CN105026684B - The improvement hydraulic fracturing method of inclined shaft cylinder - Google Patents

The improvement hydraulic fracturing method of inclined shaft cylinder Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105026684B
CN105026684B CN201280077552.1A CN201280077552A CN105026684B CN 105026684 B CN105026684 B CN 105026684B CN 201280077552 A CN201280077552 A CN 201280077552A CN 105026684 B CN105026684 B CN 105026684B
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China
Prior art keywords
fluid
entrance point
perforation
pit shaft
fracturing fluid
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CN201280077552.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105026684A (en
Inventor
J·F·派克鲁夫特
P·彻尼克
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尼克森能源无限责任公司
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Priority to US201261709588P priority Critical
Priority to US61/709,588 priority
Application filed by 尼克森能源无限责任公司 filed Critical 尼克森能源无限责任公司
Priority to PCT/CA2012/001077 priority patent/WO2014053043A1/en
Publication of CN105026684A publication Critical patent/CN105026684A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures
    • E21B43/263Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures using explosives

Abstract

The method that well section is excited in the hydrocarbon reservoir for being provided with the inclined shaft cylinder with casing, wherein the well section includes at least two in the pit shaft does not have the successive levels of isolating tool, the described method includes:I) first order, ii are introduced) second level is introduced in same pit shaft, wherein the first order and the second level are separated not over any isolating tool;Optionally, iii) from the hydrocarbon reservoir recovery of hydrocarbons to ground.

Description

The improvement hydraulic fracturing method of inclined shaft cylinder

Invention field

The present invention relates to be not required it is any isolation or shunting (diversion) instrument, it is hydrocarbonaceous from penetrating in subsurface formations The method of multiple grades of the oblique wellbore fracture on stratum.

Background of invention

During the subterranean strata recovery of hydrocarbons penetrated from pit shaft, the technology generally used that excites this exploitation be Produced in the stratum and extend crack.Most often, the crack to it from the pit shaft for penetrating subsurface formations by applying water Force power and produce.That is, the combination of fracturing fluid or fracturing fluid is pumped through pit shaft simultaneously with certain speed and pressure It is pumped into the stratum for treating pressure break so that the hydraulic pressure put on the stratum causes the one or more cracks produced wherein And/or any already present crack (natural or other) in the extension stratum.The crack is extended by lasting pumping, and The optional crack is:I) supported by being deposited on proppant therein such as sand, or ii) for example sour by reactive fluid The plane of disruption is etched, the hydrocarbon included whereby in stratum easily flows through the crack and enters pit shaft.

A variety of fracturing techniques become known for exciting hydrocarbon harvesting.The example of several prior arts provides in following patent:

For example, United States Patent (USP) 4,415,035 (" patent of ' 035 ") is taught during single frac treatment, it is not necessary to is passed through Using mechanical packer, current limliting, ball sealer, diversion agent or other calkers such as instructed in the prior art, and with wearing The method (the 2nd column 26-34 rows) in crack is formed in multiple hydrocarbon containing formations of the vertical shaft connection of saturating subsurface formations.The patent of ' 035 is also Teaching the perforation of whole levels will complete before fracturing fluid introduces vertical shaft cylinder.This is known as " Hail Mary " in the art Pressure break.The patent of ' 035 pertains only to vertical shaft cylinder, without any teaching of horizontal or inclined shaft cylinder pressure break.The geometry of well is in crack Produce and play an important role in extending, this is known and unanimous.

In 1-4 days, Canadian Alberta, Calgary, SPE International in November, 1998 Conference On on Horizontal Well Technology (the SPE international conferences of horizontal well technology), Love, T.G.'s etc. " Selectively Placing Many Fractures in Openhole Horizontal Wells Improves Production " teaches the method by hydrajetting techniques pressure break pit shaft.The technology is using the whole well of matrix acidizing Cylinder.Sand ball is inserted into the wellbore after each pressure break, then the next position of pressure break.Although the paper declares the fracturing process not Need any plug, but it is to establish and keep operating pressure to need sand ball (i.e. shunting or isolating tool).In addition, the reference Document claims penetrate target complete region in pit shaft before the fracturing process.

