CN105835036B - A kind of parallel connected bionic eye device and its control method - Google Patents

A kind of parallel connected bionic eye device and its control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105835036B
CN105835036B CN201610292738.9A CN201610292738A CN105835036B CN 105835036 B CN105835036 B CN 105835036B CN 201610292738 A CN201610292738 A CN 201610292738A CN 105835036 B CN105835036 B CN 105835036B
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moving platform
control
parallel
gyroscope
image
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CN105835036A (en
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王孙安
程元皓
王冰心
张斌权
于德弘
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Xian Jiaotong University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/003Programme-controlled manipulators having parallel kinematics
    • B25J9/0045Programme-controlled manipulators having parallel kinematics with kinematics chains having a rotary joint at the base
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1615Programme controls characterised by special kind of manipulator, e.g. planar, scara, gantry, cantilever, space, closed chain, passive/active joints and tendon driven manipulators
    • B25J9/1623Parallel manipulator, Stewart platform, links are attached to a common base and to a common platform, plate which is moved parallel to the base
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1628Programme controls characterised by the control loop
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1694Programme controls characterised by use of sensors other than normal servo-feedback from position, speed or acceleration sensors, perception control, multi-sensor controlled systems, sensor fusion
    • B25J9/1697Vision controlled systems

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of parallel connected bionic eye device and its control methods.The device is mainly made of moving platform, silent flatform, three drive chains, gyroscope, CCD camera and control system.CCD camera and gyroscope are installed, CCD camera is for imitating ocular vision imaging system, and gyroscope is for feeding back moving platform inclination angle on moving platform.Drive chain includes push rod, swing rod, servo motor, for imitating extraocular muscle function, driving moving platform movement.Control system includes the computer or special image processing unit for handling camera review information, and the controller for mechanism kinematic control is constituted, to realize the adjusting of processing and moving platform pose to camera review information.This device has many advantages, such as that simple in structure, fast response time, control accuracy are high, convenient in the application of industry, agricultural, medical treatment, scientific research, military project etc..

Description

A kind of parallel connected bionic eye device and its control method
【Technical field】
It is a kind of parallel connected bionic eye device and its control the present invention relates to robot bionic vision system and automation field A kind of bionical eye device and its control method imitating the outer muscular function of animal eyes of method processed, it is specifically a kind of by the three of swing rod driving Degree of freedom parallel connected bionic eye device and its control method.
【Background technology】
With electronic technology, control technology, sensing measurement technology, signal processing technology, computer technology and bionics techniques Development, machine vision is widely applied in agricultural, service trade, medical treatment, scientific research and industrial production.Bionic eye is exactly Human Visual System is built by simulating animal vision system, to which machine vision is preferably applied for production, life process In.Current parallel connected bionic eye device have Zhejiang University using six roots of sensation pneumatic muscles driving structure, Shanghai University spherical surface simultaneously The tricept mechanisms that online structure and leading screw and nut mechanism and Xi'an Communications University use.Though these types of mechanism can realize eye Dynamic function, but pneumatic muscles structure precision and rigidity are poor;The structure of sphere parallel mechanism is complex, process and assemble difficulty Greatly;Leading screw and nut mechanism response speed is slower, and structure is also complex;Tricept bionic eyes mechanism increases driven chain, and Response speed is also relatively slow.
【Invention content】
For the above mechanism there are the problem of, it is high that the present invention provides a kind of simple in structure, fast response time, control accuracy Parallel connected bionic eye device and its control method.It is a kind of bionical eye device and its control method of the outer muscular function of imitation animal eyes.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A kind of parallel connected bionic eye device, including regulating mechanism, video camera, gyroscope and control system;
The regulating mechanism includes moving platform, silent flatform and several drive chains;The drive chain by push rod, swing rod, Servo motor is constituted, and push rod is connected by flexural pivot with moving platform;Swing rod one end is connected by turning joint with push rod, the other end with The motor shaft of servo motor is connected, and servo motor is connected with silent flatform;
Video camera setting plane on moving platform, for obtaining image information;
The gyroscope is arranged in moving platform lower plane, for obtaining moving platform posture information;
The control system acquisition gyroscope information control drive chain, which is realized, adjusts the pose of moving platform.
