thermal characteristics of thermal characteristics in leading screw 5 motor process Test system, described laser interference test system, mould measurement system and performance test system connect industrial computer 17 respectively.
Described laser interference test system uses producer to be the laser interference system of Renishaw, in system: laser instrument 12 sets Putting at described workbench 8 away from motor 2 side, interferoscope 13 is fixed on base 1, and reflecting mirror 14 is fixed on workbench 8 On, described laser instrument 12, interferoscope 13 and reflecting mirror 14 are positioned in same light path, the signal output part of described laser instrument 12 Connecting the signal input part testing signal gathering unit 30 in laser interference test system, described test signal gathering unit 30 is even Connect industrial computer 17.
The LMS that described mould measurement system uses producer to be LMS company of Belgium tests system, in system: control and survey Trial signal collecting unit 31 connects industrial computer 17, connects respectively and controls and the control signal outfan of test signal gathering unit 31 With gather signal input part and be arranged on for the vibrator 10 producing exciting force the side of workbench 8, connect and control and test signal The corresponding test point tapped on workbench 8 of power hammer 9 gathering signal input part of collecting unit 31, connects and controls and test signal 12~24 acceleration transducers 11 gathering signal input part of collecting unit 31 are laid in respectively: arrange on nut seat 27 There are 2~4, front end Bearning mechanism 4 is provided with 1~2, tail end Bearning mechanism 26 is provided with 1~2, workbench 8 On be provided with 8~16.
Described performance test system uses producer to be the performance test system of Beijing Collihigh Sensor Technology Center, system In: data acquisition unit 32 connects industrial computer 17, connects 2~4 temperature sensors 15 cloth respectively of data acquisition unit 32 It is located on the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism 4 1~2, on the bearing block of tail end Bearning mechanism 26 1~2, connects data acquisition The eddy current displacement sensor 16 of collection unit 32 is fixed on base 1 and corresponding to carrying out the external part of the leading screw 5 of prestretched. The end face of test end face and described leading screw 5 external part of described eddy current displacement sensor 16 be arranged in parallel, and apart 0.5~ 1mm。
As in figure 2 it is shown, described tail end Bearning mechanism 26 includes: include bearing block 18, be positioned at the use of bearing block 18 In supporting fixing leading screw 5 and with two groups of series connection bearing group 28 that back-to-back form loads, set between two groups of series connection bearing group 28 Being equipped with internal axle sleeve 19, the side, leading screw 5 end that is positioned at of two groups of series connection bearing group 28 is provided with elastic shaft sleeve 20, away from leading screw 5 Side, end is provided with outer shaft 29, and the periphery of described outer shaft 29 and elastic shaft sleeve 20 is respectively arranged with back-up ring 22, wherein, The two ends of described bearing block 18 are provided with the end cap 24 for positioning bearing group 28 and back-up ring 22, described end by screw respectively Lid 24 be centrally formed with running through the through hole of leading screw 5, the end thread of described leading screw 5 connects to be had for executing leading screw 5 Adding the pre-load nut 21 of axial prestretching force, the periphery of described elastic shaft sleeve 20 is evenly arranged with 3~4 for measuring leading screw 5 The foil gauge 23 of axial deformation, the signal output part of described foil gauge 23 connects test signal in " east China static strain testing system " The signal input part of collecting unit, described test signal gathering unit connects industrial computer 17.Described leading screw 5 is positioned at outer shaft 29 Side be provided with location nut 25.
