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Production process of alloy for producing high-power power generator rotor slot wedge

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CN105803253A
CN105803253A CN 201610401755 CN201610401755A CN105803253A CN 105803253 A CN105803253 A CN 105803253A CN 201610401755 CN201610401755 CN 201610401755 CN 201610401755 A CN201610401755 A CN 201610401755A CN 105803253 A CN105803253 A CN 105803253A
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李国升
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国网河南省电力公司平顶山供电公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a production process of an alloy for producing a high-power power generator rotor slot wedge. The alloy comprises 2.4-2.6 Wt% of Ni, 0.36-0.40 Wt% of Cr, 0.60-0.65 Wt% of Si, 0.02-0.03 Wt% of P and the balance of Cu. The production process includes steps of smelting, casting, solid solution treatment and age strengthening. Through ingredient proportion controlling, process optimizing and multiphase strengthening, conductivity of the obtained alloy is 62-65% IACS; at temperature below 500 DEG C, tensile strength is 689-692 MPa, and yield strength is 644-647 MPa. The alloy is high in conductivity, good in resistance to high temperature, long in service life, capable of meeting requirements on using for the high-power power generator rotor slot wedge, simple, low in production cost, little in environment pollution and good in market prospect and economic benefit.

Description

一种生产大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺技术领域本发明属于发电机转子槽楔材料生产技术领域,具体涉及一种生产大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺。 A process for producing high-power generating rotor slot wedges with an alloy production process BACKGROUND Technical Field The present invention belongs to the production of the generator rotor slot wedge material, particularly relates to a process for producing high-power generator rotor slot wedges alloy production process. 背景技术发电机转子槽楔要承受转子运转时槽内铜线、绝缘件及自身巨大的离心力,电流流经槽楔会产生较高的温升,生产转子槽楔时需要使用导电率高、耐高温性能优良的合金材料。 BACKGROUND generator rotor slot wedge to bear copper, the insulating member and the great centrifugal force itself, the current flowing through the wedges will have a higher temperature during operation of the rotor, required the production of a high conductivity wedge rotor resistance an alloy material excellent high temperature properties. 申请号为200510123011的专利《大容量汽轮发电机转子铜合金槽楔及其制备方法》中, 合金成分为:Ni: 1.35~2 · 05% ,Si :0.40~0.80 % ,Cr: 0.05 ~0.25% ,Be: 0.15~0· 40%, Cu:余量;生产工艺主要采用920~980°C固溶处理,35~50 %冷变形,450~500 °C保温4~5h 时效处理,空冷。 Patent Application No. 200510123011 "bulk copper alloy Turbogenerator wedge and its preparation method ', the alloy composition of: Ni: 1.35 ~ 2 · 05%, Si: 0.40 ~ 0.80%, Cr: 0.05 ~ 0.25 %, Be: 0.15 ~ 0 · 40%, Cu: balance; production process mainly 920 ~ 980 ° C solution treatment, 35% to 50% cold deformation, 450 ~ 500 ° C heat aging 4 ~ 5h, cooled. 该技术方案中,Be价格高,且影响合金的高温稳定性,使合金不宜长时间承受高温工作,同时添加Be的合金产生的粉尘会有毒;合金中Ni、Si的质量配比在2.5~3.5左右,Si含量相对偏高,只有一部分Si形成Ni 2Si析出相,剩余的Si以固溶态存在,严重影响合金的导电率;所得合金导电率仅为49 % IACS,寿命短,且耐高温性能未知。 This aspect, Be high price, and affect the temperature stability of the alloy, the alloy should not be subjected to high temperature for a long time, while adding Be alloys will generate toxic dust; alloy, Ni, Si mass ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 left, relatively high Si content, only a portion of the formed Ni 2Si Si precipitates, the remaining Si solid solution state is present, seriously affect the conductivity of the alloy; conductive alloy obtained was only 49% IACS, short life and high temperature performance unknown. 