United States Patent (USP) 4,850,431 (" 431 patent "), which is taught from inclined shaft cylinder or horizontal wellbore, forms multiple bases separated The method of this parallel fracture.In this approach, casing is placed in inclined shaft cylinder, by being formed through described sleeve pipe and entering ground The perforation of one group of predetermined quantity and size in layer, and multiple crack initiation points separated are produced wherein.Hydraulic pressure is pre- Perforation is put under fixed condition at the crack initiation point, while extends from the inclined shaft cylinder multiple separate in the earth formation Substantially parallel crack (i.e. multistage fracturing at the same time).

After producing the perforation set at the crack initiation point in whole pit shaft, isolate every at each crack point Group perforation, and apply hydraulic pressure (the 2nd column 41-46 rows) to it.At the paragraph for connecting the 5th and 6 columns, 431 patent states This is most preferred technology.Unique example specially set forth at the 7th column 29-32 rows and " will contain in 431 patent The fracturing fluid of proppant is pumped into before pit shaft, isolates every group of perforation ... at the initiation point of crack ".

United States Patent (USP) 4,977,961 (" 961 patent ") is taught produces parallel perpendicular hang down in horizontal wellbore or slanted well bore The method in straight crack.961 patent teaches two kinds of sides for second perforation then first perforating and fracturing horizontal well Formula.

961 patent teaches following steps:

A) it is shot through casing at the first shooting point;

B) it is shot through casing at the second shooting point;

C) hydraulic pressure is applied at the same time at the first and second perforations;With

D) formation fluid is exploited to ground.

Another method comprises the following steps:

A) it is shot through casing at the first shooting point with first pair of perforation;

B) hydraulic pressure is applied with vee crack;

C) fluid communication of first pair of perforation is isolated;

D) it is shot through casing at the second shooting point with second pair of perforation;With

E) hydraulic pressure is applied with initiation and vee crack at described second pair.

PCT application WO 2012/054139 (" 139 patent ") teaches the method that fracture network is produced in reservoir.The party Method includes producing crack, monitor stress and then by being continuously injected into fracturing fluid extension in the wellbore by injecting fracturing fluid The crack.139 patent is also required using isolation or diverting means such as packer, pressure break port, mechanical plug, sand plug, cunning Moving sleeve and other devices known in the art.

The cost excited from horizontal wellbore exploitation usually requires that the hydraulic fracturing excitation (stimulation) of well is economical 's.These operation need hydraulic fracturing equipment and pit shaft intervention apparatu cost be often based on the equipment on well location when The area of a room, and it is whether unrelated in use with the equipment.If this " spare (stand-by) " on well location can be reduced Time quantum, it is possible to reduce the cost of the hydraulic fracturing excitation, and be significant under many circumstances.Typical hydraulic fracturing Level may spend 3 to 8 it is small when or longer complete.The operation carried out during this time is often pit shaft preparation, such as in institute State and plug is set when fracturing unit stops and do not exploit and to pipe perforation.Equipment supplier has collected the spare expense of the downtime, Or they can collect the day valency or uniform price of equipment daily, no matter in operation whether the equipment.If from exploitation road The time quantum for setting plug and pit shaft perforation to need is eliminated and/or removed in footpath, that is, it is carried out at the same time this in pumping hydraulic fracturing level Operate a bit, operator will be quickly completed the pressure break project and a kind of benefit will reduce the assembly related with the method This.

Have a kind of method mentioned above be known as in the industry timely perforation (Just In Time Perforating, JITP).According to our understanding, the method needs mechanical isolation method next fracturing fluid to be gone to from a perforated interval It is a.These perforations are produced with shaping perforating bullet or high-velocity fluid, such as water-jet or abrasive jet method.According to we have appreciated that, Initial well section passes through the instrument perforation that understands in industry.This some holes (perforation) in by casing is from described sleeve pipe to underground rock Established in layer after fluid path, start hydraulic fracturing by the way that fluid or gas are pumped into casing with enough pressure, to obtain Destination band must be entered to excite fluid or gas, the exploitation for the hydrocarbon being included in.Next step is existing JITP side The Part I of method.By perforating system (such as:" choosing is penetrated (Select Fire) " cable perforation (" perforation ") rifle) pull on pit shaft and arrive Next purpose area prepares perforating application, while continues the pumping of previous well section.

