CN105232155B - Operating robot adjusts system - Google Patents

Operating robot adjusts system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105232155B
CN105232155B CN201510567702.2A CN201510567702A CN105232155B CN 105232155 B CN105232155 B CN 105232155B CN 201510567702 A CN201510567702 A CN 201510567702A CN 105232155 B CN105232155 B CN 105232155B
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China
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arm
target mirror
optics target
coordinate system
mechanical arm
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CN201510567702.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105232155A (en
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何超
王家寅
师云雷
朱祥
徐丹红
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微创(上海)医疗机器人有限公司
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Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of operating robots to adjust system, by being respectively provided with optics target mirror on each mechanical arm, position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror are measured using optical tracker, computing module is according to above-mentioned measured value, calculate the posture mapping relations obtained between optics target mirror, according to the posture mapping relations between above-mentioned optics target mirror, and the posture mapping relations between the optics target mirror on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of each mechanical arm, calculate the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm.Operating robot carries out Pose Control according to the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm, to corresponding surgical instrument arm, improves the motion control accuracy of operating robot.

Description

Operating robot adjusts system

Technical field

The present invention relates to the field of medical instrument technology, more particularly to a kind of operating robot adjusts system.

Background technology

The Micro trauma surgical operation using laparoscope as representative is produced in earlier 1900s, i.e. doctor passes through elongated operation Tool is deep into inside of human body by the miniature incision of human body surface and is operated, but this kind of laparoscopic surgery technology exists The tool degree of freedom of wearing lacks, reverse operating inaccurate coordination, the defect for lacking stereoscopic vision.

Receive domestic and international doctor's based on defect, review of computer aided surgery system existing for above-mentioned laparoscopic surgery technology Favor, wherein especially the most prominent with Micro trauma surgical operation robot system.

During minimally invasive surgery, for different operative sites and different surgical procedures, operation is needed to start rank Section by adjusting operating robot operating position so that doctor can it is more convenient, favorably accomplish surgical procedure.Patent Da Vinci surgery systems described in CN102579133A, referring to FIG. 1, as shown in Figure 1, operating robot adjustment system is total Share four mechanical arms (figure label be respectively 1., 2., 3., 4.), every mechanical arm includes adjustment arm 2 ' (four machines in figure The adjustment arm of tool arm marked as:2 ' -1,2 ' -2,2 ' -3,2 ' -4) master arm 3 ' being connect with the adjustment arm 2 ' is (four in figure The master arm of mechanical arm marked as:3 ' -1,3 ' -2,3 ' -3,3 ' -4) the surgical instrument arm 4 ' and with the master arm 3 ' connecting (the surgical instrument arm of four mechanical arms is marked as 4 ' -1,4 ' -2,4 ' -3,4 ' -4 in figure), adjustment arm 2 ' are fixed on pedestal, upper use In the integral position for adjusting mechanical arm in the preoperative, master arm is used to further adjust the whole position for the surgical instrument arm being attached thereto Set, surgical instrument arm is used to carry out minimally invasive surgery to patient 5 ', adjusts arm 2 ', master arm 3 ', between surgical instrument arm 4 ' and It is connected by joint between its internal each component.And in Micro trauma surgical operation robot system each joint precision influence and Decide the kinematic accuracy and working performance of entire robot system.Wherein, the precision of operating robot adjustment system is again to whole The control accuracy of a system influences very big.During minimally invasive surgery, the inaccurate measurement in any joint can all cause to perform the operation The inaccuracy of excision of the lesion or even the complex operations such as suture that knot, the success for influencing entirely to perform the operation are even right in the process Patient causes additional injury.Simultaneously in minimally invasive surgery, surgical instrument is all to enter human body by a smaller openning Internal position in need for the treatment of, therefore operative site narrow space need to accurately control position between surgical instrument, prevent Collision.

At present in the world, the U.S., France, Germany, Japan etc. have all carried out Micro trauma surgical operation robot in succession Research, and generate a series of model machines.But these prototype structures are similar or identical, and operating robot adjusts system generally use and closes It saves sensor and independent measurement is carried out to realize the positioning to mechanical arm, such as potentiometer, encoder to each joint of mechanical arm Deng.This kind of measurement method is although simple and convenient, but there is following disadvantages:1) since the joint of mechanical arm is excessive, each joint It is required to apply joint sensors, therefore application joint sensors quantity is more, increases cost;2) potentiometer, encoder Precision is not high, and the series connection of multi-joint calculates the positioning accuracy that can reduce whole mechanical arm, to influence the control of entire robot Precision;3) potentiometer is easy to be influenced by external force, causes measurement accuracy inaccurate.Therefore, a kind of new operating robot is invented Adjustment system, the control accuracy for improving operating robot have very important practical significance.

Invention content

The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of operating robots to adjust system, to solve to use mechanical arm in the prior art Each joint be all made of joint sensors realize to perform the operation robot arm position fixing process in, there are deviation accumulations, lead The positioning accuracy of whole mechanical arm is caused to reduce, the problem of control accuracy to influence entire robot.

