CN105219984B - The preparation method of solid additive enhancing metal-base composites and the hybrid system for realizing the preparation method - Google Patents

The preparation method of solid additive enhancing metal-base composites and the hybrid system for realizing the preparation method Download PDF

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CN105219984B
CN105219984B CN201510696347.9A CN201510696347A CN105219984B CN 105219984 B CN105219984 B CN 105219984B CN 201510696347 A CN201510696347 A CN 201510696347A CN 105219984 B CN105219984 B CN 105219984B
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solid additive
metal
solid
molten metal
preparation
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CN105219984A (en
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曹文炅
蒋方明
梁光兴
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Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion of CAS
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Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion of CAS
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Abstract

The present invention relates to the preparation method that solid additive strengthens metal-base composites, comprise the following steps:1) solid additive is added in solid additive dispenser, the solid additive is delivered in molten metal by the solid additive dispenser, the solid additive is tentatively mixed with the molten metal;2) mixture of the solid additive and the molten metal is after the microcosmic dispensing device containing ultrasonic vibration apparatus, it is delivered to the micromixing device being made up of mixing runner, uniformly mixed in micromixing device, that is, solid additive enhancing metal-base composites is made.The present invention combines microcosmic disperse and micromixing of the solid additive in parent metal liquid, is prevented effectively from reunion behavior of the solid additive in parent metal liquid, makes metal fluid mixing abundant, substantially reduces the segregation problems that conventional method prepares such material.

Description

Solid additive strengthens the preparation method of metal-base composites and realizes the preparation side The hybrid system of method
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of composite preparation, and in particular to solid additive enhancing metal-base composites Preparation method and the hybrid system for realizing the preparation method.
Background technology
Solid additive enhancing metal-base composites refer to using metal or alloy such as aluminium, magnesium, titaniums as matrix, with fiber, The solid additives such as particle, whisker are reinforcement, are homogeneously dispersed in the material of two-phase or multiphase combination of matrix material formation The material that system is composited.Remaining the same of the performances such as the lightweight of metallic matrix, easy processing shape, conductive and heat-conductive is excellent When, strengthening phase behaviour by the solid of addition can also make material possess high intensity, high rigidity, high-wearing feature and low linear expansion The excellent properties such as coefficient.Therefore, such composite is in Aero-Space, track traffic, automobile and national defense and military, medical treatment, dress The fields such as standby manufacturing industry are respectively provided with important application prospect.
Preparing the method for solid additive enhancing metal-base composites at present mainly includes powder metallurgic method, self-formed from reaction Method, liquid stirring method and semi-solid bonding casting.Powder metallurgy process is directly by metal dust and particle/short fiber reinforced The mixing of the equipment such as overmulling powder machine, ball mill is communicated, then is prepared from by compacting and high temperature sintering.It the advantage is that compacting mechanism Simply, the volume proportion of solid additive in a big way and metal dust can be realized.But formation of parts size is by hydraulic press tonnage Limitation, therefore be rarely reported using this method shaping large-scale part.In addition, grain reinforced metal prepared by powder metallurgy process Based composites consistency bottom, particle and matrix associativity are relatively weak.Some metal dusts, such as aluminium powder, in ball milling mixing During also there are problems that it is oxidizable,.Self-formed from reaction method is to add that the expected enhancing of generation can be reacted in the base The element or compound of grain, the reinforcer of acquisition and the interface cohesion of parent metal are good, and property is stable, but enhancing particle is big Small, quantity and technical process, reactive element addition etc. are closely related and whard to control, and the particle facies type of generation is also more single One.Liquid stirring method adds solid additive in the molten metal predominantly after melting, and in certain stirring technique parameter bar Mixing is stirred under part, is distributed in metal bath with making the equal Uniform of solid additive, finally the blend melt is cast, Ingot casting, strand etc. is made, is easy to follow-up secondary operation.There are two difficult points in liquid stirring method, one is stirred in container Journey has the dead band being difficult to avoid that, causes the material prepared uneven;Two be that solid additive is easily reunited in liquid metal, Need to carry out complex pretreatment.Preprocess method relatively conventional at present is included solid additive elder generation and metallic matrix Powder is mixed, re-compacted and cut into small blocks, is finally put into molten metal and is stirred.The problem of above-mentioned technique is present constrains solid Body additive strengthens the large-scale production of metal-base composites.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide the preparation method that solid additive strengthens metal-base composites, the preparation method It can be mass-produced, overcome the defect of prior art.