The control system includes:
Computer or image processing apparatus, the image information for acquiring and handling video camera;
Motion controller obtains the image information and gyroscope posture information of computer or image processing apparatus processing, And control signal is output to the driver of servo motor, servo motor driving adjusts moving platform and carries out pose adjustment, and final Realize the rotation of video camera.
The motion controller uses STM32F104ZET chips.
The video camera is CCD camera.
At the upper planar central of moving platform, the gyroscope is arranged in the lower flat of moving platform the video camera setting At the center of face.
The drive chain includes three, and three drive chains are spatially evenly arranged.
A kind of control method of parallel connected bionic eye device, includes the following steps:
Video camera is demarcated;
Control system control swing rod is located at outside position parallel with silent flatform;
Control system detection video camera whether find target, continued search for if no target, if find target according to The position of target in the picture, driving servo motor rotation adjust moving platform posture, target are made to be located at picture centre;
The posture information of moving platform is fed back using gyroscope, control drive chain realizes the accurate adjusting to moving platform pose.
Further, further include being adjusted in real time to camera review in step 3) so that camera review is shown as just The step of vertical image, specially:
Using moving platform center as origin, the direction of excessively one of flexural pivot node is X-axis positive direction, and X-axis forward direction is around origin The direction being rotated by 90 ° counterclockwise is Y-axis positive direction, establishes moving platform coordinate system OXY;Video camera is installed according to coordinate system so that The center of camera review is overlapped with coordinate origin O, and the horizontal direction of image is parallel with X-axis, and moving platform is schemed when horizontal positioned As direction upward is consistent with Y-axis forward direction;
If α, β are respectively the angle that moving platform is rotated around X, Y-axis,For moving platform inclination angle, the α and β obtained according to gyroscope Angle determines the angle, θ value that camera review should currently rotate;
Further, further include the step of basis waits for rotation angle θ, and dynamic changes required storage size, specially:
Assuming that the pixel of video camera is m × n, it is new_m × new_n to preserve the memory space needed for rotated image, then
Assuming that the pixel coordinate value of certain point is (x, y) in original digital image data matrix, the coordinate value after rotating is (new_ X, new_y), then (new_x, new_y) can be determined by following formula:
Pixel coordinate value after image rotation calculates gained coordinate by above formula and carries out round processing, for original Different pixels point corresponds to same coordinate pixel value after rotation transformation rounding in image, is averaged to obtain to these pixel values The pixel value of the coordinate points, for existing pixel cavity, by around the pixel eight neighborhood be averaging in the way of obtain sky Pixel number evidence at hole.
Compared with the existing technology, the invention has the advantages that:
The bionical eye device of the present invention, including moving platform, silent flatform, drive chain and control system;Three actives Chain link moving platform and silent flatform, and realize and the pose of moving platform is adjusted.Wherein drive chain is by push rod, swing rod and servo motor The 3-freedom parallel mechanism of swing rod driving is constituted, control system realizes acquisition and processing, acquisition to camera review information Gyroscope information simultaneously sends control signal driving drive chain to adjust the pose of moving platform to motor servo driver.Relative to The slower disadvantage of leading screw and nut mechanism response speed in the tricept mechanisms of the prior art, the three of swing rod driving of the present invention are free Spend parallel institution drives swing rod, swing rod that push rod, push rod is driven to realize that pose is adjusted by flexural pivot band moving platform by motor, response Quickly, simple in structure, realize the control of three degree of freedom;The gyroscope installed on the device moving platform can Real-time Feedback it is current Bionic eye posture;Control accuracy is high, final to realize that bionic eye is quick, accurately rotate.Suitable for industry, agricultural, doctor A variety of occasions using machine vision such as treatment, scientific research, military project, the research for follow-up bionical eye device provide a kind of new think of Road has very important researching value and realistic meaning.
