CN105406515A - Hierarchically-controlled independent microgrid - Google Patents

Hierarchically-controlled independent microgrid Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105406515A
CN105406515A CN201511025886.6A CN201511025886A CN105406515A CN 105406515 A CN105406515 A CN 105406515A CN 201511025886 A CN201511025886 A CN 201511025886A CN 105406515 A CN105406515 A CN 105406515A
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microgrid
energy
power
sub
level
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CN105406515B (en
Inventor
姜桂秀
舒杰
崔琼
张继元
黄磊
吴志锋
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Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion of CAS
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Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion of CAS
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J13/00Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network
    • H02J13/0006Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for single frequency AC networks
    • H02J13/0013Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for single frequency AC networks characterised by transmission structure between the control or monitoring unit and the controlled or monitored unit
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/12Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks for adjusting voltage in ac networks by changing a characteristic of the network load
    • H02J3/14Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks for adjusting voltage in ac networks by changing a characteristic of the network load by switching loads on to, or off from, network, e.g. progressively balanced loading
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/003Load forecast, e.g. methods or systems for forecasting future load demand
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/383Solar energy, e.g. photovoltaic energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/386Wind energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/388Islanding, i.e. disconnection of local power supply from the network
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B70/00Technologies for an efficient end-user side electric power management and consumption
    • Y02B70/30Systems integrating technologies related to power network operation and communication or information technologies for improving the carbon footprint of the management of residential or tertiary loads, i.e. smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the buildings sector, including also the last stages of power distribution and the control, monitoring or operating management systems at local level
    • Y02B70/3225Demand response systems, e.g. load shedding, peak shaving
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/76Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S20/00Management or operation of end-user stationary applications or the last stages of power distribution; Controlling, monitoring or operating thereof
    • Y04S20/20End-user application control systems
    • Y04S20/222Demand response systems, e.g. load shedding, peak shaving

Abstract

The invention provides a hierarchically-controlled independent microgrid. According to the microgrid, as for regional energy supply demands, comprehensive utilization of power generated from a plurality of kinds of renewable energy sources is mainly adopted, and power generated by fuel gas/oil and stored energy is adopted auxiliarily. With the microgrid which is practically applicable and is established as the modes mentioned above adopted, the power supplying quality of a distributed power source and the utilization efficiency of clean energy can be improved, and the consumption of fossil resources and environmental pollutant emission can be decreased; distributed power generation accommodating capacity can be enhanced, long-term stable electricity utilization demands can be met, and large-area power blackout can be avoided. The hierarchically-controlled independent microgrid has application and demonstration significances.

Description

The independent micro-grid of grading control
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of power systems, be specifically related to a kind of independent micro-grid of grading control.
Background technology
Strengthen the fundamental research of regenerative resource integrated utilization technology energetically, promote that the extensive efficient integrated utilization of regenerative resource is the great basic research problems that current energy field is badly in need of solving.According to local resources condition, choose reasonable comprehensive utilization multiple renewable energy sources (wind energy, solar energy, oceanic energy, biomass energy, standby diesel engine etc.), composition distribution type renewable energy power supply system, form microgrid, realizing independent operating or be incorporated into the power networks, is the Main way of regenerative resource efficiency utilization from now on.
Microgrid is the important component part of intelligent grid, be one can teaching display stand control, the autonomous system of protect and manage.By rational electric energy management in microgrid, realize the control to the quality of power supply, and control electric permutable change between micro-capacitance sensor and public electric wire net, overcome the problem that distributed power generation easily suddenlys change.Multi-energy complementation distributed micro-grid technology can to micro-grid system realize energy Optimized Operation distribute, system effectiveness maximize, system safety reliability service.At present comparative maturity is studied to single renewable energy technologies and control thereof, but to the fundamental research problem that the application of multiple renewable energy sources Integration ofTechnology and microgrid are correlated with, comprise the optimization networking technology of distribution type renewable energy system micro-capacitance sensor, architecture, micro-capacitance sensor independence and control research of being incorporated into the power networks, the energy conservation of micro-capacitance sensor and scheduling strategy, micro-capacitance sensor wireless telecommunications and remote monitoring, micro-capacitance sensor is on the impact of grid-connected system, the frequency conversion adapted with Distributed Renewable Energy Power System, the research such as the change of current and safeguard measure also needs to strengthen dropping into, relevant basic theory problem is controlled to solve Distributed Renewable Energy Power System and microgrid, promote the extensive efficient Integrated predict model of regenerative resource.