In order to realize foregoing invention purpose, technical scheme is as follows:Solid additive strengthens metal-based compound material The preparation method of material, comprises the following steps:
1) solid additive is added in solid additive dispenser, by the solid additive dispenser by institute State solid additive to be uniformly delivered in molten metal, the solid additive is tentatively mixed with the molten metal;
2) mixture of the solid additive and the molten metal passes through the microcosmic dispensing device containing ultrasonic vibration apparatus Afterwards, it is delivered in the micromixing device being made up of mixing runner and uniformly mixes, that is, solid additive enhancing Metal Substrate is made and answers Condensation material.
Preferably, the solid additive is selected from carborundum, titanium carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, aluminum oxide, silicon nitride, boron Change at least one of titanium, boron nitride and graphite.The shape of solid additive can be particle, whisker or chopped fiber, volume Fraction range is 0~25%, and the volume fraction is determined according to material performance requirement.
Preferably, the molten metal is selected from least one of aluminium, magnesium, zinc.
Preferably, the mixing runner is S-shaped or tree-like.
Realize prepared by solid additive enhancing metal-base composites it is another object of the present invention to provide one kind The hybrid system of method, the hybrid system is with stream addition solid additive and using molten metal in space structure runner Flow behavior, realizes the enhancing such as particle or chopped fiber and the mixed method of parent metal liquid.
The invention provides realize solid additive enhancing metal-base composites preparation method solid additive with The hybrid system of parent metal liquid, including solid additive dispenser and micromixing device, the solid additive dispatching Device is provided with solid additive storage container and solid additive pusher, and the micromixing device includes mixed flow Road;Also include microcosmic dispensing device, the microcosmic dispensing device is arranged at the solid additive dispenser and the macroscopic view Between mixing arrangement or it is arranged on the micromixing device leading portion, the mixing runner is S-shaped or tree-like.Microcosmic disperse dress Put for the solid additive of reunion to be disperseed, micromixing device is used to realize that solid additive and the uniform of molten metal are mixed Close.
The S-shaped mixing runner is applied to the parent metal liquid compared with low viscosity and the solid addition compared with low volume fraction Thing/molten metal proportioning.Its structure can be that a S-shaped or multiple S-shapeds are formed by connecting by certain space combination.Mixing When fluid flows in S-shaped runner, centrifugation force direction constantly changes, and has not cocurrent flow perpendicular to each section of flow direction The vortex of state, therefore fluid-mixing can be sufficiently mixed when flowing through S-shaped passage.
The tree-like mixing runner is applied to viscosity higher parent metal liquid or solid additive/gold of higher volume fraction Belong to liquid proportioning.It is characterized in that by dispersion area and converging area's multiple branch circuit stream dimerous that structure is pitched with certain fractal Road, fluid-mixing is split into multigroup tributary step by step first after entering tree-like mixing runner, and each tributary is matched and confluxed again again, Realize being sufficiently mixed for solid additive/molten metal.
Preferably, the pusher includes pushing oil cylinder, the piston being connected with the push oil cylinder.Solid additive exists Certain relative density is kept in the presence of push oil cylinder and piston, and it is logical to molten metal flowing by the screw rod transmission of rotation Road.
The solid additive dispenser also includes the conveying device being connected with the solid additive storage container, institute State servomotor of the conveying device including screw rod, the control screw motion.
Further, the conveying device also includes being arranged at the screw sleeve outside the screw rod.The present invention can pass through Adjusting screw rod rotating speed, metal flow quantity, electromagnetism pump power and temperature control realize that solid additive/parent metal liquid product is matched somebody with somebody Than the real-time regulation of the key parameters such as the, physical property of parent metal liquid.In combination with solid additive in parent metal liquid Microcosmic disperse and micromixing, can be prevented effectively from reunion behavior of the solid additive in parent metal liquid, while metal stream Body micromixing fully, greatly reduces the segregation problems that conventional method prepares such material.