As shown in Figure 3, Figure 4, for assessing the dynamic performance testing system Elastic axle sleeve of feed system leading screw prestretching force Caliberating device, includes the staking-out work platform 34 being formed with T-shaped groove 33, is fixed on described demarcation by T-slot bolt 35 Demarcation base 36 on workbench 34, described demarcation base 36 is disposed with location from the bottom to top by studs 38 Folder lid 41 and top cover 40, wherein, for arranging the elastic shaft being calibrated between described locating clip lid 41 and demarcation base 36 Set 20, described elastic shaft sleeve 20 is provided with foil gauge 23, and " east China is static should in the signal output part connection of described foil gauge 23 Become test system " the middle signal input part testing signal gathering unit, described test signal gathering unit connects industrial computer 17.Institute State the pressure transducer 43 being provided with between locating clip lid 41 and top cover 40 for gathering nominal pressure, described studs 38 Upper end is threaded connection the force nut 39 for applying nominal pressure, i.e. by synchronizing executing on precession studs 38 Power nut 39 provides the axial force of elastic shaft sleeve.Described demarcating is additionally provided with, on base 36, the locating clip lid 41 running through described With top cover 40 for the lead 37 that described locating clip lid 41 and top cover 40 are guided.
Described lead 37 and studs 38 are each provided with 2, in the upper surface of demarcation base 36 with center as the center of circle, 2 guiding hole slots for fixed guide post 37 it are formed with on 2~2.5 times of circumference as diameter of elastic shaft sleeve 20 overall diameter Arrange for interval for connecting the screw groove of studs 38, described guiding hole slot and screw groove with 2, at locating clip lid 41 and top cover 40 on respective center as the center of circle, be respectively formed on 2~2.5 times of circumference as diameter of elastic shaft sleeve 20 overall diameter Have 2 for running through the pilot hole of lead 37 and 2 for running through the stud bolt hole of studs 38, described pilot hole and Stud bolt hole interval is arranged, and is spaced 90o between each pilot hole and screwed hole.Described lead 37 and the bottom of studs 38 Sequentially pass through corresponding pilot hole and stud bolt hole on top cover 40 and locating clip lid 41 and be fixed on the pilot hole of described demarcation base 36 In groove and screw groove.The bottom of described lead 37 is interference fits with the described guiding hole slot demarcated on base 36, described Lead 37 all uses matched in clearance with the pilot hole on locating clip lid 41 and top cover 40.
It is 2~3mm that the upper surface of described locating clip lid 41 is formed with diameter more than pressure transducer 43 diameter 1~2mm, the degree of depth The upper end cylinder locating slot for fixation pressure sensor 43, it is big that the lower surface of described locating clip lid 41 is formed with diameter In the lower end cylinder locating slot for fixing elastic shaft sleeve 20 that elastic shaft sleeve 20 diameter 1~2mm, the degree of depth are 2~3mm, Described upper end cylinder locating slot and lower end cylinder locating slot are for being coaxially disposed.
The method of testing in the dynamic performance testing system assessing feed system leading screw prestretching force of the present invention, including as follows Step:
1) utilize the caliberating device of dynamic performance testing system Elastic axle sleeve of assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force to elastic shaft Pack into rower fixed, 3~4 foil gauges are the most uniformly pasted onto on elastic shaft sleeve to be calibrated, using torque spanner as force Force nut tightened by instrument, gathers axial force suffered by elastic shaft sleeve respectively by pressure transducer and Dong Hua static strain testing system Data and its axial strain data, determine axial force suffered by elastic shaft sleeve and the linear pass between its axial deformation based on Hooke's law System, it is thus achieved that the demarcation linear relation F=a △ x+b of elastic shaft sleeve, wherein, a, b are coefficient to be calibrated, △ x elastic shaft Overlap axial strain average, axial force suffered by F elastic shaft sleeve, and in this, as the foundation of the axial prestretching force of measuring.