Regenerative resource independent power station and distributed power generation micro-grid system technology thereof can realize the maximization of system effectiveness, are one of main development directions of regenerative resource efficiency utilization from now on.Not only can solve away from the eco-energy project in the power supply of electrical network and some Special section (high mountain, island), rural development, highway signal and illumination, customer power supply etc. that power supply cost is high, also can be used as effectively supplementing of main electrical network, improve the safety and reliability of power transmission and transformation, reduce line energy loss, its marketing application prospect a slice is bright.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the independent micro-grid proposing a kind of grading control, for region energy supply demand, with multiple renewable energy sources, (generation comprehensive is utilized as master, and combustion gas/fry dried food ingredients electricity, energy storage power generation are auxiliary.The applicable independent micro-grid of the reality set up based on this can improve the power supply quality of distributed power source and the utilization ratio of clean energy resource, reduces consumption and the environmental contaminants discharge of fossil resource; Strengthen distributed power generation and receive ability, meet need for electricity steady in a long-term, avoid large area blackout, there is Applied D emonstration meaning.
For achieving the above object, the concrete technical scheme that the present invention takes is:
An independent micro-grid for grading control, comprises higher level's microgrid and some sub-microgrids;
Every sub-microgrid includes renewable energy power generation unit, energy storage device and load;
Every sub-microgrid includes renewable energy power generation unit, energy storage device and load, renewable energy power generation unit and load are all connected to ac bus, energy storage device is connected to DC bus, every sub-microgrid is using two way convertor as the interface equipment with higher level's microgrid, and three groups of terminals of two way convertor distinguish the DC bus of the ac bus of connexon microgrids, the ac bus of higher level's microgrid, the energy storage device of sub-microgrid;
Sub-microgrid is under superior microgrid transmission mode, sub-microgrid according to the instruction superior microgrid of higher level's microgrid according to specified power transmission of electric energy, the electricity consumption of sub-microgrid inside is simultaneously powered by renewable energy power generation unit, taken when renewable energy power generation power is greater than load, unnecessary electric energy will charge for energy storage device, taking when renewable energy power generation power is less than load, not enough electric energy is supplemented by energy storage device;
Sub-microgrid is under obtaining power mode from higher level's microgrid, sub-microgrid obtains electric energy from higher level's microgrid according to specified power according to the instruction of higher level's microgrid, in group microgrid, renewable energy power generation power is greater than load and takes, energy storage device for sub-microgrid charges by unnecessary electric energy, the electric energy obtained from higher level's microgrid also will charge for energy storage device, taken when renewable energy power generation power is less than load, not enough electric energy breach relies on the electric energy obtained from higher level's microgrid to supplement, and also will be defined as energy storage device charge or discharge according to power supply and electricity consumption situation simultaneously.
The independent micro-grid of grading control of the present invention, adopt two-step evolution structure, sub-microgrid is using two way convertor as the interface equipment with higher level's micro-capacitance sensor, and sub-microgrid two way convertor is inner relative to sub-microgrid to be run as a voltage source, the voltage of determinant micro-capacitance sensor bus; Running as a combining inverter in power transmission situation relative to higher level's microgrid, running as a synchronous rectifier when obtaining electric energy from higher level's microgrid.Thus the transformation of electrical energy work completed between higher level's microgrid and sub-microgrid, improve the power supply quality of distributed power source and the utilization ratio of clean energy resource, reduce consumption and the environmental contaminants discharge of fossil resource; Strengthen distributed power generation and receive ability, meet need for electricity steady in a long-term, avoid large area blackout, there is Applied D emonstration meaning.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the independent micro-grid of grading control of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the main circuit topological structure of motor synchronizing two way convertor;
Fig. 3 is the main circuit topological structure of three port two way convertors;
The independent micro-grid energy management control flow chart of Fig. 4 grading control;
Fig. 5 is independent micro-grid intelligent scheduling Control system architecture figure.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in detail with specific embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings below, but not as a limitation of the invention.
The independent micro-grid of grading control of the present invention comprises and comprises higher level's microgrid and some sub-microgrids.