To be to be completely pulled out perforating system from pit shaft in next step in the tradition application of multi-stage water power pressure break, except In the operation of some coiled tubings, use the high speed abrasive with enough lower coiled tubings of speed pump to produce perforation, with Hole is produced in casing.In this exception, fracturing fluid can only pump the lower oil pipe of lower circular path, pump or pass through common collection Pipe, that is, both oil pipe and annular space.The JITP methods are using round shot (see, for example, " Packerless Multistage Fracture-Stimulation method Using CT Perforation and Annular Path Pumping ", L.East, J.Rosato, M.Farabee, and B.W.McDaniel, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (conference of SPE Annual Technicals and displaying), 9-12 days, Dallas in October, 2005, Texas) to continue the fracturing process when cable stays in the wellbore.The circular path is cable and hole in this case Annular space between (such as exploiting casing) internal diameter.This method is included by using mechanical isolation/shunting, such as perforation The round shot of ball sealer (" perforation ball ") excites.Perforation ball sealer is the enough hard spheres of intensity, at those to waterpower pressure Split and/or be acidified during having the high pressure excitation operation that acquainted people is understood, it is by from the side for entering purpose area along pit shaft To flowing in seal perforation.

When enough fracturing fluids are pumped into purpose area according to pumping program or are determining to terminate the time point handled (preferably Determined by supervising the processor by independent mode) when, it is ready to pass through choosing perforation and perforation is carried out to subsequent purpose area. " choosing is penetrated " is the term that the technical staff of hydrocarbon extraction industry understands, and is that the perforation that can use expendable perforating bullet multiple operation fills Put (" perforating gun ").Multi-openings rifle is disposed on cable, to allow by skill known to the technical staff of cable perforation industry Art carries out multiple perforating application.Each perforating gun or pass through multiple cables in being deployed in from ground to the cable of the perforating gun Cored wire is chosen transmitting on request, or by being fixed on the Internet protocol device at the cable both ends, one is on ground Transmitter and one are the receivers at the perforating gun, are chosen transmitting on request.It can also implement in field Other form the method for multiple well section perforations along shaft sleeve pipeline section.

Because perforating gun is pulled to next purpose area during first step along pit shaft, the perforating gun is when hair Next purpose area will be shot through in the time of fluid or gas into entrance aperture just when penetrating.But perforating gun until previous well section Prevent from just launching untill further injecting into fracturing fluid or gas through machine plugging.It is to be understood that encapsulating method to be used is to make Existing perforation is blocked with the perforation ball sealer of enough size, but it will be small enough to be passed through the cable and perforating gun work The excitation fluid band setting of casing of tool.Once these perforation balls seal existing perforation and begin to switch off fracturing fluid and flow to above Purpose area, the pressure in casing just rise due to so-called perforation frictional force.For the people of known current limliting theory, perforation Frictional force is as the flow into entrance aperture increases and increases.Sealing perforation by perforation ball forces unnecessary fluid to enter remaining not The perforation of sealing.This finds out as the increase of surface treatment pressure on the ground.In this case, with pressure in the wellbore Exploiting increases to predetermined pressure in the working limit of casing, it is when launching their perforating gun that operator, which obtains alerting this, .Once reaching this pressure, perforating gun transmitting, new perforation is produced in the casing closest to next purpose area, and If deploying enough perforation balls, whole perforations in forward area are all plugged now.The fracturing fluid or gas Body enters new well section in the case where that need not change the speed needed on the ground.

As discussed above, before pressure break, the prior art needs to use isolation or diverting means by a level and another Isolation.Each grade using isolation or diverting means finance and the time both on be expensive.It is laid out in typical pit shaft In with deployment, set and remove and be plugged with the cost of pass and can be up to 1,000,000/pit shafts of $.The known plug that removes is than setting plug more expensive. The usual plug must be drilled out from wellbore before hydrocarbon harvesting is started or taken out in other ways.It is related to the time that plug drills out It is expensive.In addition, diesel fuel or other hydrocarbon energy are utilized to be used for transfer tube and machine to remove plug during drill-well operation There may be negative effect to environment with related waste.