Preferably, the microcosmic dispensing device includes ultrasonic vibration installation, and the ultrasonic vibration installation is provided with ultrasound and shaken Lever.It can also be multigroup that the ultrasonic activation bar, which can be one group, be arranged at after solid additive dispenser, also may be used To be arranged in the molten metal runner of micromixing device.
Preferably, the micromixing device includes the electromagnetic pump being connected with the mixing runner.The electromagnetic pump is preposition In mixing runner, for controlling molten metal fluidised form, and increase molten metal pressure.
Solid additive and the hybrid system of parent metal liquid, can be applied not only to composite preparation, it can also be applied In compression casting, extrusion casint and gravitational casting.It can be directly integrated in the works such as compression casting, extrusion casint and gravitational casting Skill, realizes that preparation is integrated with shaping.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
(1), can be effective present invention incorporates microcosmic disperse of the solid additive in parent metal liquid and micromixing Reunion behavior of the solid additive in parent metal liquid is avoided, while metal fluid micromixing fully, greatly reduces biography System method prepares the segregation problems of such material.
(2) avoid solid additive and adding the preprocessing process of molten metal, length is it also avoid after molten metal is added The stirring of time, reduces the action time of solid additive and molten metal, reduces deleterious interfacial reaction.
(3) it can realize that solid is added by adjusting screw rod rotating speed, metal flow quantity, electromagnetism pump power and temperature control The real-time regulation of the key parameters such as thing/molten metal volume proportion, the physical property of parent metal liquid.
(4) mixing efficiency is high, can directly as molten metal thermal insulation stove to system for casting and pouring intermediate link, i.e. conduct On-line mixing mode is integrated in casting technique, realizes that preparation is integrated with shaping.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the hybrid system schematic diagram for including S-shaped runner that uses in embodiment 1;
Fig. 2 is two kinds of Spatial Coupling schematic diagrames that S-shaped mixes runner;
Fig. 3 is the hybrid system schematic diagram for including tree-like runner that uses in embodiment 2;
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of two kinds of different tree form structure runners;
Fig. 5 is schematic diagram of the hybrid system applied to compression casting in embodiment 3;
Description of reference numerals:1st, oil cylinder is pushed;2nd, solid additive storage cylinder;3rd, solid additive;4th, servomotor;5、 Screw sleeve;6th, screw rod;7th, ultrasonic vibration bar;8th, electromagnetic pump;9th, runner is mixed;10th, molten metal;11st, ultrasonic vibration passage;12、 Magnetic valve;13rd, liquid storage cylinder;14th, smelting furnace;15th, drift;16th, pressure chamber.
Embodiment
With reference to instantiation, the present invention is furture elucidated.It should be understood that these embodiments are merely to illustrate this hair It is bright, rather than limit protection scope of the present invention.Technical staff makes according to the present invention in actual applications improvement and tune It is whole, still fall within protection scope of the present invention.
Except special instruction, the equipment that the present invention is used is routinely purchased in market for the art, and the method that the present invention is used is this The conventional use of method of technical field.The direction of arrow shown in accompanying drawing is molten metal and the flow direction of solid additive.
Embodiment 1
Solid additive strengthens the preparation method of metal-base composites, comprises the following steps:
1) solid additive is added in solid additive dispenser, added solid by solid additive dispenser Plus thing is quantitatively transferred in molten metal, solid additive is set tentatively to be mixed with molten metal;
2) mixture of solid additive and molten metal is eliminated through the microcosmic dispensing device containing ultrasonic vibration apparatus and reunited, The micromixing device being made up of mixing runner is delivered to, is uniformly mixed in micromixing device, that is, solid additive is made Strengthen metal-base composites.