Further, high precision tracking can be carried out to the target quickly moved by computer and image procossing;
The method of the present invention, obtaining the accurate intrinsic parameter of CCD camera by calibration first, (such as focal length, distortion are joined Number etc.), to reduce target identification error;In program initialization, swing rod should be made to be located at outside position parallel with silent flatform, with Ensure that moving platform has higher response speed;Again, three servo motors are adjusted and changes moving platform posture, to make target position In picture centre;Finally, the posture information that moving platform is fed back using gyroscope is provided relevant parameter for subsequent control and carried out accurately Control.Entire procedure is simple, precise control, and silent flatform can be not only fixed on to the prison that target is used on static object It surveys, tracking, and silent flatform can be fixed on mobile platform or other telecontrol equipments, for the case where silent flatform shakes Under, by controlling moving platform posture, ensure image stabilization.
Further, it needs when moving platform rotates, using the collected moving platform obliquity information of gyroscope, to video camera figure As being adjusted in real time, so that upright image is shown in camera views, convenient for processing and observation, it is direct to be conducive to the mankind Check camera views.
Further, according to rotation angle θ is waited for, dynamically change the size of required memory space, it is ensured that image rotation mistake Integrality in journey, and memory space is saved as far as possible.
【Description of the drawings】
Fig. 1 is parallel connected bionic eye device front view;
Fig. 2 is parallel connected bionic eye device oblique view;
Fig. 3 is the control circuit functional block diagram of parallel connected bionic eye device;
Fig. 4 is the motion control flow chart of parallel connected bionic eye device;
Fig. 5 is moving platform coordinate system and camera arrangements schematic diagram;
The concrete meaning of figure label is:1.CCD video cameras, 2. moving platforms, 3. gyroscopes, 4. push rods, 5. swing rods, 6. watch Take motor, 7. silent flatforms
【Specific implementation mode】
The present invention will be further described in the following with reference to the drawings and specific embodiments, and the present invention is not limited to following embodiments.
Referring to Fig. 1 to Fig. 4, a kind of parallel connected bionic eye device, including moving platform 2, silent flatform 7, three drive chains and controls System;CCD camera 1 is installed at the upper planar central of moving platform 2, for obtaining image information, is installed at lower plane center There is gyroscope 3, for obtaining moving platform posture;Three drive chains are uniformly distributed in space, for connecting moving platform 1 and silent flatform 7, and It realizes and the pose of moving platform is adjusted, drive chain is made of push rod 4, swing rod 5 and servo motor 6, and push rod 4 is put down by flexural pivot with dynamic Platform 2 is connected, and swing rod 5 is connected by turning joint with push rod 4, and is connected with the motor shaft of servo motor 6 by cotter way, servo electricity Machine 6 is connected by motor cabinet with silent flatform 7;Control system is by the computer or special image for handling camera review information Processing unit, and for the controller composition of mechanism kinematic control, to realize the processing to camera review information and move flat The adjusting of platform pose is constituted.
Motion controller obtains computer or special image processing dress using control chip STM32F104ZET, by serial ports The image information and gyroscope posture information of processing are set, and control signal is output to three motor servo drivers, is used for The movement for controlling three servo motors to adjust moving platform pose, and finally realizes that bionic eye is quick, accurately rotates.
The device is when in use:
Firstly the need of staking-out work is completed, calibration is to obtain CCD camera accurately such as focal length, distortion ginseng The intrinsic parameters such as number, to reduce target identification error;
Secondly, in program initialization, swing rod 5 should be made to be located at outside position parallel with silent flatform 7, to ensure moving platform With higher response speed;
Again, it in initialized location, first detects whether CCD camera 1 finds target, is continued search for if no target, If it was found that position if target according to target in the picture, adjusts three servo motors 6, change moving platform posture, to make mesh Mark is in picture centre;
Finally, the posture information that moving platform is fed back using gyroscope 3, relevant parameter is provided for subsequent control.
Silent flatform can be not only fixed on static object by parallel connected bionic eye device provided by the invention is used for target Monitoring, tracking, and silent flatform can be fixed on mobile platform or other telecontrol equipments, for what is shaken in silent flatform In the case of, by controlling moving platform posture, ensure image stabilization.