申请号为200510038051.4的专利《汽轮发电机转子槽楔用钛青铜及其加工工艺》中,钛青铜采用无钴无锆设计,其成分为:Be:0.1~0.3% ,Ni :1.5~2.5%、Ti :0.4~0.6%、Cu:余量,所得合金导电率仅为47 % IACS,高温(427 °C)屈服强度480~550MPa,抗拉强度540~630MPa,工作寿命短,无法满足大功率发电机长时间运转的需求。 Patent application number 200510038051.4 of "Turbine Rotor Wedge of titanium and bronze process", the titanium-free, cobalt-free zirconium bronze design, having a composition of: Be: 0.1 ~ 0.3%, Ni: 1.5 ~ 2.5% , Ti: 0.4 ~ 0.6%, Cu: balance, resulting conductive alloy was only 47% IACS, a high temperature (427 ° C) yield strength of 480 ~ 550MPa, a tensile strength of 540 ~ 630MPa, short working life, high power can not be met operation of the generator needs a long time. 发明内容本发明是为了弥补上述不足,并对成分配比和生产工艺进行改进,提供一种生产大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺,该合金导电率高,耐高温性能好,寿命长,能满足大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的使用要求,同时工艺简单,生产成本低,对环境污染小,具有较好的市场前景和经济效益。 The present invention is to remedy the aforementioned shortcomings, and the composition ratio and production process improvements, there is provided a process for producing high-power generator rotor slot wedges production process of the alloy, the alloy high conductivity, high temperature performance, life long, high-power generator to meet the requirements of the rotor slot wedges with an alloy, while the process is simple, low cost, small environmental pollution, has a good market prospect and economic benefits. 一种生产大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺,所述合金的成分及其含量(Wt%) 包括:Ni 2.4~2.6、Cr 0.36~0.40、Si 0.60~0·65、Ρ 0.02~0.03、Cu:余量;包括以下步骤: ① 熔炼:先将电解铜预热至250~280°C,再装入低频感应炉中,开始熔化时加入覆盖剂,使覆盖厚度达1.2~1.4mm,全部熔化后加入占铜质量0.5~0.7%的磷铜作为脱氧剂,进行扒渣,补充覆盖剂后,综合考虑各元素的理化性质,将Si、P、Ni、Cr按常规工艺依此加入铜熔体中,保温15min出炉; ② 浇铸:采用常规连续铸造工艺,水压机上锻压成坯; ③ 固溶处理:在940~960°C下热处理1.5h再进行水淬处理,冷乳使合金产生60 %冷变形; ④ 时效强化:再将铸坯加热至460~480°C保温2.5h后,机械加工成所需形状;所述覆盖剂的成分及其含量(Wt%)为:50%木炭、30%碎玻璃、10%NaCl、10%CaF2。 A process for producing high-power generating rotor slot wedges with an alloy production process, the composition of the alloy and its content (Wt%) comprising: Ni 2.4 ~ 2.6, Cr 0.36 ~ 0.40, Si 0.60 ~ 0 · 65, Ρ 0.02 ~ 0.03, Cu: balance; comprising: ① From smelting: first electrolytic copper preheated to 250 ~ 280 ° C, and then into the low-frequency induction furnace, covering agent is added at the start to melt, the covering thickness of 1.2 ~ 1.4mm , representing all added after melting of copper 0.5 to 0.7% by mass of phosphor bronze as a deoxidizer, a slag, after covering agent added, considering the physical and chemical properties of each element, the Si, P, Ni, Cr is added according to conventional processes so copper melt, baked incubated 15min; ② casting: conventional continuous casting process, a hydraulic press forged into a billet; ③ solution treatment: 1.5h then water quenching heat treatment at 940 ~ 960 ° C, cooling the alloy to produce milk 60% cold deformation; ④ age Hardening: heating the slab and then to 460 ~ 480 ° C after incubation 2.5h, machined into a desired shape; components and their contents of the coating agent (Wt%) of: 50% charcoal , 30% cullet, 10% NaCl, 10% CaF2. 本技术方案中,在成分配比方面,Cr可以提高合金的电导性,形成Cr3Si相影响合金的高温稳定性,并能一定程度上抑制固溶处理期间合金的晶粒长大;因为铜基中Be与Ni2Si具有类似的机械性能,因此,可适当提高Ni 2Si的含量,获得更好的热稳定性和高温强度,配比Ni和Si的质量百分含量分别在2.2~2.6%、0.55~0.65%,避免合金中含有固溶态Si,从而提高了合金的强度和导电率,既确保合金的性能,降低了生产成本,又减少了污染;而加入Cr后,Cr将比Ni、Si先溶于Cu中,使基体处于饱和状态,在一定程度上提高了Ni2Si相的析出量,基体中Ni、Si含量减少,减少了基体中晶格畸变的程度,提高了合金的导电率;使合金含有质量百分含量为〇. 