In order to solve the above technical problems, a kind of operating robot adjustment system of present invention offer includes:

Pedestal and fixed at least one mechanical arm on the base, each mechanical arm includes sequentially connected tune Whole arm, master arm and surgical instrument arm, the adjustment arm are connected with the pedestal,

Optical tracking system, the optical tracking system include optics target mirror and optical tracker, on each mechanical arm It is provided with the optics target mirror, the optical tracker measures position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror;

Computing module calculates the posture mapping relations obtained between optics target mirror, and according to described according to above-mentioned measured value Between optics target mirror in posture mapping relations between optics target mirror, and the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of each mechanical arm Posture mapping relations, calculate the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the optics target mirror is set to the master arm or institute It states on adjustment arm.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the computing module is calculated every using kinematical equation The posture mapping relations between optics target mirror on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of a mechanical arm.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, each component part of mechanical arm is connected by joint It connects, the kinematical equation is as follows:

CnRX=Rz (nθ1)*Rz(nθ2)*Rz(nθ3)*...*Rz(nθm)

In formula, n represents the serial number of mechanical arm, and m represents the joint serial number of mechanical arm,CnRXRepresent the surgical device of n mechanical arms The posture mapping relations of optics target mirror coordinate system of the coordinate system of tool arm on n mechanical arms, Rz (nθm) represent n mechanical arms The rotation operator in m-th of joint, wherein n >=1, m >=1.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the posture mapping relations between the surgical instrument arm It is obtained using following formula:

TmRTn=TmRKm*(CRKm)-1*CRKn*(TnRKn)-1

In formula,TmRKmIt represents using the optics target mirror coordinate system on kinematical equation m-th of mechanical arm of acquisition in m-th of machine The description under surgical instrument arm coordinate system on tool arm;CRKmThe optics target mirror coordinate system on m-th of mechanical arm is represented relative to light Learn the variation relation of tracker coordinate system;CRKnThe coordinate system of the optics target mirror on n-th of mechanical arm is represented relative to optical tracking The variation relation of instrument coordinate system;TnRKnRepresent the coordinate of the optics target mirror on n-th of the mechanical arm obtained using kinematical equation Tie up to the description under the coordinate system of the surgical instrument arm on n-th of mechanical arm.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the surgical instrument arm of a mechanical arm is interior peeps The surgical instrument arm of handel, remaining mechanical arm is arm tool.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the arm tool is reflected relative to the posture of endoscope arm Relationship is penetrated to obtain as follows:

Optics target mirror on mechanical arm where endoscope arm is set as basic point optics target mirror, the light on remaining mechanical arm Target mirror is remaining optics target mirror;

Position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror are measured using optical tracker;

The computing module is calculated and is obtained between remaining optics target mirror and the basic point optics target mirror according to above-mentioned measured value Posture mapping relations, and according to the posture mapping relations between remaining above-mentioned optics target mirror and the basic point optics target mirror, with And the posture mapping relations between the optics target mirror on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of each mechanical arm, calculate acquisition tool Posture mapping relations of the coordinate system of arm under endoscope arm coordinate system.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the coordinate system of the arm tool is in endoscope arm coordinate Posture mapping relations under system are obtained using following formula:

ERT=ERM*(CRM)-1*CRK*(TRK)-1,

In formula,TRKRepresent surgical instrument arm as arm tool when, the machinery where the arm tool is obtained using kinematical equation Description of the coordinate system of optics target mirror on arm under the arm tool coordinate system;CRKIt represents on the mechanical arm where the arm tool Variation relation of the coordinate system of optics target mirror relative to optical tracker coordinate system;CRMSurgical instrument arm is represented as endoscope arm When, the variation relation of the coordinate system of the optics target mirror on the mechanical arm where the endoscope relative to optical tracker coordinate system;ERMThe coordinate system for representing the optics target mirror on the mechanical arm where the endoscope arm obtained using kinematical equation interior is peeped described Description under the coordinate system of handel.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the quantity of the pedestal is at least one.

Optionally, in the operating robot adjustment system, the degree of freedom of the adjustment arm is more than 2, the active The degree of freedom of arm is more than 1.

In operating robot adjustment system provided by the present invention, optical tracking system include optics target mirror and optics with Track instrument, optics target mirror is both provided on each mechanical arm, and optical tracker measures position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror, calculates mould The measured value that root tuber is obtained according to above-mentioned optical tracker measurement calculates the posture mapping relations obtained between optics target mirror, and root According to the posture mapping relations between the above-mentioned optics target mirror being calculated, and each surgical instrument arm of mechanical arm and mechanical arm On optics target mirror between posture mapping relations, calculate the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm.Operating robot According to the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm, realizes and Pose Control is carried out to corresponding surgical instrument arm, improve hand The motion control accuracy and success rate of operation of art robot, prevent in the course of surgery surgical instrument arm occur except the visual field Collision.At the same time, the position orientation relation between arbitrary two mechanical arms of operating robot is obtained using optical tracking system, be not necessarily to Joint sensors are set on the joint of mechanical arm between optics target mirror and pedestal, you can reach two adjustment arms of real-time tracking Between relative position and posture purpose, caused by avoiding the series connection in multiple joints from calculating positioning accuracy whole mechanical arm It influences so that can be realized between minimally invasive surgical operation robot any two mechanical arm or more patient end operating robots Accurately Pose Control.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of existing operating robot adjustment system;