Axially prestretching force test is away from the pre-load nut of motor one end and the axle of tail end Bearning mechanism at feed system ball-screw Hold and between inner ring, add the elastic shaft sleeve demarcated, 3~4 foil gauges are the most uniformly pasted onto on elastic shaft sleeve, adjust pre- Leading screw is applied, by heavily to four light axial prestretching forces of gradient, to utilize east China static strain testing system to gather four by jack panel Elastic shaft sleeve axial strain data under the different axial prestretching forces of gradient, demarcation linear relation based on elastic shaft sleeve F=a △ x+b, recycling MATLAB to strain testing system acquisition to elastic shaft sleeve axial deformation data process, Obtain the axial prestretching force data of four different gradients;
2) carry out feed system modal test test respectively under the axial prestretching force of different gradients, feed system exercise performance refers to Mapping examination and feed system thermal characteristics are tested.Wherein:
Described feed system modal test test is first to carry out hammering method modal test, then at the base of hammering method modal test Carry out vibrator method modal test on plinth and obtain feed system dynamic characteristic parameter accurately, according to step 1) obtain four not With the axial prestretching force data of gradient, change leading screw prestretching force and repeat described feed system modal test test process four times, Obtain the feed system dynamics under four different gradient leading screw prestretching forces.Wherein:
Described hammering method modal test is the method using single point excitation more points collection, including:
(1) on feed system workbench position, choose 10~20 location arrangements test points, wherein, nut seat is chosen 2~4 location arrangements test points install acceleration transducer additional, choose 8~16 location arrangements test points at workbench and install acceleration additional Degree sensor.In LMS mould measurement system: each test point arranged on corresponding nut seat and on workbench sets up corresponding survey Pilot, and it is sequentially connected with each test point according to the test point position of hammering method modal test, set up geometric model;
(2) excitation and response channel calibrate acceleration transducer are set, and sampling parameter are set: include sample frequency, Analyze bandwidth, filp-flop stage and window function;
(3) can measure after set-up has been completed, firmly hammer taps workbench, utilizes LMS mould measurement system acquisition The response signal of pumping signal and each measuring point, obtains corresponding frequency response function;
(4) frequency response function that hammering method modal test is obtained model analysis resume module in LMS mould measurement system Obtain the natural frequency of feed system;
The method that described vibrator method modal test uses single point excitation more points collection equally, including:
(1) it is on the basis of workbench selected by hammering method and nut seat test point position, at front end Bearning mechanism and tail end bearing The most additionally choosing 1~2 measuring point in mechanism and arrange acceleration transducer, impacting point is chosen in workbench axial end center And install vibrator additional.In LMS mould measurement system: on corresponding nut seat, on workbench, front end Bearning mechanism and tail end axle Hold each test point arranged in mechanism and set up corresponding test point, be sequentially connected with according to the test point position of vibrator method modal test Each test point, sets up geometric model;
(2) arrange excitation and response channel and sampling parameter, sampling parameter includes: test bandwidth, spectral line, frequency resolution, Filp-flop stage and window function;
(3) direction, output voltage amplitude and measurement functions the natural frequency setting vibrator obtained according to hammering method are measured in definition Swept frequency range;Can measure after set-up has been completed, utilize LMS mould measurement system acquisition pumping signal and each measuring point Response signal, obtains corresponding frequency response function;Model analysis module in LMS mould measurement system imports by vibrator method The frequency response function that modal test obtains, draws the intrinsic dynamics of the system including natural frequency and Mode Shape;
Described feed system exercise performance index test is to utilize Renishaw laser interference test system to complete feed system work The collection of station exercise data information, and utilize the MATLAB data to collecting to carry out process to obtain every exercise performance and refer to Mark, specifically includes:
(1) by fixing for reflecting mirror on the table, interferoscope is fixed on guide rail that (guaranteeing will not be with dry in working table movement stroke Relate to mirror to collide), adjust laser instrument, interferoscope and the position of reflecting mirror, carry out laser alignment;