When moving platform 2 rotates, video camera 1 thereon can be driven to rotate, thus can cause video camera 1 and acquire inclining for image Tiltedly, even reverse, it is unfavorable for image procossing, especially easily causes mankind's dizziness, is unfavorable for the mankind and is directly viewable video camera picture Face.For this reason, it may be necessary to when moving platform 2 rotates, using 3 collected moving platform of gyroscope, 2 obliquity information, to camera review into Row adjustment in real time convenient for processing and is observed so that camera views shows is upright image forever.
For convenience of narration, using 2 center of moving platform as origin, the direction of excessively one of flexural pivot node is X-axis positive direction, X Axis forward direction is Y-axis positive direction around the direction that origin is rotated by 90 ° counterclockwise, and it is as shown in Figure 5 to establish moving platform coordinate system OXY.Camera shooting Machine 1 is installed according to coordinate system so that the center of image is aligned with coordinate origin O, and the horizontal direction of image is parallel with X-axis, is moved The direction of image upward and Y-axis are positive consistent when plateau levels are placed.Marked arrow direction is image court on video camera in Fig. 5 On direction.
If α, β are respectively the angle that moving platform 2 is rotated around X, Y-axis,For moving platform inclination angle, θ is Y in moving platform coordinate system The rotation angle of axis negative half axial moving platform current tilt position, which is the angle that camera review should adjust.Its Middle α, β can be obtained directly by gyroscope.
From kinematics of mechanism relationship
The image data format that different cameras obtains is different, but all data are all one or more two-dimensional matrix structures At as long as realizing the real-time adjustment to each corresponding two-dimensional matrix, you can the real-time adjustment to camera review is realized, to protect The camera views of card display are kept upright.Jie of method is only adjusted by taking the real-time adjustment of a two-dimensional matrix as an example below It continues, the method for adjustment of other multiple two-dimensional matrixes is consistent with the method, only to have adjusted several times more.
The essence of Image Adjusting is the rotation to image array, and the angles α and β obtained according to gyroscope can determine video camera The angle, θ value that image should currently rotate.For the integrality for ensureing during image rotation, and memory space is saved as far as possible, The size of required memory space can be changed according to rotation angle θ, dynamic is waited for.For ease of narration, it is assumed that currently employed video camera Pixel be m × n, be new_m × new_n to preserve the memory space opened up needed for rotated image, then
Assuming that the pixel coordinate value of certain point is (x, y) in original digital image data matrix, the coordinate value after rotating is (new_ X, new_y), then (new_x, new_y) can be determined by following formula
Pixel coordinate value after image rotation should be integer, therefore passing through above formula calculating gained coordinate should round up taking It is whole, same coordinate pixel value is corresponded to after rotation transformation rounding for different pixels point in original image, to these pixel values It is averaged to obtain the pixel value of the coordinate points, for existing pixel cavity, be averaging using eight neighborhood around the pixel Mode obtains pixel number evidence at cavity.
The dynamic adjustment for showing picture to video camera by the way that the adjustment of the dynamic of image array can be realized above, to ensure Remain that camera views are upright in moving platform rotation process.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:1. by imitating muscular function outside animal eyes, it is proposed that a kind of simple in structure, response speed The parallel connected bionic eye device and its motion control method that degree is fast, control accuracy is high;2. can be carried out to the target quickly moved high Precision tracks;3. the gyroscope installed on moving platform being capable of the current bionic eye posture of Real-time Feedback;4. suitable for industry, agriculture A variety of occasions using machine vision such as industry, medical treatment, scientific research, military project provide one kind newly for the research of follow-up bionical eye device Thinking, have very important researching value and realistic meaning.