When Fig. 2 is that optics target mirror is set to adjustment arm end in the embodiment of the present invention one, operating robot adjusts system Structural schematic diagram;

Fig. 2 a are the schematic diagrames that cartesian coordinate system is indicated in Fig. 2;

When Fig. 3 is that optics target mirror is set on master arm in the embodiment of the present invention two, operating robot adjusts the knot of system Structure schematic diagram;

Fig. 3 a are the schematic diagrames that cartesian coordinate system is indicated in Fig. 3;

When Fig. 4 is that optics target mirror is set on master arm and adjustment arm end in the embodiment of the present invention three, operating robot The structural schematic diagram of adjustment system.

In figure, pedestal 1 ', 1,1 ", 1 " ';Adjust arm 2 ' -1,2 ' -2,2 ' -3,2 ' -4,2-1,2-1 ', 2-1 ", 2-2;Actively Arm 3 ' -1,3 ' -2,3 ' -3,3 ' -4,3-1,3-1 ', 3-1 ", 3-2;4 '-Isosorbide-5-Nitrae of surgical instrument arm ' -2,4 ' -3,4 ' -4,4-1,4- 1 ', 4-1 ", 4-2;Optics target mirror 6-1,6-1 ', 6-1 ", 6-2;Optical tracker 7.

Specific implementation mode

Operating robot proposed by the present invention adjustment system is made below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments further detailed Explanation.According to following explanation and claims, advantages and features of the invention will become apparent from.It should be noted that attached drawing is adopted Use with very simplified form and non-accurate ratio, only to it is convenient, lucidly aid in illustrating the embodiment of the present invention Purpose.

Embodiment one

Referring to FIG. 2, when Fig. 2 is that optics target mirror is set to adjustment arm end in the embodiment of the present invention one, operating robot The structural schematic diagram of adjustment system.As shown in Fig. 2, the operating robot adjustment system includes:It pedestal 1 and is fixed on described At least one mechanical arm on pedestal 1, each mechanical arm includes sequentially connected adjustment arm (figure label 2-1,2- 2), master arm (figure label 3-1,3-2) and surgical instrument arm (figure label 4-1,4-2), the adjustment arm with it is described Pedestal 1 is connected, and operating robot compared with prior art adjusts system, and operating robot of the invention adjustment system further includes meter Module, optical tracking system are calculated, the optical tracking system includes optics target mirror (figure label 6-1,6-2) and optical tracking Instrument 7, being arranged on each mechanical arm has the optics target mirror, and the optical tracker 7 measures position and the Euler of optics target mirror Angle, the measured value that computing module is measured according to optical tracker 7 calculate the posture mapping relations obtained between optics target mirror, and According to the posture mapping relations between the above-mentioned optics target mirror being calculated, and each surgical instrument arm of mechanical arm and machinery The posture mapping relations between optics target mirror on arm, and then calculate the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm.Operation Robot realizes according to the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm and carries out Pose Control to corresponding surgical instrument arm.

In the present embodiment, the optics target mirror is set on the adjustment arm, it is preferred that optics target mirror is set to the tune The end of whole arm.Due to the setting of optics target mirror so that on the joint of the mechanical arm between optics target mirror and pedestal 1 without Joint sensors measure, you can achieve the purpose that the relative position and posture between two adjustment arms of real-time tracking, avoid multiple The accumulation that the series connection in joint calculates error is influenced caused by the positioning accuracy of whole mechanical arm so that micro-wound surgical operation machine Accurately Pose Control can be realized between people's any two mechanical arm or more patient end operating robots.

Further, each component part of the mechanical arm (adjusting arm, master arm and surgical instrument arm) passes through joint Connection, the computing module calculate the optics target on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of each mechanical arm using kinematical equation Posture mapping relations between mirror.Wherein, the kinematical equation is as follows:

CnRX=Rz (nθ1)*Rz(nθ2)*Rz(nθ3)...Rz(nθm)

In formula, n represents the serial number of mechanical arm, and m represents the joint serial number of mechanical arm, and C represents optics target on Current mechanical arm The coordinate system of mirror, X represent the coordinate system of the surgical instrument arm on Current mechanical arm,CnRXRepresent the surgical instrument arm of n mechanical arms Optics target mirror coordinate system of the coordinate system on n mechanical arms posture mapping relations, Rz (nθm) represent the m of n mechanical arms The rotation operator in a joint is obtained, wherein n by the joint sensors between optics target mirror and surgical instrument arm on mechanical arm >=1, m >=1.

