CN105711214A - 一种带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料及其制造方法 - Google Patents

一种带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料及其制造方法 Download PDF

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CN105711214A
CN105711214A CN201610093554.XA CN201610093554A CN105711214A CN 105711214 A CN105711214 A CN 105711214A CN 201610093554 A CN201610093554 A CN 201610093554A CN 105711214 A CN105711214 A CN 105711214A
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fiber
guide layer
layer
cloth
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梅天诚
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Suzhou Zhenruichang Material Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to PCT/CN2016/103786 priority patent/WO2017140124A1/zh
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    • B32B5/08Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer the fibres or filaments of a layer being of different substances, e.g. conjugate fibres, mixture of different fibres
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    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/24Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/26Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer another layer next to it also being fibrous or filamentary
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,包括层间增强的纤维预织件和基体树脂,所述层间增强的纤维预织件包含层铺好的玻璃毡、导流层纤维布和层间连续纤维,其中,所述导流层纤维布位于所述层铺好的玻璃毡的中间层位置,所述层铺好的玻璃毡和所述导流层纤维布通过所述层间连续纤维缝合在一起。本发明的层间增强纤维复合材料使得既能够在降低成本的同时增加复合材料的层间剪切强度,又可以保证树脂能够均匀浸透纤维预织件。

Description

一种带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料及其制造方法
技术领域
本发明涉及增强材料领域,具体涉及一种层间增强纤维复合材料及其制造方法,更具体地,设计一种适用于拉挤成型工艺的层间增强纤维预织件及其制造方法。
背景技术
以玻璃纤维为增强材料的玻璃钢具有轻质高强、耐腐防渗、隔热吸音、耐低温等综合优点,在建筑领域被大量利用,已经应用到绿色工业建筑、工业节能门窗、商场、体育馆、展览馆,其应用产品主要为屋面板、采光带、隔断板、墙板、地板、工业型材等。拉挤成型工艺是一种应用于建筑复合材料的主要成型工艺,其基本工艺过程是,纤维增强材料,在外力的牵引下,经浸胶、预成型模板导向、热模固化,得到型材制品,并按使用要求切成一定长度的过程。
在拉挤成型工艺中,应用最多的是玻璃纤维无捻粗纱、玻璃纤维连续毡及玻璃纤维表面毡等。这种成型工艺制备的复合材料,不仅具有良好的力学性能,而且可以连续化生产,已经广泛应用于玻璃钢等复合材料的生产与制造。然而这种复合材料具有各向异性,易出现层间分层,使其层间剪切强度明显下降。如何提高拉挤工艺成型板材的层间剪切强度是目前急需解决的难题。
通过三维编织以及缝合技术,虽然完美的解决复合材料的层间剪切强度与断裂韧性问题,但是对设备的要求高,而且成本昂贵,仅限于航空航天等高端领域。对于建筑等民用领域来说,其复杂的结构和高昂的制造成本,限制了该技术的发展。
此外,随着现代工业的发展,拉挤成型的复合材料越来越大型化,不仅厚度明显增加,而且尺寸也大幅提升。因此在拉挤成型加工过程中,由于纤维预制件的厚度较大,且各向异性,树脂很难均匀浸透纤维预织件,容易造成拉挤成型后复合材料的缺胶等缺陷。
因此,在现有的玻璃钢复合材料中,如何在降低成本的同时提高纤维增强复合材料的层间剪切结构,且保证树脂能够均匀浸透纤维预织件,是目前建筑用纤维增强复合材料领域急需解决的问题。
发明内容
本发明所要解决的技术问题在于克服前述技术存在的上述缺陷,提供一种适用于拉挤成型工艺的带导流层的层间增强纤维预织件及其制造方法,使得既能够在降低成本的同时增加复合材料的层间剪切强度,又可以保证树脂能够均匀浸透纤维预织件。
为解决上述技术问题,本发明采取的技术方案如下:
一种带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,包括层间增强的纤维预织件和基体树脂,所述层间增强的纤维预织件包含层铺好的玻璃毡、导流层纤维布和层间连续纤维,其中,所述导流层纤维布位于所述层铺好的玻璃毡的中间层位置,所述层铺好的玻璃毡和所述导流层纤维布通过所述层间连续纤维缝合在一起。
进一步地,所述导流层纤维布根据所述层间增强的纤维预织件的厚度变化灵活设置为1-3层。
进一步地,所述导流层纤维布为聚烯烃纤维单向布。
进一步地,所述导流层纤维布为聚丙烯纤维单向布。
进一步地,所述导流层纤维布为碳纤维单向布或高分子量聚烯烃网格布。
进一步地,所述玻璃毡为纯玻璃纤维与短切玻璃纤维的混织物。
进一步地,所述玻璃毡为玻璃纤维、玄武岩纤维以及碳纤维的混织物。
进一步地,所述层间连续纤维采用高强玻璃纤维、碳纤维或玄武岩纤维。
进一步地,所述基体树脂是不饱和树脂、乙烯基树脂以及酚醛树脂中的一种或几种。
同时,本发明还提供了一种如上所述的层间增强纤维复合材料的制造方法,先将玻璃毡进行层铺,再将导流层纤维布加入层铺好的玻璃毡的中间层位置,然后运用缝纫技术,通过层间连续纤维将所述层铺好的玻璃毡和所述导流层纤维布缝合在一起,再利用基体树脂将缝合后的玻璃毡通过拉挤工艺成型,即可制得所述层间增强纤维复合材料。
本发明与现有技术相比具有如下显著的优点和有益效果:
1.本发明预织件采用了具有增强作用的纤维布作为导流层,在树脂浸渍过程中,能够均匀浸透纤维毡,使获得的复合材料性能稳定。
2.由于预织件采用了玻璃毡等连续纤维毡进行层铺,运用的缝纫技术设备简单,易于操作,且可以连续化生产,制备的层间增强预织件的成本不会增加太高。
3.通过拉挤成型工艺由本发明的层间增强的纤维预织件制得的复合材料,相对于传统的拉挤成型的复合材料,其力学性能明显提高,层间剪切强度提高50%以上。
附图说明
图1为本发明的层间增强的纤维预织件的结构图。
附图标记说明:
1、玻璃毡,2、导流层纤维布,
3、层间连续纤维。
具体实施方式
为充分公开的目的,以下将结合实施例对本发明做进一步详细说明。应当理解,以下所述的具体实施例仅用于解释本发明,并非用于限定本发明的保护范围。
本发明公开的层间增强纤维复合材料包括层间增强的纤维预织件和基体树脂,其中,层间增强的纤维预织件包含层铺好的玻璃毡1、导流层纤维布2和层间连续纤维3,并且层铺好的玻璃毡1和导流层纤维布2通过层间连续纤维3缝合在一起。
以不饱和树脂、乙烯基树脂以及酚醛树脂等为基体,层间增强的纤维预织件通过拉挤工艺成型,即可制得复合材料。所用的不饱和树脂、乙烯基树脂以及酚醛树脂的加工工艺满足拉挤成型工艺的需要。
玻璃毡可以用纯玻璃纤维与短切玻璃纤维的混织物,也可以采用玻璃纤维、玄武岩纤维、以及碳纤维等混织纤维制备连续纤维织物;优选采用纯玻璃纤维与短切玻璃纤维织成的玻璃毡。缝合用连续纤维采用高强玻璃纤维、碳纤维以及玄武岩纤维;优选采用玻璃纤维和玄武岩纤维。基体树脂可以采用常规的适用于拉挤成型工艺的不饱和脂树脂、乙烯基树脂以及酚醛树。
导流层可以采用聚烯烃纤维单向布,如聚丙烯纤维单向布、聚乙烯纤维单向布,这种纤维具有光滑表面的棒状结构,轻质高强,耐磨性能良好。优先采用聚丙烯纤维单向布。
导流层也可以采用碳纤维单向布,碳纤维单向布是指在一个方向(通常是经向)具有大量的碳纤维丝,在另一方向只有少量并且通常是细的碳纤维丝。
导流层还可以采用挤出的具有高渗透性的高分子量聚烯烃网格布,其有利于树脂的流动和渗透。
可根据被成型制品的所需流速,选用不同平方克重的导流布,也可根据被成型制品的结构,设计多层导流布层叠的铺放结构,实现对树脂流动状态的有效控制,从而提高复杂制品成型工艺的可靠性和产品质量。
具体的预织件制造步骤如下:
1.连续玻璃毡的层铺
将编织好的连续玻璃毡进行层铺,在连续纤维层铺过程中,引入增强渗透作用的导流层以一定的铺层方式加入连续纤维毡的层铺中,层铺的连续玻璃毡的宽度可以为20-2000mm,优选1000-1500mm,层数根据产品的需要进行选择,即层铺的厚度可以进行控制。导流层置于层铺中间位置,根据层铺厚度需求,导流层的层数可以增加。
2.层间缝合
将层铺好的连续玻璃毡进行缝合。
以上所述实施例仅表达了本发明的实施方式,其描述较为具体和详细,但并不能因此而理解为对本发明专利范围的限制。应当指出的是,对于本领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明构思的前提下,还可以做出若干变形和改进,这些都属于本发明的保护范围。因此,本发明专利的保护范围应以所附权利要求为准。