Each microgrid in the present embodiment adopts ac bus structure, and as shown in Figure 1, all distributed power sources, energy storage, load are all connected to 380V low-voltage bus bar, and are connected with 10KV power transmission and transformation system by transformer.Structurally, microgrid can be considered and is made up of with some similar sub-microgrids main microgrid, and every sub-microgrid is all made up of renewable energy power generation unit (photovoltaic generation, wind power generation etc.), energy storage device and load.This independent micro-grid allows under one-level microgrid, there is multiple sub-microgrid, and sub-microgrid is exchanged by the electric energy controlled between itself and higher level's microgrid, becomes a steady load of higher level's microgrid, facilitates the electric energy of higher level's microgrid to dispatch.According to this framework, under numerous small-sized micro-capacitance sensor can being integrated into a large micro-capacitance sensor framework, in theory can unconfined dilatation.
Sub-microgrid is using two way convertor as the interface equipment with higher level's micro-capacitance sensor, three groups of terminals connexon micro-capacitance sensor ac bus, higher level's micro-capacitance sensor ac bus, energy storage device DC bus respectively of two way convertor, the electric energy allotment between triple bus-bar is controlled by two way convertor completely.Sub-microgrid mainly can be divided into two kinds of mode of operations, the first runs when sub-microgrid superior microgrid power transmission, in such a mode, sub-microgrid according to the instruction superior microgrid of higher level's microgrid according to specified power transmission of electric energy, the electricity consumption of sub-microgrid inside is simultaneously powered by renewable energy power generation, taken when renewable energy power generation power is greater than load, energy storage device for sub-microgrid charges by unnecessary electric energy, taking when renewable energy power generation power is less than load, not enough electric energy is supplemented by energy storage device.The second mode of operation is that sub-microgrid internal electric energy obtains the situation of electric energy from higher level's microgrid, in such a mode, sub-microgrid obtains electric energy from higher level's microgrid according to specified power according to the instruction of higher level's microgrid, in group microgrid, renewable energy power generation power is greater than load and takes, energy storage device for sub-microgrid charges by unnecessary electric energy, and the electric energy obtained from higher level's microgrid also will charge for energy storage device.Taking when renewable energy power generation power is less than load, not enough electric energy breach relies on the electric energy obtained from higher level's microgrid to supplement, and also will be defined as energy storage device charge or discharge power according to power supply and electricity consumption situation simultaneously.Sub-microgrid two way convertor is inner relative to sub-microgrid to be run as a voltage source, the voltage of determinant micro-capacitance sensor bus; Running as a combining inverter in power transmission situation relative to higher level's microgrid, running as a synchronous rectifier when obtaining electric energy from higher level's microgrid.
Distributed generation unit in independent micro-grid is based on photovoltaic generation unit, wind power generation unit and auxiliary diesel engine generator unit, and biomass fermentation electric unit and power generation with marine energy unit are auxiliary.Biomass power generation unit and power generation with marine energy unit consider whether access depending on the real resource condition of microgrid addressing, as when there being enough biogas supplies, and accessible biogas power generation unit, its access way is by generating set direct grid-connected; When in time having the marine site that can utilize enough greatly wave energy, accessible power generation with marine energy unit, its access way is by " hawk formula " wave energy apparatus being accessed microgrid for bank formula load (storage battery) power supply transmission of electricity.The allocation ratio of each renewable energy power generation unit in microgrid, then mainly be considered as photovoltaic generation and the wind power generation of microgrid renewable energy power generation first-selection, according to the historical data of actual weather conditions and photovoltaic generation, wind power generation, determine the installed capacity allocation ratio of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation, and the appropriate proportionate relationship of they and total installation of generating capacity.
Energy storage device in independent micro-grid is mainly storage battery homenergic type battery energy storage device, also can consider that access super capacitor, flywheel constant power type energy storage device are as auxiliary.