Molten metal is selected from least one of aluminium, magnesium, zinc.Solid additive is selected from carborundum, titanium carbide, boron carbide, carbon Change at least one of tungsten, aluminum oxide, silicon nitride, titanium boride, boron nitride and graphite.The shape of solid additive can be Grain, whisker or chopped fiber, volume fraction range are 0~25%, and the volume fraction is determined according to material performance requirement, for example: The carborundum solid additive of 10% volume fraction is added in liquid aluminium alloy.
In the present invention, solid additive is quantitatively transferred in molten metal by solid additive dispenser, made solid Body additive is tentatively mixed with molten metal, and solid additive and molten metal have very big segregation, treat solid additive and metal The mixture of liquid can effectively eliminate group of the solid additive in parent metal liquid after microcosmic disperse and micromixing Poly- behavior, while metal fluid micromixing fully, greatly reduces the segregation problems that conventional method prepares such material.
As shown in figure 1, realize the solid additive of the preparation method and the hybrid system of parent metal liquid, for by solid Additive enhancing is added to parent metal liquid, and is allowed to be uniformly dispersed in parent metal liquid.Including the solid being sequentially connected Additive dispenser, microcosmic dispensing device and micromixing device, solid additive dispenser are stored up including solid additive Cylinder 2 is deposited, the one end of solid additive storage cylinder 2 is provided with pusher, and the conveying device connection of the other end and solid additive is defeated Device is sent to include screw rod 6, control screw rod 6 servomotor 4 moved and the screw sleeve 5 being arranged at outside screw rod 6, microcosmic disperse dress Put and ultrasonic vibration installation is provided with the ultrasonic vibration passage 11 including being connected with screw sleeve 5, ultrasonic vibration passage 11, macroscopic view is mixed Attach together and put the mixing runner 9 including being connected with the channel attached electromagnetic pump of ultrasonic vibration 8 and with electromagnetic pump 8.The present invention can lead to Overregulate screw speed, metal flow quantity, electromagnetism pump power and temperature control and realize solid additive/parent metal liquid product The real-time regulation of the key parameters such as proportioning, the physical property of parent metal liquid.Electromagnetic pump 8 is preposition in mixing runner 9, for controlling metal Liquid fluidised form, and increase molten metal pressure.
Microcosmic dispensing device may be disposed at after solid additive dispenser, can also be arranged at micromixing device In molten metal runner, in the present embodiment, microcosmic dispensing device is arranged at after solid additive dispenser, can also be selected It is arranged in the molten metal runner of micromixing device, it is within protection scope of the present invention.
Solid additive storage container can select storage cylinder, storage cylinder or it may occur to persons skilled in the art that storage Container is within protection scope of the present invention, preferred solid additive storage cylinder in the present embodiment.
The volume proportion of solid additive 3 and molten metal 10 can be by adjusting the rotating speed of servomotor 4 and then changing spiral shell The rotating speed of bar 6 is realized, while the work of oil cylinder 1 can pushed by being stored in the solid additive 3 of solid additive storage container 2 Kept constant relative density with lower and be delivered to screw rod 6, therefore ensure that the mass fraction of solid additive 3 also to be controllable.
Pusher includes pushing oil cylinder 1, with pushing the piston that oil cylinder 1 is connected.Solid additive 3 push oil cylinder 1 and Certain relative density is kept in the presence of piston, and the runner of molten metal 10 is delivered to by the screw rod 6 of rotation.
Ultrasonic vibration installation includes being arranged at the ultrasonic vibration bar 7 inside ultrasonic vibration passage 11.Ultrasonic activation bar 7 can It can also be multigroup to be one group, can be arranged at after solid additive dispenser, micromixing dress can also be arranged at In the molten metal runner put.
Mixing runner 9 is S-shaped or tree-like.Two kinds of mixing runner inner surfaces carry out chromium plating process, are improving wearability and resistance to It is corrosive at the same reduce flow resistance.It can be that tubing bends or is spliced to mix runner, it would however also be possible to employ mould steel is simultaneously Realized by machining inner flow passage.Mix runner need to use certain temperature control, can be integral heat insulation or Mixing runner end section domain gradually reduces temperature, makes metal fluid viscosity increase to be easy to keep the relative position of solid additive Put.