Claims (10)

1.一种带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,包括层间增强的纤维预织件和基体树脂,其特征在于:所述层间增强的纤维预织件包含层铺好的玻璃毡、导流层纤维布和层间连续纤维,其中,所述导流层纤维布位于所述层铺好的玻璃毡的中间层位置,所述层铺好的玻璃毡和所述导流层纤维布通过所述层间连续纤维缝合在一起。
2.根据权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于,所述导流层纤维布根据所述层间增强的纤维预织件的厚度变化灵活设置为1-3层。
3.根据权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于,所述导流层纤维布为聚烯烃纤维单向布。
4.根据权利要求2所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于,所述导流层纤维布为聚丙烯纤维单向布。
5.根据权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于,所述导流层纤维布为碳纤维单向布或高分子量聚烯烃网格布。
6.根据权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于:所述玻璃毡为纯玻璃纤维与短切玻璃纤维的混织物。
7.根据权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于:所述玻璃毡为玻璃纤维、玄武岩纤维以及碳纤维的混织物。
8.根据权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于,所述层间连续纤维采用高强玻璃纤维、碳纤维或玄武岩纤维。
9.根据权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料,其特征在于:所述基体树脂是不饱和树脂、乙烯基树脂以及酚醛树脂中的一种或几种。
10.一种如权利要求1所述的带导流层的层间增强纤维复合材料的制造方法,其特征在于,先将玻璃毡进行层铺,再将导流层纤维布加入层铺好的玻璃毡的中间层位置,然后运用缝纫技术,通过层间连续纤维将所述层铺好的玻璃毡和所述导流层纤维布缝合在一起,再利用基体树脂将缝合后的玻璃毡通过拉挤工艺成型,即可制得所述层间增强纤维复合材料。
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