Load in independent micro-grid comprises the sub-microgrid of power load, Peak Load and the steady load as higher level's microgrid:
1, power load can be divided into sensitive load, controllable burden and can cutting load according to its significance level, and sensitive load requires continuous uninterrupted power supply, and controllable burden where necessary can interruption of power supply, can excise at any time by cutting load;
2, Peak Load adopts ice making/cold-storage Peak Load system, to coordinate regulating and controlling for electricity consumption of independent micro-grid, adapts to current capacity peak regulation needs.This system mainly configures and comprises ice machine, cooling by water tower and large-scale ice bank, its control system comprises the operational factor display of each critical component, the optimization of operating parameters and fault alarm etc. of whole system, and by demand analyzing resident's production, life, and in conjunction with the operational factor of independent micro-grid, and weather statistical data for many years, the cold storage capacity in future is effectively predicted, fully reduce invalid cold-storage thus, increase substantially the efficiency of cold accumulation system, whole power consumption reduces by more than 20%;
Electrical energy changer in independent micro-grid is mainly two way convertor.Microgrid two way convertor is the key hardware device of whole system, according to networking and run control needs, inversion or rectification state can be operated in, can be used to the two-way flow of setting up voltage reference signal and realizing power, its topological structure as shown in Figure 2:
1, Fig. 2 is the main circuit topological structure of motor synchronizing two way convertor, its former limit is three single-phase full bridge circuit, secondary adopts Y connection, filter inductance and output transformer adopt integrated three magnetic column iron core structures, can ensure at balance/imbalance, under linear/non-linear load, control output voltage, current waveform is good, harmonic wave is few, easily realizes.
The control of current transformer is mainly divided into two parts, is respectively phase-locked control and voltage waveform control.The phase angle difference of a phase voltage reference sine table positive going zeror crossing point and lock-out pulse rising edge, PWM value wave period is adjusted after carrying out scale operation, both realizations zero phase error is phase-locked, and a phase voltage can obtain with reference to sine table successively time delay 120 degree and 240 degree with reference to voltage waveform by b phase and c phase.
Adopt the pulse of Optical Fiber Transmission common synchronization, in micro-capacitance sensor, each two way convertor is using common synchronization pulse as phase-locked reference, really realizes the modularization of two way convertor, distributed access.
Unit and multi-machine parallel connection operation can be realized by the sharing control of two way convertor, expand power system capacity.
2, Fig. 3 is the main circuit topological structure of three port two way convertors, the two cover main circuits adopting inversion and rectification to separate, on the basis of traditional ups power, four-quadrant high-power frequency conversion technology is adopted to carry out secondary transformation to UPS inverter, can realize " the coupling link " of two way convertor both sides, make different frequency, the distributed generation unit of different electric pressure connected by energy-storage system, thus microgrid can be divided into the less sub-microgrid of scale and accept upper strata scheduling;
The energy management of independent micro-grid adopts two-step evolution structure.Top level control is according to the information received, and reference distribution formula generator unit is exerted oneself and predicted and load prediction results, considers the practical operation situation of current microgrid, calculates formation control instruction by optimizing; Bottom control mainly contain generator unit control, energy storage device management and load management.
1, generate electricity trend prediction, according to micro-capacitance sensor running status, constantly revise self-operating state, set up expert system, apply fuzzy technology and BP nerual network technique and prediction is proposed to the power of operating photovoltaic plant, pre-estimate the situation of generated output change.Rational management generate output, utilizes solar energy resources fully, obtains more economic benefit and social benefit.
2, load trend prediction, according to weather, temperature, day the factor such as type on the impact of load, apply fuzzy technology and current loads predicted.
3, the control of generator unit, changes the working method of generator unit, regulates the power stage of generator unit according to the control command of EMS.EMS is according to the output characteristic of monitoring result adjustment generator unit, and when workload demand increases, order generator unit increases power output or actuating section micro battery; When workload demand reduces, order generator unit reduces power output or closed portion generator unit.
4, the management of energy storage device, according to the discharge and recharge of micro-capacitance sensor actual power and demand side management energy storage device, and carries out real-time detection management to the state-of-charge of energy storage device, health degree, security performance.
5, load management, distributes exerting oneself of micro battery according to payload, keeps the balance of micro battery generating and load electricity consumption in micro-capacitance sensor.Excising general load when breaking down, guaranteeing the power supply of important load.