In the present embodiment mixing runner be S-shaped, S-shaped mixing runner be applied to compared with low viscosity parent metal liquid and compared with The solid additive of low volume fraction/molten metal proportioning.Its structure can be a S-shaped or multiple S-shapeds by certain sky Between combine and be formed by connecting.When fluid-mixing flows in S-shaped runner, centrifugation force direction constantly changes, and perpendicular to flow direction Each section there is the vortex of different fluidised forms, therefore fluid-mixing can be sufficiently mixed when flowing through S-shaped passage.
The geometry of S-shaped mixing runner can be adjusted for the physical parameter of different parent metal liquid 10, including Mix the number and spatial distribution of the internal channel hydraulic radius, curvature and S-shaped structure of runner.As shown in Fig. 2 (a), (b), point Wei not plane formula S-shaped mixing runner and spatial mixing runner schematic diagram.
The present invention groundwork process and principle be:Molten metal 10 is while hybrid system is entered, solid additive 3 Enter ultrasonic vibration passage 11 under the driving of screw rod 6 and tentatively mixed with parent metal liquid 10;The solid addition then reunited Thing 3 is broken up in the presence of ultrasonic vibration bar 7, enters mixed flow road 9 after being pressurized via electromagnetic pump 8, the stream in mixing runner 9 During dynamic, because S-shaped structure constantly changes the centrifugal force of fluid-mixing, and have perpendicular to each section of flow direction The vortex of different fluidised forms, so as to realize being sufficiently mixed for solid additive 3 and molten metal 10.
Embodiment 2
Technical characteristic is same as Example 1, and difference is:
Fig. 3 is the hybrid system schematic diagram that runner is mixed with tree structure, and mixing runner 9 is employed with fractal characteristic Tree structure, in addition ultrasonic vibration passage 11 employ vertical structure, the solid additive 3 of higher volume fraction can be realized Mixed with parent metal liquid 10.
The step of it is mixed is as follows:(1) according to the volume fraction of required proportioning calculate the flow Q of parent metal liquid 10 with And the rotating speed of screw rod 6;(2) by parent metal liquid 10 according to the continual injection ultrasonic vibration passages 11 of flow Q, while controlling servo Motor 4 drives screw rod 6, by the continual feeding ultrasonic vibration passage 11 of solid additive 3, to be realized and matrix according to given rotating speed The preliminary mixing of molten metal 10;(3) in the presence of ultrasonic vibration bar 7, the solid additive 3 that part is reunited is broken up, realized Microcosmic disperse;(4) in the presence of electromagnetic pump 8, fluid-mixing is pressurized and mixing runner 9 is sent into;(5) tree-like mixed flow is utilized Road 9 confluxes step by step by the first bifurcated step by step of fluid-mixing, then by different tributaries, and realization is sufficiently mixed.
As shown in Fig. 4 (a), (b), respectively plane formula is tree-like mixes runner and spatial mixing runner schematic diagram.It is tree-like Mix solid additive/molten metal proportioning that runner is applied to viscosity higher parent metal liquid or higher volume fraction.Its feature To enter tree with area's multiple branch circuit runner dimerous that structure is pitched with certain fractal, fluid-mixing is converged by dispersion area Multigroup tributary is split into step by step first after shape mixing runner, and each tributary is matched and confluxed again again, realizes solid additive/gold Belong to being sufficiently mixed for liquid.
Embodiment 3
Fig. 5 is the schematic diagram that the hybrid system in embodiment 1 is additional to compression casting process.Specific implementation step is such as Under:
(1) required parent metal liquid 10 is calculated according to casting volume V (including running gate system), die casting cycle period t Flow Q and the rotating speed of corresponding screw rod 6, the opening/closing time of magnetic valve 12;
(2) parent metal liquid 10 is extracted and is delivered in hybrid system from smelting furnace 14, hybrid system can be embodiment 1 And one kind in 2, here using hybrid system in embodiment 1;
(3) mixed fluid conveys and is stored in liquid storage cylinder 13 temporarily, when a die casting end cycle, magnetic valve 12 Open, fluid-mixing flows into pressure chamber 16;
(4) when the fluid-mixing volume for flowing into pressure chamber 16 reaches casting volume V, close in magnetic valve 12, pressure chamber 16 Fluid-mixing injects compression mod under the promotion of drift 15.