Wherein, the posture mapping relations between the surgical instrument arm are obtained using following formula:

TmRTn=TmRKm*(CRKm)-1*CRKn*(TnRKn)-1

In formula,TmRKmIt represents using the optics target mirror coordinate system on kinematical equation m-th of mechanical arm of acquisition in m-th of machine The description under surgical instrument arm coordinate system on tool arm;CRKmThe optics target mirror coordinate system on m-th of mechanical arm is represented relative to light Learn the variation relation of tracker coordinate system;CRKnThe coordinate system of the optics target mirror on n-th of mechanical arm is represented relative to optical tracking The variation relation of instrument coordinate system;TnRKnRepresent the coordinate of the optics target mirror on n-th of the mechanical arm obtained using kinematical equation Tie up to the description under the coordinate system of the surgical instrument arm on n-th of mechanical arm.

In the present embodiment, the surgical instrument arm of a mechanical arm of the operating robot adjustment system is endoscope The surgical instrument arm of arm, remaining mechanical arm is arm tool, such as scalpel, scissors, cauter (monopole or bipolar electrocautery Tool) etc..Posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm obtain as follows:

Surgical instrument arm is set as basic point optics target mirror for the optics target mirror on the mechanical arm of endoscope arm, remaining machinery Optics target mirror on arm is remaining optics target mirror;

Position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror are measured using optical tracker;

The measured value that computing module is obtained according to optical tracker measurement calculates the posture mapping between obtaining optics target mirror Relationship, and according to the posture mapping relations between above-mentioned optics target mirror, and each surgical instrument arm of mechanical arm and mechanical arm On optics target mirror between posture mapping relations, calculate mapping of the coordinate system under endoscope arm coordinate system for obtaining arm tool Relationship.

Further, mapping relations of the coordinate system of the arm tool under endoscope arm coordinate system are obtained using following formula ?:

ERT=ERM*(CRM)-1*CRK*(TRK)-1,

In formula,TRKRepresent surgical instrument arm as arm tool when, the machinery where the arm tool is obtained using kinematical equation Description of the coordinate system of optics target mirror on arm under the arm tool coordinate system;CRKRepresent the mechanical arm adjusted where the arm tool When upper adjustment arm attitudes vibration, the optics target on mechanical arm where the arm tool found out according to optical tracker measuring principle Variation relation of the coordinate system of mirror relative to optical tracker coordinate system;CRMRepresent surgical instrument arm as endoscope arm when, according to The coordinate system of optics target mirror on mechanical arm where the endoscope that optical tracker measuring principle is found out relative to optics with The variation relation of track instrument coordinate system;ERMIt represents using the optics target on the mechanical arm where the endoscope arm of kinematical equation acquisition Description of the coordinate system of mirror under the coordinate system of the endoscope arm;Wherein, the optics on the mechanical arm of { K } where arm tool The coordinate system of target mirror, { T } are arm tool coordinate system, and { C } is optical tracker coordinate system, and { M } is the mechanical arm where endoscope On optics target mirror coordinate system, { E } be endoscope arm coordinate system.