The control strategy of microgrid energy management takes manage large enterprises well while ease control over small ones, part controlling functions is put into sub-microgrid or distributed power source interface, allow sub-microgrid or distributed power source interface equipment take on the spot the mode of " autonomy ", reduce the dependence to higher level's control system:
Under grid-connect mode, voltage and the frequency of microgrid are all determined by bulk power grid.Energy-storage system mainly plays balancing energy regulating action, realizes the dynamic equilibrium of microgrid internal energy, maximally utilises regenerative resource.Now the renewable energy power generation such as blower fan and photovoltaic all adopts PQ to control (also referred to as power limitation control), carries out maximum power tracing.Specific strategy is: when load is less than renewable energy power generation power output summation in microgrid, and by controlling energy accumulation current converter to charge in batteries, until storage battery is full of, microgrid just carries unnecessary electric energy to bulk power grid; Otherwise when load is greater than renewable energy power generation power output summation in microgrid, make battery discharging by controlling energy accumulation current converter, until storage battery can not continue electric discharge, microgrid is just from bulk power grid absorption portion electric energy.In addition, depend on the instruction control of Dispatching Control System to energy accumulation current converter and the power bi-directional rapid adjustability of energy accumulation current converter, energy-storage system also can carry out the quick adjustment of power, the fluctuation effectively reducing the renewable energy power generation such as wind-powered electricity generation and photovoltaic power output on the impact of bulk power grid and load, thus ensures the safe operation of electrical network and the reliable power supply of load.
Be different from grid-connect mode under island mode, the adjustment of power shortage and frequency must rely on each generator unit in microgrid, energy storage and control.Therefore the energy regulation goal that system economy optimum, power supply reliability are the highest, energy storage distribution is optimum will be realized, must feeder line trend in flexible microgrid, regulate the voltage at each micro generation unit interface place, ensure the stability of voltage.Concrete control flow such as Fig. 4 shows.First two way convertor is set as V/f pattern, set up microgrid reference voltage and frequency, at this moment energy provides primarily of energy-storage system; Then by wind-force and photovoltaic system grid-connected, microgrid Dispatching Control System enters background loop traffic control pattern, constantly monitoring generator unit power output (wind-force and photovoltaic system), bearing power.If generator unit power output is greater than bearing power, then first seeing whether fuel electric generator starts, then stopping its work as started.Continue to monitor, if generator unit power output is still greater than bearing power, then charges until reach charging upper limit to energy-storage system, then start tunable load afterwards.On the contrary, if monitor generator unit power output to be less than bearing power, then first seeing if there is tunable load can excise, if have, excise it, if not, start energy storage system discharges, until reach electric discharge lower limit, start stand-by power supply fuel electric generator afterwards, to ensure that microgrid is powered.To meet an urgent need means as one, when entering island mode, if energy-storage system does not have enough electric energy to support important load, stand-by power supply fuel electric generator can be set as V/f pattern, set up microgrid reference voltage and frequency.Later control is similar to the control under grid-connect mode, and difference now only ensures that important load is powered, and do not start general load.
Independent micro-grid intelligent scheduling control system, monitors the running status of microgrid whole system, and carries out control and management according to multi-objective coordinated control strategy to microgrid composed component according to actual conditions.This system is designed and developed in the Control & data acquisition system-based summing up advanced person both at home and abroad, and utilize network technology to ensure that the real-time of system, all modules all use object-oriented programming method, and system is easy to safeguard, expansion is convenient.System is completely free of the dependence to particular hardware platform, supports the multiple operating platforms such as WINDOWSNT/2000/XP/2003, configures convenient, flexible.Its general structure as shown in Figure 5; system main website layer comprises database, SCADA, EMS, DA subsystem, and system substation layer comprises distributed power source, energy-storage units, distribution network feeder, point stage load and related management equipment (as piconet controller, measuring and controlling protective device etc.) thereof.Main website layer is communicated by 100/1000M optical fiber ring network with substation layer.
(1) SCADA server
Having the function of primary processor and server, is the center that supervisory control system data collection process, storage, distribution and order issue.Server is again the Surveillance center of whole network simultaneously.Server is generally dual-computer redundancy configuration.Every platform opening computer in master server real time monitoring network, shutdown, network failure snoop results being broadcast in whole network, in such network, any computer can see the ruuning situation of whole network.The operation conditions of standby server monitors master server, when master server breaks down, standby server becomes main frame automatically, and the spatial database of active/standby server keeps unified, and manually can carry out two-way data unification or backup.
(2) operator station
The primary human interface of automated system in standing, for figure and the display of report display, logout and alarm condition and inquiry, the inquiry of equipment state and parameter, Operating Guideline, the formation of operation control command and assigning.By operator station, operator can realize operation monitoring and the operation control of full institute equipment.
(3) SFC support station
Carry out system maintenance for system manager, can the definition amendment of completion system configuration database, the definition amendment of system configuration figure, the making amendment of form, and the work such as network operation, system diagnostics.