(2) sampling parameter is set, including sample frequency, sampling time, triggered time;
(3) the numerical control operated program of feed system is write, including: displacement motion on a slope signal, speed ramp motor message and reciprocal Motor message;
(4) perform the numerical control operated program of feed system, utilize laser interference test system acquisition feed system at three kinds of motor messages The positional information of lower table motion, stores collecting operating position information with the form of tables of data;
(5) calculating based on response efficiency, positioning precision, speed Tracking characteristic and these tetrathlon performance indications of lag characteristic are public Formula, utilizes MATLAB that the three kinds of motor message lower table position datas being stored in tables of data are carried out process and is entered To the tetrathlon performance indications of system the curve of drawing three kinds of motor message lower tables motions;
Described based on response efficiency, positioning precision, speed Tracking characteristic and the calculating of these tetrathlon performance indications of lag characteristic Formula is specific as follows:
Described response efficiency index, is the reflection feed system response performance to displacement motion on a slope signal, and calculation expression isWherein tpThe theoretical moment of stroke, t is covered for feed systemcActual displacement for feed system arrives desired displacement Moment in scope ε, teFor test finish time;
Described positioning precision index, be reflection feed system physical location under displacement motion on a slope signal and ideal position it Between deviation, calculation expression isWherein choose feed system and cover the theoretical moment t of strokepAs characteristic point, will Feed system actual displacement XrWith desired displacement XeBe used for positioning precision index;
Described speed Tracking characteristic index, is reflection feed system actual speed and ideal velocity under speed ramp motor message Degree of closeness, calculation expression isWherein VeFor the ideal velocity value of feed system, VrAccelerate to for feed system Theoretical moment tiCorresponding values for actual speed, both ratio is as speed Tracking characteristic index;
Described lag characteristic index, is the reflection feed system dynamic respond to reciprocating motion signal, and calculation expression istaThe moment of maximum displacement, t is actually reached for feed systemiThe theoretical moment of maximum displacement is arrived for feed system, Both ratio is as lag characteristic index.
(6) according to step 1) the axial prestretching force data of four different gradients that obtain, change leading screw prestretching force and repeat the (1)~(5th) step four times, the feed system exercise performance index under four different gradient leading screw prestretching forces is obtained.
Described feed system thermal characteristics test is to utilize performance test system to carry out bearing block temperature rise test and ball-screw is axial Thermal deformation is tested, and specifically includes:
(1) by each 1~2 the fixing temperature sensor of the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism and the bearing block of tail end Bearning mechanism Signal input part be connected with the respective channel of NI data collecting card in performance test system, and LabVIEW get the bid constant temperature Degree sensor;
(2) signal input part and the NI data in performance test system of the eddy current displacement sensor of leading screw prestretched end it are positioned at The respective channel of capture card is connected, and demarcates current vortex micro-displacement sensor in LabVIEW.Write feed system numerical control fortune Line program, sets feed speed such as 4800mm/min, single direction stroke length such as 800mm, moves back and forth, and sets the operation time Such as 30min;
(3) the numerical control operated program of feed system is performed, by temperature sensor and eddy current displacement sensor collection in feed system In the operation time set, the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism and the temperature rise data of the bearing block of tail end Bearning mechanism, and ball Lead screw shaft thermotropism deformation data, and be stored in the tables of data of LabVIEW, utilize the MATLAB front end bearing to collecting The bearing block of mechanism and the temperature rise data of the bearing block of tail end Bearning mechanism, and ball-screw Axial Thermal deformation data, locate Manage and draw curve;
(4) treat after single test terminates that the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism and the bearing block temperature of tail end Bearning mechanism are down to stable Value, according to step 1) the axial prestretching force data of four different gradients that obtain, change leading screw prestretching force repeat (1st)~ (3rd) step four times, obtains the feed system bearing block temperature rise under four different gradient leading screw prestretching forces and ball-screw is axial Thermal deformation data also compare.