Operating robot in order to be better understood from the present invention adjusts the concrete structure of system, below will be incorporated by reference to Fig. 2 institutes The content shown is explained in detail, and the adjustment system of the operating robot in the present embodiment includes two pedestals 1, four machineries Arm, computing module, optical tracking system, wherein every two mechanical arms are set on a pedestal 1, and the degree of freedom for adjusting arm is big In 2, it is more than 3, is more than 4, be equal to 3, be equal to 4, is equal to 5;The degree of freedom of the master arm is more than 1, is more than 2, is more than 3, is more than 4, Equal to 2, it is equal to 3, is equal to 4, is equal to 5.Since the structure on two pedestals is identical, below by taking the structure in left base 1 as an example, It is specifically described, every mechanical arm includes the adjustment arm (figure label 2-1,2-2) of Three Degree Of Freedom in the present embodiment, and two certainly By the master arm (figure label 3-1,3-2) spent, surgical instrument arm and optical tracking system, specifically, adjustment arm 2-1,2-2 Proximal end be connected with a pedestal 1, other two adjustment arm 2-1 ', 2-1 " proximal end be connected with another pedestal 1 ", adjustment arm The distal end of 2-1 is connected with the proximal ends master arm 3-1, and the distal ends adjustment arm 2-2 are connected with the proximal ends master arm 3-2;The optical tracking system System, including be placed in adjustment arm 2-1 and adjust the optical measuring instrument 7 and four optics target mirrors of arm 2-2 distal directions, four light Learn target mirror in set be set to surgical instrument arm type as the optics target mirror on the mechanical arm of endoscope arm meaning be basic point optics Target mirror (the optics target mirror that i.e. figure label is 6-2), remaining optics target mirror (figure label 6- in addition to optics target mirror 6-2 1,6-1 ', 6-1 ") be placed in adjustment arm (figure label 2-1,2-1 ', 2-1 ") and master arm (figure label 3-1,3-1 ', 3- 1 ") junction (i.e. the end of adjustment arm 2-1,2-1 ', 2-1 "), basic point optics target mirror is placed in adjustment arm 2-2 and master arm 3-2 Junction;By computing module (not marked in figure) according to posture mapping relations between the optics target mirror that is calculated and every The posture mapping relations between optics target mirror on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of a mechanical arm, calculate all surgical devices Posture mapping relations between tool arm.Specifically, optical tracker 7 measures position and the Eulerian angles of all optics target mirrors, that is, obtain It is able to the coordinate value of all optics target mirror 6-1,6-1 in the coordinate system that optical tracker 7 is coordinate origin ', 6-1 ", 6-2, is calculated Module is according to above-mentioned coordinate value, calculating optical target mirror 6-2 (i.e. basic point optics target mirror) and other optics target mirrors 6-1,6-1 ', 6-1 " Between posture mapping relations.According to the company between the location of target mirror on mechanical arm and the surgical instrument arm of mechanical arm distal end Mode is connect, (is optics target mirror 6-1,6-1 ', 6-1 " residing for master arm 3-1,3-1 ', 3-1 ", master arm 3-2 in the present embodiment End and surgical instrument arm 4-1,4-1 ', the connection relation of 4-1 " and surgical instrument arm 4-2) and kinematical equation, calculating mould The posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm and the optics target mirror on corresponding mechanical arm, such as surgical instrument are calculated in block Arm 4-1 corresponds to optics target mirror 6-1, surgical instrument arm 4-2 and corresponds to the posture mapping relations between optics target mirror 6-2.Further, it counts Module is calculated according to above-mentioned posture mapping relations, by the corresponding surgical instrument arm 4-2 of optics target mirror 6-2 and other is calculated The posture mapping relations of surgical instrument arm (such as surgical instrument arm 4-1,4-1 ', 4-1 ").

In order to how be better understood from based between operating robot adjustment system acquisition surgical instrument arm of the invention Posture mapping relations.A specifically is please referred to Fig.2, is the schematic diagram for indicating cartesian coordinate system of adjustment system shown in Fig. 2;Base The cartesian coordinate system shown in Fig. 2 a may finally obtain surgical instrument arm 4-1 distal end coordinate systems { T } in surgical instrument arm 4-2 Posture mapping relations under distal end coordinate system { E }, are denoted as hereERT

Concrete analysis and calculating obtainERTProcess it is as follows, arbitrary two mechanical arms of operating robot are illustrated in Fig. 2 a and are sat Transformational relation between mark system.Wherein, the pedestal for two adjustment arms (figure label 2-1,2-2) being connected on pedestal 1 is sat Mark system is respectively set as { H } and { B }, and an optical measuring instrument is arranged in adjustment arm 2-1 and adjusts the distal end of arm 2-2, Three Degree Of Freedom Adjustment arm 2-1 ending coordinates system is set as { K }, and Three Degree Of Freedom adjustment arm 2-2 ending coordinates system is set as { M }, surgical instrument arm 4-1 (marked as 4-1,4-1 in the present embodiment ', the type of the surgical instrument arm of 4-1 " be arm tool) distal end Coordinate Setting is { T }, surgical instrument arm 4-2 (type of the surgical instrument arm in the present embodiment marked as 4-2 is endoscope arm) distal end coordinate system It is { C } to be set as { M } and optical tracker host side Coordinate Setting.

Based on the above-mentioned cartesian coordinate system having built up, the following concrete operations of adjustment system of the present invention:

One, the position that robot adjusts arm and optical tracker is adjusted according to surgery situation.

Two, to measure the optics target mirror 6-1 that surgical instrument arm 4-1 is installed on the robotic arm using optical tracker opposite In the optics target mirror 6-1 phases that the posture and surgical instrument arm 4-2 of optical measuring instrument coordinate system { C } are installed on the robotic arm Posture pair with optical measuring instrument coordinate system { C }, and obtain optics target mirror 6-1 coordinate systems { K } and optics target mirror 6-2 coordinate systems The posture mapping transformation relationship of { M }.

Three, it is in the course of surgery doctor's remote operation surgical instrument, therefore doctor is it should be understood that surgical instrument arm 4-1 is remote Sit up straight the mapping that mark ties up under the coordinate system of the distal ends surgical instrument arm 4-2.It solves relationship by optics target mirror 6-1 and optics target mirror 6- Coordinate system transformational relation forms obtained by coordinate system conversion and kinematic relation solve between 2.Specifically, by kinematical equation Solve mapping of the surgical instrument arm 4-1 distal end coordinate systems { T } under optics target mirror 6-1 coordinate systems { K }, optics target mirror 6-1 is sat Mapping and optics target mirror 6-2 (i.e. basic point optics target mirror) coordinate system { M } of the mark system { K } under optics target mirror 6-2 coordinate systems { M } exist Under surgical instrument arm 4-2 (type of the surgical instrument arm in the present embodiment marked as 4-2 is endoscope arm) distal end coordinate system { E } Mapping between transformational relation can obtain surgical instrument arm 4-1 distal end coordinate systems under surgical instrument arm 4-2 coordinate systems Mapping.