The present embodiment is not limited to composite material preparation process and compression casting moulding process, is equally applicable for extruding casting Make, the metal liquid forming technology such as gravitational casting.It can be directly integrated in the works such as compression casting, extrusion casint and gravitational casting Skill, realizes that preparation is integrated with shaping.

Claims (9)

1. solid additive strengthens the preparation method of metal-base composites, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
1) solid additive is added in solid additive dispenser, will be described solid by the solid additive dispenser Body additive is uniformly delivered in molten metal, the solid additive is tentatively mixed with the molten metal;
2) mixture of the solid additive and the molten metal is defeated after the microcosmic dispensing device containing ultrasonic vibration apparatus Deliver to and uniformly mixed in the micromixing device being made up of mixing runner, the mixing runner is S-shaped or tree-like, that is, solid is made Additive strengthens metal-base composites;
Described S-shaped is that a S-shaped or multiple S-shapeds are formed by connecting by certain space combination, for the matrix gold compared with low viscosity Belong to liquid and solid additive/molten metal proportioning compared with low volume fraction;It is described tree-like for dispersion area and to converge area's two parts There is composition certain fractal to pitch the multiple branch circuit runner of structure, for viscosity higher parent metal liquid or higher volume fraction Solid additive/molten metal proportioning.
2. solid additive according to claim 1 strengthens the preparation method of metal-base composites, it is characterised in that institute State solid additive and be selected from carborundum, titanium carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, aluminum oxide, silicon nitride, titanium boride, boron nitride and graphite At least one of.
3. solid additive according to claim 1 strengthens the preparation method of metal-base composites, it is characterised in that institute State molten metal and be selected from least one of aluminium, magnesium, zinc.
4. realize described in claim 1 solid additive enhancing metal-base composites preparation method solid additive with The hybrid system of parent metal liquid, it is characterised in that including solid additive dispenser and micromixing device, the solid Additive dispenser is provided with solid additive storage container and solid additive pusher, the micromixing device bag Include mixing runner;Also include microcosmic dispensing device, the microcosmic dispensing device be arranged at the solid additive dispenser and Between the micromixing device or it is arranged on the micromixing device leading portion, the mixing runner is S-shaped or tree-like.
5. solid additive according to claim 4 and the hybrid system of parent metal liquid, it is characterised in that:It is described to push Device includes pushing oil cylinder, the piston being connected with the push oil cylinder.
6. solid additive according to claim 4 and the hybrid system of parent metal liquid, it is characterised in that:The solid Additive dispenser also includes the conveying device being connected with the solid additive storage container, and the conveying device includes spiral shell The servomotor of bar, the control screw motion.
7. solid additive according to claim 6 and the hybrid system of parent metal liquid, it is characterised in that:The conveying Device also includes being arranged at the screw sleeve outside the screw rod.
8. solid additive according to claim 4 and the hybrid system of parent metal liquid, it is characterised in that:It is described microcosmic Dispensing device includes ultrasonic vibration installation, and the ultrasonic vibration installation is provided with ultrasonic vibration bar.
9. solid additive according to claim 4 and the hybrid system of parent metal liquid, it is characterised in that:The macroscopic view Mixing arrangement includes the electromagnetic pump being connected with the mixing runner.
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Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101003863A (en) * 2007-01-23 2007-07-25 北京科技大学 Method for preparing and rheologic molding semisolid alloy pulp
CN101792870A (en) * 2010-04-06 2010-08-04 清华大学 Device for continuously preparing composite material melt of metal base nanometer non-metal grain

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101003863A (en) * 2007-01-23 2007-07-25 北京科技大学 Method for preparing and rheologic molding semisolid alloy pulp
CN101792870A (en) * 2010-04-06 2010-08-04 清华大学 Device for continuously preparing composite material melt of metal base nanometer non-metal grain

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