Claims (13)

1. assess a dynamic performance testing system for feed system leading screw prestretching force, including in NC machine tool feed system Base (1), the motor (2) being arranged on base (1), by shaft coupling (3) connect motor (2) output shaft leading screw (5), be arranged on leading screw (5) can horizontal linear moves with the rotation of leading screw (5) nut (6), by bottom The workbench (8) of the fixing attaching nut (6) of nut seat (27), by guide rail supporting frame (42) on described base (1) It is provided with the guide rail (7) for guiding workbench (8) movement, it is characterised in that described leading screw (5) is respectively by fixing Front end Bearning mechanism (4) and tail end Bearning mechanism (26) on base (1) position, the workbench (8) described in correspondence It is respectively arranged with: be used for measuring the laser interference test system of feed system exercise performance index in workbench (8) motor process, The mould measurement system of feed system dynamic characteristic, the front end axle described in correspondence when workbench (8) being applied excitation for measuring Hold mechanism (4) and tail end Bearning mechanism (26) is provided with the thermal characteristics for measuring thermal characteristics in leading screw (5) motor process and surveys Test system, described laser interference test system, mould measurement system and performance test system connect industrial computer (17) respectively.
The dynamic performance testing system of assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force the most according to claim 1, its feature exists In, described tail end Bearning mechanism (26) includes: includes bearing block (18), is positioned at being used for of bearing block (18) Support fixing leading screw (5) and two groups of series connection bearing group (28) loaded with back-to-back form, two groups of series connection bearing group (28) Between be provided with internal axle sleeve (19), leading screw (5) side, end that is positioned at of two groups of series connection bearing group (28) is provided with elastic shaft sleeve (20), leading screw (5) side, end is provided with outer shaft (29), described outer shaft (29) and elastic shaft sleeve (20) Periphery be respectively arranged with back-up ring (22), wherein, the two ends of described bearing block (18) are provided with for fixed by screw respectively Position bearing group (28) and the end cap (24) of back-up ring (22), being centrally formed with of described end cap (24) can run through leading screw (5) Through hole, the end thread of described leading screw (5) connects the pre-load nut for leading screw (5) applies axial prestretching force (21), the periphery of described elastic shaft sleeve (20) is evenly arranged with 3~4 for the foil gauge measuring leading screw (5) axial deformation (23), the signal output part of described foil gauge (23) tests the signal of signal gathering unit in connecting static strain testing system Input, described test signal gathering unit connects industrial computer (17), and described leading screw (5) is positioned at the side of outer shaft (29) It is provided with location nut (25).
The dynamic performance testing system of assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force the most according to claim 1, its feature exists In, in described laser interference test system: laser instrument (12) is arranged on described workbench (8) away from motor (2) side, Interferoscope (13) is fixed on base (1), and reflecting mirror (14) is fixed on workbench (8), described laser instrument (12), Interferoscope (13) and reflecting mirror (14) are positioned in same light path, and the signal output part of described laser instrument (12) connects laser to be done Relating to the signal input part testing signal gathering unit (30) in test system, described test signal gathering unit (30) connects work Control machine (17).
The dynamic performance testing system of assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force the most according to claim 1, its feature exists In, in described mould measurement system: control and test signal gathering unit (31) to connect industrial computer (17), connect respectively Control and test the control signal outfan of signal gathering unit (31) and gather signal input part for producing the exciting of exciting force Device (10) is arranged on the side of workbench (8), connects and controls and the collection signal input of test signal gathering unit (31) The corresponding test point tapped on workbench (8) of power hammer (9) of end, connects and controls and test signal gathering unit (31) signal 12~24 acceleration transducers (11) of input are laid in respectively: nut seat is provided with 2~4 on (27), front Being provided with 1~2 on end Bearning mechanism (4), tail end Bearning mechanism (26) is provided with 1~2, workbench sets on (8) It is equipped with 8~16.
The dynamic performance testing system of assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force the most according to claim 1, its feature exists In, in described performance test system: data acquisition unit (32) connects industrial computer (17), connect data acquisition unit (32) 2~4 temperature sensors (15) are laid on the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism (4) 1~2 respectively, tail End Bearning mechanism (26) bearing block on 1~2, connect data acquisition unit (32) eddy current displacement sensor (16) It is fixed on base (1) and corresponding to carrying out the external part of the leading screw (5) of prestretched.Described eddy current displacement sensor (16) The end face of test end face and described leading screw (5) external part be arranged in parallel, and apart 0.5~1mm.