Specific Mapping and Converting relationship solves as follows:

1) it can show that adjustment arm 2-1 ending coordinates system { K } (is equivalent to the optics target on the mechanical arm by kinematical equation The coordinate system of mirror 6-1) description under the distal ends arm tool 4-1 coordinate system { T }, it is denoted asTRK

2) in adjustment adjustment arm 2-1 poses variation, adjustment arm 2-1 ending coordinates system { K } sits relative to optical tracker The variation relation of mark system { C } can be found out according to optical tracker measuring principle, be denoted asCRK

3) in adjustment adjustment arm 2-2 poses variation, adjustment arm 2-2 ending coordinates system { M } (is equivalent on the mechanical arm The coordinate system of optics target mirror 6-2) it can be measured according to optical tracker relative to the variation relation of optical tracker coordinate system { C } Principle is found out, and is denoted asCRM

4) adjustment arm 2-2 ending coordinates system { M } can be obtained in the distal ends endoscope arm 4-2 coordinate system by kinematical equation Description under { E }, is denoted asERM

It can be obtained finally by coordinate system transformational relation, the obtained distal ends surgical instrument arm 4-1 coordinate system { T } is in endoscope The rotation transformation of the distal ends arm 4-2 coordinate system { E }ERTFor:

ERT=ERM*(CRM)-1*CRK*(TRK)-1

In some embodiments, the kinematical equation expression formula is as follows:

CnRX=Rz (nθ1)*Rz(nθ2)*Rz(nθ3)...Rz(nθm)

In formula, n represents the serial number of mechanical arm, and m represents the joint serial number of mechanical arm, and C represents optics target on Current mechanical arm The coordinate system of mirror, X represent the coordinate system of the surgical instrument arm on Current mechanical arm,CnRXRepresent the surgical instrument arm of n mechanical arms Optics target mirror coordinate system of the coordinate system on n mechanical arms posture mapping relations, Rz (nθm) represent the m of n mechanical arms The rotation operator in a joint, wherein n >=1, m >=1.

Traditional method of adjustment is to obtain the distal ends surgical instrument arm 4-1 coordinate system by the joint sensors on mechanical arm The mapping of { T } under mechanical arm coordinate system { H }, endoscope arm 4-2 distal end coordinate systems { E } reflecting under mechanical arm coordinate system { B } It penetrates, and according to the mapping of known mechanical arm coordinate system { H } and mechanical arm coordinate system { B }, it is remote to finally obtain surgical instrument arm 4-1 Hold coordinate system { T } in the mapping of endoscope arm 4-2 distal end coordinate systems { E }.Obviously, it is sat in conjunction with the operating robot of Fig. 2 a adjustment arm Mapping relations between mark system, the present invention considerably reduce the Mapping and Converting of three coordinate systems, that is, adjust the distal ends arm 2-1 coordinate system { K } mapping under its base coordinate system { H }, adjustment arm 2-1 base coordinate systems { H } are under adjustment arm 2-2 base coordinate systems { B } Mapping under adjustment arm 2-2 distal end coordinate systems { M } of mapping and adjustment arm 2-2 base coordinate systems { B }, to a certain degree On reduce calculation amount, to improve the response frequency of operating robot;Further, since between optics target mirror and pedestal 1 Without being arranged joint sensors on the joint of mechanical arm, that is, optics target mirror be equivalent to be substituted optics target mirror and pedestal 1 it Between mechanical arm joint on joint sensors, complete the mesh of the relative position and posture between the adjustment arms of real-time tracking two , series connection when reducing calculating due to multiple joints calculates, and the accumulation of measurement error is to set frame existing for joint sensors Influence caused by the positioning accuracy of tool arm, especially for the series connection mechanical arm that degree of freedom is larger, so as to make minimally invasive surgery Accurately Pose Control can be realized between operating robot any two mechanical arm or more patient end operating robots.

Embodiment two

Referring to FIG. 3, when it is set to for optics target mirror in the embodiment of the present invention two on master arm, operating robot adjustment The structural schematic diagram of system.In conjunction with Fig. 3 and Fig. 2 comparative analyses it is found that Fig. 3 and Fig. 2 difference lies in four optics target mirrors in machine The specific location being arranged on tool arm, four optics target mirrors may be contained within the end of adjustment arm in Fig. 2, and four optics targets in Fig. 3 Mirror may be contained on master arm, therefore using the quantity meeting of required sensor when operating robot shown in Fig. 3 adjustment system It is reduced, reduces the consumption of material resources, reduce cost, and improve the positioning accuracy of mechanical arm.Specifically, such as Fig. 3 institutes Show, optics target mirror 6-2 is arranged on the arm between master arm 3-2 first nodes and second node, and optics target mirror 6-1 is arranged in master On arm between the first node and second node of swing arm 3-1, which position on master arm is specifically located at for optics target mirror It sets, does not limit here, as long as four optics target mirrors may be contained on master arm.Since the setting of optics target mirror is in master On swing arm so that measured without joint sensors on the joint of the mechanical arm between optics target mirror and pedestal 1, you can reach The purpose of relative position and posture between two adjustment arms of real-time tracking, when avoiding using existing way, in optics target mirror It is the series connection in multiple joints that setting joint sensors measurement and positioning is required on each joint of mechanical arm between pedestal 1 The accumulation meeting of error can be led to by calculating, the finally influence caused by the positioning accuracy of whole mechanical arm so that micro-wound surgical operation Accurately Pose Control can be realized between robot any two mechanical arm or more patient end operating robots.