02~0.03 %的P,是为了在不会使合金产生明显晶格畸变的基础上,产生M3P沉淀强化相,进一步提高合金的显微硬度和抗拉强度,并一定 This aspect, in terms of composition ratio, Cr alloy can be improved conductivity, a high temperature phase stability Cr3Si Alloy, and can inhibit grain during the solution treatment the alloy is grown to a certain extent; because the copper be Ni2Si and having similar mechanical properties, therefore, the content of Ni can be increased properly 2Si obtain better thermal stability and high temperature strength, the ratio of the mass percentage of Ni and Si 2.2 to 2.6%, respectively, 0.55 to 0.65 %, the solution contained in the alloy to avoid the state Si, thereby increasing strength and electrical conductivity of the alloy, both to ensure the performance of the alloy, reduce production costs, and reducing pollution; after the addition of Cr, Cr than Ni, Si before melting of Cu in the matrix in saturation, increased Ni2Si precipitation amount of phase to some extent, to reduce the matrix Ni, Si content, reducing the degree of the matrix lattice distortion, improves the conductivity of the alloy; alloy comprising mass percentage of square. 02 to 0.03% of P, not to the alloy in significant lattice distortion, based on M3P produce precipitation strengthening phase, and to further improve the hardness and the tensile strength, and must 度上抑制析出相的长大,使合金基体得到纯化,导电率提高。 Suppression of the precipitates grow, the alloy matrix to give purified improve conductivity. 合金熔炼时,选用低频感应炉降低铜合金的熔炼消耗,电解铜加入炉中前先预热,将Si、P、Ni、Cr按顺序熔化,合理的装炉和熔化顺序有效地缩短熔化时间,覆盖剂质量配比选用50 %木炭、30 %碎玻璃、10 % NaCl、10 % CaF2,该覆盖剂铺展性好,合金熔炼时能全面覆盖液态金属液面,与熔渣的亲和力强,具有极好的净化液态金属、细化合金的能力,使熔体得到适当保护并获得较佳的熔炼气氛;加入〇. 5~0.7 %的磷铜作为脱氧剂,能够有效去除熔体里的氧粒子,有效提尚合金的质量和成品率。 When melting the alloy, the choice of the low-frequency induction melting furnace to reduce the consumption of the copper alloy, electrolytic copper was added to the furnace before preheating, Si, P, Ni, Cr sequentially melted, and the melting furnace reasonable loading sequence effectively shorten the melting time, covering agent selected mass ratio of 50% charcoal, 30% cullet, 10% NaCl, 10% CaF2, good spreadability of the coating agent, to fully cover the liquid surface of the liquid metal alloy melting, slag strong affinity, having a very good liquid metal purification, refining capacity of the alloy, the melt obtained properly protected and the preferred melting atmosphere; 5 billion was added to 0.7% by phosphor bronze as a deoxidizer, can effectively remove oxygen in the melt particles. effectively improve the quality and yield are still alloy. 对铸坯采用高温固熔淬火处理、中温时效处理析出沉淀硬化合金的方法,该方法生产工艺简单,便于合金便于进行大规模生产。 High temperature slab of solid solution hardening treatment, the temperature aging precipitation hardening alloys precipitation method, the production process is simple, easy to alloy facilitates mass production. 固溶处理时的处理温度以合金不产生晶粒粗大为前提,尽量提高温度,保温一定时间后快冷,保证析出相的溶质元素在基体中达到最大的固溶度。 Treatment temperature solution treatment the alloy is not generated coarse grains as possible while increasing the temperature, rapid cooling after a certain incubation time, the precipitates solute elements to ensure the maximum solid solubility in the matrix. 当在940~960°C下热处理1.5h再进行水淬处理,大量过剩相溶解,得到过饱和固溶体,冷乳使合金产生较大的冷变形,合金基体发生再结晶,使基体内部产生大量位错,合金的亚结构得到细化,但这种形变强化对铜合金的强度贡献有限,需要时效处理进一步强化, 经460~480°C保温2.5h的时效处理,合金元素呈弥散分布的沉淀相相,且沉淀得到硬化,使合金取得最佳的性能。 