Some costs related with art methods include but is not limited to:The cost of bridge plug is set;The cost of bridge plug; Drill out the cost of bridge plug;The cost of ground installation;The fluid of pumping adds cost of the consumables such as drill bit, motor;With push away The time value of currency of slow hydrocarbon exploitation.

Therefore, it is necessary to a kind of method that multiple crack points are generated in hydrocarbon stratum, its efficiency with higher and optionally compared with Low cost is simultaneously also optionally smaller to the adverse effect of environment.The present invention provides form multiple cracks from single inclined shaft cylinder Improved method.

Method provided by the invention is the improvement of the above method.This method saves operator in one embodiment Carry out the downtime that following steps usually require:

A) perforating gun that the cable is disposed is moved to ground;

B) pit shaft is handled to isolate perforated interval above;With

C) perforating gun is redeployed after processing is complete.

The content of the invention

Following term is used to more fully understand the present invention herein:

Well section-wherein without any isolation or multiple levels of diverting means.

Level-the discrete event that is made of a series of activities with beginning and end.Usual level includes penetrating for wellbore casing Hole and close to pressure break at the perforation.

Isolating tool-be used for the device that one or more levels are isolated with another grade, so as to appropriate under predetermined space Time isolation, limitation directly receive fracturing fluid.

The example of isolating tool includes but not limited to:

Bridge plug-cross section is solid, has the sealing element contacted with wellbore casing internal diameter (ID), there is provided hydraulic pressure is close Envelope, wherein according to design, fluid cannot be transported to opposite side from the side of the plug.

Pressure break plug-solid mandrel, it has by the pipeline at center to allow in one direction or both direction flows.Most Eventually, during operation is excited, only allow to flow in one direction.In the case where pit shaft has a ground entrance point, pressure break Plug does not allow to flow through described device from ground, but will allow to flow along the direction towards ground below described device.Use Various mechanism are known to the skilled artisan in oilfield tools and casing hardware field, are that each oilfield services company provides Emitter (dart), check-valves, ball and ball seat, ball valve, cage type ball.

The related document that sand is placed in vertical shaft casing of sand plug (sand ball)-early stage is referred to as " loose island (Pine Island) " technology.Sand by various means place with above existing entrance, next or subsequent level it is formed below Current limliting.In the loose island technology, sand is mixed with water and is dumped into casing so that it will fall into the bottom of well, and covering is existing There is cannula inlet port point, be the perforation in pipe in this case.In the case of horizontal wellbore, by mixing and by being established Tubular conduit pumping sand place sand plug, the bottom of the pipeline is near existing cannula inlet port point.Allow well fluids in pipe Circulate between road, the pipeline is either upward in pipe well casing annulus or ought spatially be pumped in well casing sleeve ring shape It is upward along the pipe when sending.Once in place, sand plug provides enough fluid flow resistances so that beneath cannula inlet port point with Receive additional excitation fluid to be isolated.

Solid plugging material

Perforation ball sealer-rigidity spherical device, it is designed to follow the opening in excitation fluid to casing, herein it Be effectively embedding, limit the flowing of additional fluid.So that most of fluid of the opening with being introduced to casing from the point Isolation, until from it is described opening release or it lose its solid form, such as be used as " BioBalls "TMThe Santrol of sale The situation of product.The device of early stage is referred to as RCN Perfpac balls, and RCN is rubber coating nylon.

The water soluble salt of rock salt-classification, it can receive any opening of fluid by bridging in the casing.Once Position, the material limit subsequent fluid stream and enter the entrance.One of described example be as TBA-110 or with it is various its What his trade name was sold.Another example is benzoic acid thin slice-or water-soluble or oily or lost in time by any means Any other solid material of its solid form.As the every other material of the category, isolation can connect this material By any opening of fluid.This can be used as TLC-80 to sell.