In order to be better understood from how the operating robot adjustment system-computed based on the present invention obtain surgical instrument arm it Between posture mapping relations.A specifically is please referred to Fig.3, is that adjustment system shown in Fig. 3 indicates showing for cartesian coordinate system It is intended to;Surgical instrument arm 4-1 distal end coordinate systems { T } may finally be obtained in surgical device based on cartesian coordinate system shown in Fig. 3 a Posture mapping relations under tool arm 4-2 distal end coordinate systems { E }, are denoted as hereERT.The cartesian coordinate system in a is established according to fig. 2 Principle, the optics target mirror 6-1 of optical tracker, optics target mirror 6-2 are separately positioned on active accommodation arm 3-1, active accommodation On arm 3-2, coordinate system expression is expressed as coordinate system { K } and coordinate system { M };In remaining coordinate system representation and Fig. 2 a Statement is consistent, and concrete analysis and calculating obtainERTProcess please refer to corresponding content in embodiment one, since principle is identical, this In just no longer do excessive repeat.

Embodiment three

Referring to FIG. 4, when it is set to for optics target mirror in the embodiment of the present invention three on master arm and adjustment arm end, hand Art robot adjusts the structural schematic diagram of system.Difference lies in light for the structure illustrated compared to embodiment one and embodiment two Target mirror 6-1 is learned as on the arm between the first node and second node of master arm 3-1, and optics target mirror 6-2 is as master arm The junction of 3-2 and adjustment arm 2-2, junction of another optics target mirror as master arm and adjustment arm.It is equivalent to Fig. 2 and figure The fusion of the position of optics target mirror on the robotic arm in 3, i.e. optics target mirror are existing to be set on adjustment arm, and is set to master On swing arm.In addition, the quantity of mechanical arm being arranged on the quantity of the pedestal of operating robot adjustment system and each pedestal with Embodiment one and two different, in structure chart shown in Fig. 4, operating robot adjust system pedestal (figure label 1, 1 ", 1 " ') it is 3, a mechanical arm is provided on each pedestal.It can be seen that the operating robot adjustment system of the present invention The quantity of pedestal is at least one, and the mechanical arm item number being arranged on each pedestal can be one or more, here not to pedestal Quantity and the item number of mechanical arm do excessive restriction, it is corresponding to design pedestal and machinery as long as meeting the needs of surgical The quantity of arm.

Each embodiment is described by the way of progressive in this specification, the highlights of each of the examples are with other The difference of embodiment, just to refer each other for identical similar portion between each embodiment.

The present invention is not particularly limited the selection of optical tracker, can be any in the prior art.It is general and Speech, optical tracker can measure position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror.In some embodiments, computing module, according to light The measured value that tracker measures is learned, the definition (specifically being provided by optical tracker producer) of Eulerian angles coordinate system finds out optics target Posture mapping relations between mirror and optical tracker further find out the posture mapping relations between optics target mirror.

To sum up, in operating robot adjustment system provided by the present invention, including computing module and optical tracking system, Optical tracking system includes optics target mirror and optical tracker, and optics target mirror, optical tracker are both provided on each mechanical arm Position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror are measured, computing module calculates the posture obtained between optics target mirror according to above-mentioned measured value Mapping relations, and according to the posture mapping relations between the optics target mirror being calculated, and each surgical instrument of mechanical arm The posture mapping relations between optics target mirror on arm and the mechanical arm, the posture mapping calculated between surgical instrument arm are closed System.Operating robot is realized according to the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm and carries out pose to corresponding surgical instrument arm Control, improve the motion control accuracy and success rate of operation of operating robot, prevent in the course of surgery surgical instrument arm exist It collides except the visual field.At the same time, it is obtained between arbitrary two mechanical arms of operating robot using optical tracking system Joint sensors are arranged on the joint without the mechanical arm between optics target mirror and pedestal, you can reach real-time in position orientation relation The purpose of relative position and posture between two adjustment arms of tracking, avoiding the series connection in multiple joints from calculating can be to whole mechanical arm Positioning accuracy caused by influence so that minimally invasive surgical operation robot any two mechanical arm or more patient end surgical engines Accurately Pose Control can be realized between device people.