6. the dynamic performance testing system Elastic for the assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force described in claim 2 The caliberating device of axle sleeve, it is characterised in that include the staking-out work platform (34) being formed with T-shaped groove (33), pass through T Type slot bolt (35) is fixed on the demarcation base (36) on described staking-out work platform (34), on described demarcation base (36) Locating clip lid (41) and top cover (40), wherein, described location it is disposed with from the bottom to top by studs (38) For arranging the elastic shaft sleeve (20) being calibrated, described elastic shaft sleeve (20) between folder lid (41) and demarcation base (36) On be provided with foil gauge (23), the signal output part of described foil gauge (23) connects tests signal in static strain testing system The signal input part of collecting unit, described test signal gathering unit connect industrial computer (17), described locating clip lid (41) and Being provided with the pressure transducer (43) for gathering nominal pressure between top cover (40), described studs (38) upper end leads to Cross the threaded force nut (39) having for applying nominal pressure, described demarcation base (36) is additionally provided with for The lead (37) that described locating clip lid (41) and top cover (40) are guided.
Caliberating device the most according to claim 6, it is characterised in that described lead (37) and studs (38) It is each provided with 2, in the upper surface of demarcation base (36) with center as the center of circle, with the 2~2.5 of elastic shaft sleeve (20) overall diameter Times for diameter circumference on be formed with 2 guiding hole slots for fixed guide post (37) and 2 be used for connecting studs (38) Screw groove, described guiding hole slot and screw groove are arranged for interval, with each on locating clip lid (41) and top cover (40) Center is the center of circle, has been respectively formed on 2 with 2~2.5 times of circumference as diameter of elastic shaft sleeve (20) overall diameter and has led for running through To pilot hole and 2 stud bolt holes being used for running through studs (38) of post (37), described pilot hole and stud bolt hole interval Arranging, described lead (37) and the bottom of studs (38) sequentially pass through top cover (40) and locating clip lid (41) Upper corresponding pilot hole and stud bolt hole are fixed in guiding hole slot and the screw groove of described demarcation base (36);Described lead (37) bottom is interference fits with the guiding hole slot on described demarcation base (36), described lead (37) and location Pilot hole on folder lid (41) and top cover (40) all uses matched in clearance.
Caliberating device the most according to claim 6, it is characterised in that the upper surface shape of described locating clip lid (41) Become have diameter to be more than pressure transducer (43) diameter 1~2mm, the degree of depth be 2~3mm for fixation pressure sensor (43) Upper end cylinder locating slot, the lower surface of described locating clip lid (41) is formed with diameter more than elastic shaft sleeve (20) diameter 1~2mm, the degree of depth is the lower end cylinder locating slot for fixing elastic shaft sleeve (20) of 2~3mm, described upper end cylinder Shape locating slot and lower end cylinder locating slot are for being coaxially disposed.
9. the survey in the dynamic performance testing system of the assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force described in claim 1 Method for testing, it is characterised in that comprise the steps:
1) utilize the caliberating device of dynamic performance testing system Elastic axle sleeve of assessment feed system leading screw prestretching force to elasticity Axle sleeve is demarcated, it is thus achieved that the demarcation linear relation F=a △ x+b of elastic shaft sleeve, and wherein, a, b are coefficient to be calibrated, △ x elastic shaft sleeve axial strain average, axial force suffered by F elastic shaft sleeve.At feed system ball-screw away from motor one end Add the elastic shaft sleeve demarcated between the bearing inner race of pre-load nut and tail end Bearning mechanism, adjust pre-load nut and leading screw is applied By heavily to four light axial prestretching forces of gradient, east China static strain testing system is utilized to gather four axial prestretchings of different gradients Elastic shaft sleeve axial strain data under stretch, demarcation linear relation F=a △ x+b based on elastic shaft sleeve, recycling MATLAB to strain testing system acquisition to elastic shaft sleeve axial deformation data process, obtain four different gradients Axially prestretching force data;
2) under the axial prestretching force of different gradients, feed system modal test test, feed system exercise performance are carried out respectively Index test and the test of feed system thermal characteristics.