In the casing existing entrance it is directly opposite or on position at introduce casing any material or Device, it is intended that divided fluid stream is passed through into the entrance, or stops fluid and enters the casing entrance.Example can be with Including:Packer, steel wire plug, sliding sleeve etc..

The pipeline and any device or method on lining or barrier layer of casing-serve as oil pit shaft, prevent the pit shaft Cave in, protect that underground water is drilled from pollution, safety and underground fluid is to ground.Such as, but not limited to, consolidate in place Steel pipe.

Conduct known to the skilled artisan in pressure break or break up fluid-water and general oil/gas well excitation field and science The water containing various chemistry and mineral additive of fracturing fluid.The break up fluid, also referred to as fracturing fluid or excitation fluid, It can include various industrial gasses, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen or natural gas such as methane, ethane, propane or butane is various Composition or liquid hydrocarbon such as lease oil (lease crude) or diesel oil.

" plug and perforation "-it is used for one of many methods of pressure break hydrocarbon reservoir.For fill in and perforation work pit shaft usually by Cementing (cemented) or not cemented standard steel casing joint are formed, it is set in place at the end of drilling process.One Denier removes drilling machine, just utilizes cable reel perforation near the end of well, then pumps fracture job (being commonly referred to as level).Once institute State level to terminate, cable reel will set plug temporarily to block the section in well, then to next section of perforation of the pit shaft.Then Another level is pumped, the process is repeated as needed along the whole length of the horizontal component of the pit shaft.

Entrance (entrance)-this is connectivity points between pit shaft and stratum.The entrance can be by known in the art Any instrument produces.It can be made such as, but not limited to, it by using perforating gun or other instrument perforations.The entrance can With at least one path by wellbore casing, or with multiple paths by described sleeve pipe, also referred to as cluster.It is the multiple Perforation can along casing length in a row, along described sleeve pipe diameter toward each other, and/or with the purpose in stratum The corresponding specific direction arrangement of point, or can be arranged at random in whole described sleeve pipe.

Stratum-subterranean zone, such as the rock comprising hydrocarbon mineral deposit or shale exploitation.

The method of the present invention is reduced and/or eliminated using batching pig (or diverting means), although being not limited to this mechanism, But it is thought that change by pressure difference/rock stress so that the fracturing fluid to be diverted in new perforation naturally.

The method of the present invention, in one embodiment, by introducing fracturing fluid in new perforation with described new New crack is excited in perforation, therefore excites new rock/shale (producing new crack), rather than allows fracturing fluid to enter above Crack excite rock/shale without passing through the new perforation.The required isolation of the prior art or shunting work is being not required in this Tool is lower to be completed.

According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided new well section is excited from inclined shaft cylinder in the hydrocarbon harvesting of subterranean hydrocarbon reservoirs Method.The described method includes at least two successive levels are introduced into the pit shaft under no isolating tool.The method Comprise the following steps:

I) by introducing the first order as follows:

A) the first entrance point entered through wellbore casing in hydrocarbon stratum is produced;

B) at least one fracturing fluid is introduced to first entrance with pressure at a predetermined rate, with described At least one crack is produced at the neighbouring entrance in layer, to excite the hydrocarbon from the hydrocarbon stratum to exploit;

Ii) by introducing the second level in same pit shaft as follows:

A) at the neighbouring first order, produce away from the first entrance point, through described in wellbore casing entrance The second entrance point on hydrocarbon stratum;

B) at least one fracturing fluid is introduced to the second entrance with pressure at a predetermined rate, with the stratum At least one crack is produced at the neighbouring entrance, to excite the hydrocarbon from the hydrocarbon stratum to exploit;

Iii the hydrocarbon) is recycled from the hydrocarbon reservoir by instrument known in the art.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided any isolation or diverting means are not required, with penetrating subterranean hydrocarbon The pit shaft of layer, preferably in inclined shaft cylinder multiple grades of pressure break method.In one embodiment, the described method includes:

I) substantially vertical pit shaft is pierced in the stratum, substantially vertical pit shaft described in deflection is with from the base In sheet inclined shaft cylinder is formed to be arranged essentially parallel to the angle and direction on ground on vertical pit shaft;