Foregoing description is only the description to present pre-ferred embodiments, not to any restriction of the scope of the invention, this hair Any change, the modification that the those of ordinary skill in bright field does according to the disclosure above content, belong to the protection of claims Range.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of operating robot adjusts system, including pedestal and fixed at least one mechanical arm on the base, each The mechanical arm includes sequentially connected adjustment arm, master arm and surgical instrument arm, and the adjustment arm is connected with the pedestal, It is characterized in that, further includes:
Optical tracking system, the optical tracking system include optics target mirror and optical tracker, are respectively provided on each mechanical arm There are the optics target mirror, the optics target mirror to be set on the master arm or the adjustment arm, the optical tracker measures The position of optics target mirror and Eulerian angles;
Computing module, according to the position of the optics target mirror and Eulerian angles, the posture mapping calculated between obtaining optics target mirror is closed System, and according to the posture mapping relations between the optics target mirror, and on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of each mechanical arm Optics target mirror between posture mapping relations, calculate the posture mapping relations between surgical instrument arm.
2. operating robot as described in claim 1 adjusts system, which is characterized in that the computing module uses kinematics side Journey calculates the posture mapping relations between the optics target mirror on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of each mechanical arm.
3. operating robot as claimed in claim 2 adjusts system, which is characterized in that each component part of mechanical arm is logical Joint connection is crossed, the kinematical equation is as follows:
CnRX=Rz (nθ1)*Rz(nθ2)*Rz(nθ3)*...*Rz(nθm)
In formula, n represents the serial number of mechanical arm, and m represents the joint serial number of mechanical arm,CnRXRepresent the surgical instrument arm of n mechanical arms Optics target mirror coordinate system of the coordinate system on n mechanical arms posture mapping relations, Rz(nθm) represent the m of n mechanical arms The rotation operator in a joint, wherein n >=1, m >=1.
4. operating robot as claimed in claim 3 adjusts system, which is characterized in that the posture between the surgical instrument arm Mapping relations are obtained using following formula:
TmRTn=TmRKm*(CRKm)-1*CRKn*(TnRKn)-1
In formula,TmRKmIt represents using the optics target mirror coordinate system on kinematical equation m-th of mechanical arm of acquisition in m-th of mechanical arm On surgical instrument arm coordinate system under description;CRKmRepresent optics target mirror coordinate system on m-th of mechanical arm relative to optics with The variation relation of track instrument coordinate system;CRKnThe coordinate system for representing the optics target mirror on n-th of mechanical arm is sat relative to optical tracker Mark the variation relation of system;TnRKnThe coordinate system for representing the optics target mirror on n-th of the mechanical arm obtained using kinematical equation is existed Description under the coordinate system of surgical instrument arm on n-th of mechanical arm.
5. operating robot as claimed in claim 3 adjusts system, which is characterized in that the surgical instrument of a mechanical arm Arm is endoscope arm, and the surgical instrument arm of remaining mechanical arm is arm tool.
6. operating robot as claimed in claim 5 adjusts system, which is characterized in that the arm tool is relative to endoscope arm Posture mapping relations obtain as follows:
Optics target mirror on mechanical arm where endoscope arm is set as basic point optics target mirror, the optics target on remaining mechanical arm Mirror is remaining optics target mirror;
Position and the Eulerian angles of optics target mirror are measured using optical tracker;
The computing module calculates the appearance obtained between remaining optics target mirror and the basic point optics target mirror according to above-mentioned measured value State mapping relations, and according to the posture mapping relations between remaining above-mentioned optics target mirror and the basic point optics target mirror, and it is every The posture mapping relations between optics target mirror on the surgical instrument arm and the mechanical arm of a mechanical arm calculate and obtain arm tool Posture mapping relations of the coordinate system under endoscope arm coordinate system.
7. operating robot as claimed in claim 6 adjusts system, which is characterized in that the coordinate system of the arm tool is peeped inside Posture mapping relations under handel coordinate system are obtained using following formula:
ERT=ERM*(CRM)-1*CRK*(TRK)-1,
In formula,TRKRepresent surgical instrument arm as arm tool when, obtained using kinematical equation on the mechanical arm where the arm tool Optics target mirror description of the coordinate system under the arm tool coordinate system;CRKRepresent the optics on the mechanical arm where the arm tool Variation relation of the coordinate system of target mirror relative to optical tracker coordinate system;CRMRepresent surgical instrument arm as endoscope arm when, should Variation relation of the coordinate system of optics target mirror on mechanical arm where endoscope relative to optical tracker coordinate system;ERMIt represents The coordinate system of the optics target mirror on mechanical arm where the endoscope arm obtained using kinematical equation is in the endoscope arm Description under coordinate system.
8. operating robot as described in claim 1 adjusts system, which is characterized in that the quantity of the pedestal is at least one It is a.
9. operating robot as described in claim 1 adjusts system, which is characterized in that the degree of freedom of the adjustment arm is more than 2, The degree of freedom of the master arm is more than 1.
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