(4) other work station (optional)
For the computer of all departments' designs such as chief, chief engineer, livelihood, electricity consumption, maintenance, these computers surveillance can only run picture, can not modify to system or send the orders such as remote control remote regulating.
(5) Communications Interface Unit
Communications Interface Unit, comprises remote station, communication front end processor etc., can carry out equipment apolegamy by system requirements and networking model.Active/standby front end processor stand-by heat each other, manual/auto switching.When two front end processors defined run, the machine first running front end processor program is exactly main front end processor; Main front end processor completes all tasks that front end processor will complete, front end processor timing for subsequent use and main front end processor, carry out simple communication, intercept the running status of main front end processor, for a certain reason with the communication disruption of main front end processor, front end processor for subsequent use just rises to main front end processor (time of automatic switchover is not more than 30 seconds).Active/standby passage stand-by heat each other, manual/auto switching.
Communication front end processor then can be used for accessing each transformer station integrated system, supports Ethernet, serial communication port etc.Functionally, the information such as front end processor gathering system analog quantity, switching value and electricity, after protocol transform and process, with network interface connecting system station level monitoring network, or with various Telecontrol Protocol, transmit letter by analog channel, digital channel or network to dispatching terminal.
(6) network equipment
System adopts the network switch as network access device, also can match other equipment such as fire compartment wall, router, gateway.
The network equipment adopts technical grade product, and netting twine adopts super Category 5, Shielded twisted-pair feeder, also can adopt optical fiber.
(7) satellite clock check and correction equipment
Equipment when full station arranges a set of GPS couple, can follow the tracks of gps satellite 8, start satellite capture time≤1min, antenna rf sensitivity is-170dB, feeder line 1.56GHZ, 0.4dB/m, RS-232C/RS422/485 >=4, to time error < 1ms.
Above-listed detailed description is illustrating for possible embodiments of the present invention, and this embodiment is also not used to limit the scope of the claims of the present invention, and the equivalence that all the present invention of disengaging do is implemented or changed, and all should be contained in the scope of the claims of this case.

Claims (3)

1. an independent micro-grid for grading control, is characterized in that,
Comprise higher level's microgrid and some sub-microgrids;
Every sub-microgrid includes renewable energy power generation unit, energy storage device and load;
Every sub-microgrid includes renewable energy power generation unit, energy storage device and load, renewable energy power generation unit and load are all connected to ac bus, energy storage device is connected to DC bus, every sub-microgrid is using two way convertor as the interface equipment with higher level's microgrid, and three groups of terminals of two way convertor distinguish the DC bus of the ac bus of connexon microgrids, the ac bus of higher level's microgrid, the energy storage device of sub-microgrid;
Sub-microgrid is under superior microgrid transmission mode, sub-microgrid according to the instruction superior microgrid of higher level's microgrid according to specified power transmission of electric energy, the electricity consumption of sub-microgrid inside is simultaneously powered by renewable energy power generation unit, taken when renewable energy power generation power is greater than load, unnecessary electric energy will charge for energy storage device, taking when renewable energy power generation power is less than load, not enough electric energy is supplemented by energy storage device;
Sub-microgrid is under obtaining power mode from higher level's microgrid, sub-microgrid obtains electric energy from higher level's microgrid according to specified power according to the instruction of higher level's microgrid, in group microgrid, renewable energy power generation power is greater than load and takes, energy storage device for sub-microgrid charges by unnecessary electric energy, the electric energy obtained from higher level's microgrid also will charge for energy storage device, taken when renewable energy power generation power is less than load, not enough electric energy breach relies on the electric energy obtained from higher level's microgrid to supplement, and also will be defined as energy storage device charge or discharge according to power supply and electricity consumption situation simultaneously.
2. the independent micro-grid of grading control according to claim 1, is characterized in that,
Renewable energy power generation unit is based on photovoltaic generation unit, wind power generation unit and auxiliary diesel engine generator unit, and biomass fermentation electric unit and power generation with marine energy unit are auxiliary.
3. the independent micro-grid of grading control according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that,
Two way convertor is three port two way convertors or accumulation energy type motor synchronizing two way convertor;
Two way convertor is inner relative to sub-microgrid to be run as a voltage source, the voltage of determinant micro-capacitance sensor bus; Running as a combining inverter in power transmission situation relative to higher level's microgrid, running as a synchronous rectifier when obtaining electric energy from higher level's microgrid.
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