Method of testing the most according to claim 9, it is characterised in that step 2) described in feed system modal test Test is first to carry out hammering method modal test, then carries out vibrator method modal test on the basis of hammering method modal test and obtains Take feed system dynamic characteristic parameter accurately, according to step 1) the axial prestretching force data of four different gradients that obtain, Change leading screw prestretching force and repeat described feed system modal test test process four times, obtain at four different gradient leading screw prestretchings Feed system dynamics under stretch, wherein:
Described hammering method modal test is the method using single point excitation more points collection, including:
(1) in feed system, choose 10~20 location arrangements test points, wherein, nut seat is chosen 2~4 positions Put layout test point and install acceleration transducer additional, choose 8~16 location arrangements test points at workbench and install acceleration transducer additional. In LMS mould measurement system: each test point arranged on corresponding nut seat and on workbench sets up corresponding test point, and Test point position according to hammering method modal test is sequentially connected with each test point, sets up geometric model;
(2) excitation and response channel it is set and acceleration transducer is calibrated, and sampling parameter is set: including sampling frequency Rate, analysis bandwidth, filp-flop stage and window function;
(3) can measure after set-up has been completed, firmly hammer taps workbench, utilizes LMS mould measurement system acquisition The response signal of pumping signal and each measuring point, obtains corresponding frequency response function;
(4) frequency response function that hammering method modal test is obtained model analysis resume module in LMS mould measurement system Obtain the natural frequency of feed system;
The method that described vibrator method modal test uses single point excitation more points collection equally, including:
(1) it is on the basis of workbench selected by hammering method and nut seat test point position, at front end Bearning mechanism and tail end axle Holding and the most additionally choose 1~2 measuring point in mechanism and arrange acceleration transducer, workbench axial end center is chosen sharp Shake a little and install vibrator additional.In LMS mould measurement system: on corresponding nut seat, on workbench, front end Bearning mechanism and The each test point arranged on tail end Bearning mechanism sets up corresponding test point, depends on according to the test point position of vibrator method modal test The each test point of secondary connection, sets up geometric model;
(2) arrange excitation and response channel and sampling parameter, sampling parameter includes: test bandwidth, spectral line, frequency resolution, Filp-flop stage and window function;
(3) direction, output voltage amplitude and measurement functions the natural frequency setting exciting obtained according to hammering method are measured in definition Device swept frequency range;Can measure after set-up has been completed, utilize LMS mould measurement system acquisition pumping signal and each survey The response signal of point, obtains corresponding frequency response function;Model analysis module in LMS mould measurement system imports by swashing The frequency response function that the device method modal test that shakes obtains, show that the intrinsic kinetics of the system including natural frequency and Mode Shape is special Property.