Finally it should be noted that:The above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical scheme of the present invention and are not intended to be limiting thereof;To the greatest extent The present invention is described in detail with reference to preferred embodiments for pipe, those of ordinary skills in the art should understand that:Still It can modify to the specific implementation mode of the present invention or equivalent replacement is carried out to some technical characteristics;Without departing from this hair The spirit of bright technical solution should all cover within the scope of the technical scheme claimed by the invention.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of control method of parallel connected bionic eye device, which is characterized in that the parallel connected bionic eye device includes adjusting machine Structure, video camera (1), gyroscope (3) and control system;
The regulating mechanism includes moving platform (2), silent flatform (7) and several drive chains;The drive chain by push rod (4), Swing rod (5), servo motor (6) are constituted, and push rod (4) is connected by flexural pivot with moving platform (2);Swing rod (5) one end passes through rotating hinge Chain is connected with push rod (4), and the other end is connected with the motor shaft of servo motor (6), and servo motor (6) is connected with silent flatform (7);
Plane is arranged on moving platform (2) in the video camera (1), for obtaining image information;
The gyroscope (3) is arranged in moving platform (2) lower plane, for obtaining moving platform (2) posture information;
Control system acquisition gyroscope (3) information control drive chain, which is realized, adjusts the pose of moving platform (2);
The control method of the parallel connected bionic eye device, includes the following steps:
1) video camera (1) is demarcated;
2) control system control swing rod (5) is located at outside position parallel with silent flatform (7);
3) control system detection video camera (1) whether find target, continued search for if no target, if find target according to The position of target in the picture, driving servo motor (6), which rotates, adjusts moving platform (2) posture, and target is made to be located at picture centre;
4) posture information of gyroscope (3) feedback moving platform (2), control drive chain is utilized to realize the essence to moving platform (2) pose Really adjust;
Further include being adjusted in real time to camera review in step 3) so that camera review is shown as the step of erected image Suddenly, specially:
Using moving platform (2) center as origin, the direction of excessively one of flexural pivot node is X-axis positive direction, and X-axis forward direction is inverse around origin The direction that hour hands are rotated by 90 ° is Y-axis positive direction, establishes moving platform coordinate system OXY;Video camera (1) is installed according to coordinate system so that The center of camera review is overlapped with coordinate origin O, and the horizontal direction of image is parallel with X-axis, and moving platform is schemed when horizontal positioned As direction upward is consistent with Y-axis forward direction;
If α, β are respectively the angle that moving platform (2) is rotated around X, Y-axis,For moving platform (2) inclination angle, the α obtained according to gyroscope The angle, θ value that camera review should currently rotate is determined with the angles β;
θ values can be byWithJoint, which solves, to be determined.
2. the control method of parallel connected bionic eye device according to claim 1, which is characterized in that further include that basis waits rotating The step of angle, θ, dynamic changes required storage size, specially:
Assuming that the pixel of video camera (1) is m × n, it is new_m × new_n to preserve the memory space needed for rotated image, then
Assuming that the pixel coordinate value of certain point is (x, y) in original digital image data matrix, coordinate value after rotating be (new_x, New_y), then (new_x, new_y) can be determined by following formula:
Pixel coordinate value after image rotation calculates gained coordinate by above formula and carries out round processing, for original image Middle different pixels point corresponds to same coordinate pixel value after rotation transformation rounding, is averaged to obtain the seat to these pixel values The pixel value of punctuate, for existing pixel cavity, by around the pixel eight neighborhood be averaging in the way of obtain empty place Pixel number evidence.
3. the control method of parallel connected bionic eye device according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the control system packet It includes:
Computer or image processing apparatus, the image information for acquiring and handling video camera (1);
Motion controller obtains the image information and gyroscope (3) posture information of computer or image processing apparatus processing, and Control signal is output to the driver of servo motor (6), servo motor (6) driving adjusts moving platform (2) and carries out pose adjustment, And finally realize the rotation of video camera (1).
4. the control method of parallel connected bionic eye device according to claim 3, which is characterized in that the motion controller is adopted With STM32F104ZET chips.
5. the control method of parallel connected bionic eye device according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the video camera (1) For CCD camera.
6. the control method of parallel connected bionic eye device according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the video camera (1) It is arranged at the upper planar central of moving platform (2), the gyroscope (3) is arranged at the lower plane center of moving platform (2).
7. the control method of parallel connected bionic eye device according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the drive chain includes Three, three drive chains are spatially evenly arranged.
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