When the heat treatment 1.5h then quenched in water, a large excess relative to dissolve, to obtain a supersaturated solid solution at 940 ~ 960 ° C, cold milk alloy the large cold deformation, the alloy matrix recrystallization, the internal base to produce a number of bit wrong, substructures alloy is refined, but this deformation is limited contribution to strengthening the strength of the copper alloy, it is necessary to further strengthen the aging treatment, after 460 ~ 480 ° C 2.5h insulation aging treatment, the alloying elements form precipitates dispersed in phase, and the precipitate hardening of the alloy to achieve the best performance. 本技术方案是在常规工艺的基础上,通过优化多元合金组成、添加微量元素、控制成分配比以提高合金的强度,并且尽可能地避免或减少对合金导电率的不良影响,进行多相强化,所得合金材料,室温下,抗拉强度796~79810^,屈服强度734~73710^,延展率17.9~ 18.2 %,导电率62~65 % IACS; 500°C下,抗拉强度689~692MPa,屈服强度644~647MPa,导电率高,耐高温性能好,寿命长,确保了大功率发电机的安全可靠性。 This aspect is based on the conventional process, by optimizing the alloy composition polyol, adding trace elements to increase the strength of the control composition ratio of the alloy, and as far as possible to avoid or reduce adverse effects on alloy conductivity, reinforcing multiphase , the resultant alloy at room temperature, a tensile strength of 796 ~ 79 810 ^, ^ yield strength of 734 ~ 73,710, 17.9 ~ 18.2% elongation, conductivity 62 ~ 65% IACS; at 500 ° C, a tensile strength of 689 ~ 692MPa, yield strength of 644 ~ 647MPa, high conductivity, high temperature performance, long life, to ensure the safety and reliability of high-power generator. 能满足大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的使用要求,显著提高了大功率发电机的安全可靠性,同时工艺简单,生产成本低,对环境污染小,具有较好的市场前景和经济效益。 To meet the high-power generator rotor slot wedges with the requirements of the alloy, significantly improves the safety and reliability of high-power generators, while the process is simple, low production costs, low environmental pollution, has good market prospects and economic benefits. 具体实施例实施例一制备一种大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金,各组合金的成分及其含量(Wt%)包括:2.2% Ni、0.32%Cr、0.55%Si、0.02%P、Cu:余量; 所述大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺,包括以下步骤: ①熔炼:先将电解铜预热至250°C,再装入低频感应炉中,开始熔化时加入覆盖剂,覆盖剂质量成分包括50 %木炭、30 %碎玻璃、10 % NaCl、10 % CaF2,使覆盖厚度达1.2mm,全部熔化后加入占铜质量0.5%的磷铜作为脱氧剂,进行扒渣,补充覆盖剂后,综合考虑各元素的理化性质,将31、? DETAILED EXAMPLES Example a preparation of a generator rotor slot wedges alloy power, a combination of each component and the content of gold (Wt%) comprising: 2.2% Ni, 0.32% Cr, 0.55% Si, 0.02% P, Cu : balance; the power production process of the generator rotor slot wedges alloys, comprising: ① From smelting: first electrolytic copper preheated to 250 ° C, and then into the low-frequency induction furnace, was added when the cover begins to melt agent, covering agent component comprises 50% by mass of charcoal, 30% cullet, 10% NaCl, 10% CaF2, the covering thickness of 1.2mm, all melted mass was added accounted for 0.5% of copper, phosphor bronze as a deoxidizer, a slag after supplement covering agent, considering the physical and chemical properties of the elements, the 31 ,? 、附士、0按常规工艺依此加入铜熔体中,保温1511^11出炉; ② 浇铸:采用常规连续铸造工艺,水压机上锻压成坯; ③ 固溶处理:在940 °C下热处理1.5h再进行水淬处理,冷乳使合金产生60 %冷变形; ④ 时效强化:再将铸坯加热至460°C保温2.5h后,机械加工成所需形状。 , With disabilities, and so 0 is added according to conventional processes copper melt, heat released 1511 ^ 11; ② casting: the conventional continuous casting process, a hydraulic press forged into a billet; ③ solution treatment: heat treatment at 940 ° C 1.5h then quenched in water, the alloy cooled milk to produce 60% cold deformation; ④ aging treatment: after incubation and then the slab is heated to 2.5h, machined to the desired shape 460 ° C. 经检测,合金性能如下表所示: After testing, the alloy properties as follows:

Figure CN105803253AD00051

实施例二制备一种大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金,各组合金的成分及其含量(Wt% )包括:2.4% Ni、0.36%Cr、0.60%Si、0.03%P、Cu:余量; 所述大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺,包括以下步骤: ① 熔炼:先将电解铜预热至265°C,再装入低频感应炉中,开始熔化时加入覆盖剂,覆盖剂质量成分包括50 %木炭、30 %碎玻璃、10 %NaCl、10 % CaF2,使覆盖厚度达1.3mm,全部熔化后加入占铜质量0.6%的磷铜作为脱氧剂,进行扒渣,补充覆盖剂后,综合考虑各元素的理化性质,将31、? Preparing a second embodiment power generator rotor slot wedges alloy, a combination of each component and the content of gold (Wt%) comprising: 2.4% Ni, 0.36% Cr, 0.60% Si, 0.03% P, Cu: balance ; the power generator rotor slot wedges alloy production process, comprising the following: ① From smelting: first electrolytic copper preheated to 265 ° C, and then into the low-frequency induction furnace, covering agent is added at the start to melt, the cover agent component comprises 50% by mass of charcoal, 30% cullet, 10% NaCl, 10% CaF2, the covering thickness of 1.3mm, all melted mass was added accounted for 0.6% of copper, phosphor bronze as a deoxidizer, a slag, supplementary cover after the agent, considering the physical and chemical properties of the elements, the 31 ,? 、附士、0按常规工艺依此加入铜熔体中,保温1511^11出炉; ② 浇铸:采用常规连续铸造工艺,水压机上锻压成坯; ③ 固溶处理:在950 °C下热处理1.5h再进行水淬处理,冷乳使合金产生60 %冷变形; ④ 时效强化:再将铸坯加热至470°C保温2.5h后,机械加工成所需形状。 , With disabilities, and so 0 is added according to conventional processes copper melt, heat released 1511 ^ 11; ② casting: the conventional continuous casting process, a hydraulic press forged into a billet; ③ solution treatment: heat treatment at 950 ° C 1.5h then quenched in water, the alloy cooled milk to produce 60% cold deformation; ④ aging treatment: after incubation and then the slab is heated to 2.5h, machined to the desired shape 470 ° C. 经检测,合金性能如下表所示: 实施例三 After testing, the alloy properties shown in the following table: Example three

Figure CN105803253AD00052

制备一种大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金,各组合金的成分及其含量(Wt % )包括:2.6% Ni、0.40%Cr、0.65%Si、0.03%P、Cu:余量; 所述大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺,包括以下步骤: ①熔炼:先将电解铜预热至280°C,再装入低频感应炉中,开始熔化时加入覆盖剂,覆盖剂质量成分包括50 %木炭、30 %碎玻璃、10 %NaCl、10 % CaF2,使覆盖厚度达1.4mm,全部熔化后加入占铜质量0.7%的磷铜作为脱氧剂,进行扒渣,补充覆盖剂后,综合考虑各元素的理化性质,将31、? Preparing a power generator rotor slot wedges alloy, a combination of each component and the content of gold (Wt%) comprising: 2.6% Ni, 0.40% Cr, 0.65% Si, 0.03% P, Cu: balance; the a power generator rotor slot wedges alloy production process, comprising the following: ① From smelting: first electrolytic copper preheated to 280 ° C, and then into the low-frequency induction furnace, covering agent is added at the start to melt, the quality of coating agent composition comprising 50% charcoal, 30% cullet, 10% NaCl, 10% CaF2, that the rear cover thickness of 1.4mm, all melted mass was added accounted for 0.7% of copper, phosphor bronze as a deoxidizer, a slag, supplementary cover agent, considering all the elements of the physical and chemical properties, the 31 ,? 、附士、0按常规工艺依此加入铜熔体中,保温1511^11出炉; ② 浇铸:采用常规连续铸造工艺,水压机上锻压成坯; ③ 固溶处理:在960 °C下热处理1.5h再进行水淬处理,冷乳使合金产生60 %冷变形; ④ 时效强化:再将铸坯加热至480°C保温2.5h后,机械加工成所需形状。 , With disabilities, and so 0 is added according to conventional processes copper melt, heat released 1511 ^ 11; ② casting: the conventional continuous casting process, a hydraulic press forged into a billet; ③ solution treatment: heat treatment at 960 ° C 1.5h then quenched in water, the alloy cooled milk to produce 60% cold deformation; ④ aging treatment: after incubation and then the slab is heated to 2.5h, machined to the desired shape 480 ° C.