11. method of testings according to claim 9, it is characterised in that step 2) described in feed system exercise performance Index test is the collection utilizing Renishaw laser interference test system to complete feed system working table movement data message, and Utilize the MATLAB data to collecting to carry out process and obtain every exercise performance index, specifically include:
(1) by fixing for reflecting mirror on the table, interferoscope is fixed on guide rail that (guaranteeing in working table movement stroke will not be with Interferoscope is collided), adjust laser instrument, interferoscope and the position of reflecting mirror, carry out laser alignment;
(2) sampling parameter is set, including sample frequency, sampling time, triggered time;
(3) the numerical control operated program of feed system is write, including: displacement motion on a slope signal, speed ramp motor message and past Multiple motor message;
(4) perform the numerical control operated program of feed system, utilize laser interference test system acquisition feed system at three kinds of motion letters The positional information of number lower table motion, stores collecting operating position information with the form of tables of data;
(5) based on response efficiency, positioning precision, speed Tracking characteristic and the calculating of these tetrathlon performance indications of lag characteristic Formula, utilizes MATLAB to process the three kinds of motor message lower table position datas being stored in tables of data To the tetrathlon performance indications of feed system the curve of drawing three kinds of motor message lower tables motions;
(6) according to step 1) the axial prestretching force data of four different gradients that obtain, change leading screw prestretching force and repeat the (1)~(5th) step four times, the feed system exercise performance index under four different gradient leading screw prestretching forces is obtained.
12. method of testings according to claim 10, it is characterised in that described in (5th) step based on response efficiency, The computing formula of positioning precision, speed Tracking characteristic and these tetrathlon performance indications of lag characteristic is specific as follows:
Described response efficiency index, is the reflection feed system response performance to displacement motion on a slope signal, and calculation expression isWherein tpThe theoretical moment of stroke, t is covered for feed systemcActual displacement for feed system arrives ideal bit Moment in shifting scope ε, teFor test finish time;
Described positioning precision index, be reflection feed system physical location under displacement motion on a slope signal and ideal position it Between deviation, calculation expression isWherein choose feed system and cover the theoretical moment t of strokepAs characteristic point, By feed system actual displacement XrWith desired displacement XeBe used for positioning precision index;
Described speed Tracking characteristic index, is reflection feed system actual speed and ideal velocity under speed ramp motor message Degree of closeness, calculation expression isWherein VeFor the ideal velocity value of feed system, VrAccelerate for feed system To theoretical moment tiCorresponding values for actual speed, both ratio is as speed Tracking characteristic index;
Described lag characteristic index, is the reflection feed system dynamic respond to reciprocating motion signal, and calculation expression istaThe moment of maximum displacement, t is actually reached for feed systemiThe theoretical moment of maximum displacement is arrived for feed system, Both ratio is as lag characteristic index.
13. method of testings according to claim 9, it is characterised in that step 2) described in feed system thermal characteristics survey Examination is to utilize performance test system to carry out bearing block temperature rise test and ball-screw Axial Thermal deformation test, specifically includes:
(1) by each 1~2 the fixing temperature sensor of the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism and the bearing block of tail end Bearning mechanism Signal input part be connected with the respective channel of NI data collecting card in performance test system, and LabVIEW get the bid constant temperature Degree sensor;
(2) signal input part and the NI data in performance test system of the eddy current displacement sensor of leading screw prestretched end it are positioned at The respective channel of capture card is connected, and demarcates current vortex micro-displacement sensor in LabVIEW.Write feed system numerical control fortune Line program, sets feed speed such as 4800mm/min, single direction stroke length such as 800mm, moves back and forth, and sets the operation time Such as 30min;
(3) the numerical control operated program of feed system is performed, by temperature sensor and eddy current displacement sensor collection in feeding system In the operation time that system sets, the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism and the temperature rise data of the bearing block of tail end Bearning mechanism, and rolling Ballscrew Axial Thermal deformation data, and be stored in the tables of data of LabVIEW, utilize the MATLAB front end to collecting The bearing block of Bearning mechanism and the temperature rise data of the bearing block of tail end Bearning mechanism, and ball-screw Axial Thermal deformation data, enter Row processes and draws curve;
(4) treat after single test terminates that the bearing block of front end Bearning mechanism and the bearing block temperature of tail end Bearning mechanism are down to stable Value, according to step 1) the axial prestretching force data of four different gradients that obtain, change leading screw prestretching force repeat (1st)~ (3rd) step four times, obtains the feed system bearing block temperature rise under four different gradient leading screw prestretching forces and ballscrew shaft Thermotropism deformation data also compares.
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