[0013]经检测,合金性能如下表所示: [0013] After testing, the alloy properties as follows:

Figure CN105803253AD00061

由上述三个实施例表明,采用本技术方案,所得合金材料,室温下,抗拉强度796~ 798MPa,屈服强度734~737MPa,延展率17.9~18.2%,导电率62~65%1405;500°(:下,抗拉强度689~692MPa,屈服强度644~647MPa,导电率高,耐高温性能好,寿命长,能满足大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的使用要求,确保了大功率发电机的安全可靠性。 From the above three examples show that, with the present technical solution, the resulting alloy material, at room temperature, 17.9 ~ 18.2% elongation, tensile strength conductivity 796 ~ 798MPa, a yield strength of 734 ~ 737MPa 62 ~ 65% 1405; 500 ° (:, the tensile strength of 689 ~ 692MPa, a yield strength of 644 ~ 647MPa, high conductivity, high temperature performance, long life, high-power generator to meet the requirements of the rotor slot wedges with an alloy, to ensure that the power generator security and reliability.

Claims (1)

1.一种生产大功率发电机转子槽楔用合金的生产工艺,所述合金的成分及其含量(Wt%)包括:Ni 2.4~2.6、Cr 0.36~0.40、Si 0.60~0·65、Ρ 0.02~0.03、Cu:余量;其特征在于,包括以下步骤: ① 熔炼:先将电解铜预热至250~280°C,再装入低频感应炉中,开始熔化时加入覆盖剂,使覆盖厚度达1.2~1.4mm,全部熔化后加入占铜质量0.5~0.7%的磷铜作为脱氧剂,进行扒渣,补充覆盖剂后,综合考虑各元素的理化性质,将Si、P、Ni、Cr按常规工艺依此加入铜熔体中,保温15min出炉; ② 浇铸:采用常规连续铸造工艺,水压机上锻压成坯; ③ 固溶处理:在940~960°C下热处理1.5h再进行水淬处理,冷乳使合金产生60%冷变形; ④ 时效强化:再将铸坯加热至460~480°C保温2.5h后,机械加工成所需形状;所述覆盖剂的成分及其含量(Wt%)为:50%木炭、30%碎玻璃、10%NaCl、10%CaF 2。 1. A process for producing high-power generator rotor slot wedges with an alloy production process, the composition of the alloy and its content (Wt%) comprising: Ni 2.4 ~ 2.6, Cr 0.36 ~ 0.40, Si 0.60 ~ 0 · 65, Ρ 0.02 ~ 0.03, Cu: balance; characterized by comprising: ① From smelting: first electrolytic copper preheated to 250 ~ 280 ° C, and then into the low-frequency induction furnace, covering agent is added at the start to melt, the covering thickness of 1.2 ~ 1.4mm, accounting for all melted copper is added 0.5 to 0.7% by mass of phosphor bronze as a deoxidizer, a slag, after covering agent added, considering the physical and chemical properties of each element, the Si, P, Ni, Cr by conventional technology so added copper melt, baked incubated 15min; ② casting: conventional continuous casting process, a hydraulic press forged into a billet; ③ solution treatment: 1.5h then water quenching heat treatment at 940 ~ 960 ° C cold milk to produce 60% of the alloy cold deformation; ④ age Hardening: heating the slab and then to 460 ~ 480 ° C after 2.5h, incubated machined into a desired shape; and the covering agent content of the component (Wt% ) was: 50% charcoal, 30% cullet, 10% NaCl, 10% CaF 2.
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