Ii) the lead-in bushing in the inclined shaft cylinder;

Iii the entrance for) entering stratum through described sleeve pipe by producing introduces the first order;

Iv at least one fracturing fluid preferably) is introduced to the entrance with pressure at a predetermined rate, with described The entrance of the neighbouring first order produces at least one crack in layer;

V) entrance for entering stratum through described sleeve pipe by producing introduces the second level;

Vi at least one fracturing fluid preferably) is introduced to the entrance with pressure at a predetermined rate, with described The entrance of the neighbouring second level produces at least one crack in layer;With

Vii) from the stratum recovery of hydrocarbons,

The wherein described first order and the second level do not separate each other.

In a preferred embodiment, the pressure condition of the pit shaft is monitored with the definite completion first order and initially forms second At the time of level.

In another preferred embodiment, proppant is concomitantly introduced into fracturing fluid, to support the crack in stratum.

Preferably, the inclined shaft cylinder essentially horizontally or with the heel of originally substantially vertical pit shaft be in most 45 ° Any work angle extension.It is highly preferred that the inclined shaft cylinder essentially horizontally extend or with vertical pit shaft substantially 90 °, 10 ° preferably +/-, more preferably +/- 5 ° of any work angle extension.Alternatively, the pit shaft can be geometry-variable , and its basic horizontal part can change its direction and the elevation angle.

It is preferred that the entrance includes at least one perforation on substantially perpendicular to the wellbore casing direction.More preferably Ground, the entrance include multi-openings.One or more of perforations can be along the length of described sleeve pipe or along described The periphery arrangement of casing.In another embodiment, the direction of any perforation can be from substantially vertical change, to allow pressure break Fluid enters stratum, to cause in the stratum of the neighbouring perforation or vee crack.

Preferably, the fracturing fluid can include at least one liquid, gas or its combination, preferably have at least one Kind solid.Although the fracturing fluid composition of several types can be sequentially introduced into stratum by the entrance, preferred In embodiment, the fracturing fluid can also include proppant to support the crack.The example of proppant includes but unlimited In natural sand, Man made ceramic, bauxite etc..

Preferably, hydrocarbon recovery process includes:

I) fracturing fluid injection is terminated;

Ii the pressure at pit shaft) is reduced to allow hydrocarbon to enter pit shaft by the perforation from the crack in the stratum;

Iii the hydrocarbon optionally) is transmitted to ground;With

Iv the hydrocarbon) is collected.

It is preferred that the hydrocarbon recovery process is carried out using production recovery arrangement, the equipment can include electric, mechanical, active or passive Equipment.In some cases, some or all of hydrocarbon can be by accumulating in the wellbore because introducing the fracturing fluid Final pressure harvests.

According to a further aspect of the invention, excite new well section include introduce not over any isolating tool separate to Few two levels.In one case, the scope of level can include three to three ten grades between, or more (if desired).Well Series in section can depend on the close of stratigraphic type, pit shaft length, stratum gross thickness, well and pit shaft and other wells and pit shaft Property.

According to a further aspect of the invention, at least one well section is provided in inclined shaft cylinder, the well section includes:

The first order, has perforation and pressure break a entrance, and the second level, preferably have with the first order entrance from Perforation and pressure break the entrance for dissipating and separating;The wherein described first order and the second level do not separate each other.It is it is preferred that described Well section includes at least three coherent levels.

According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided the method for excitation hydrocarbon reservoir, the described method includes according to above-mentioned side Method excites at least two well sections, wherein at least two well section includes at least two-stage, preferably at least three-level, and wherein described At least two well sections are separated by isolating tool.Before hydrocarbon harvesting, change the isolating tool, to allow from the well section stream Enter pit shaft, preferably remove the isolating tool from pit shaft.

According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided excite new well section in substantially horizontal pit shaft in hydrocarbon reservoir Method.The described method includes two or more successive levels are introduced in the pit shaft, do not isolate between the level Instrument, the described method includes:

I) first order is introduced as follows:

A) the first entrance point entered through wellbore casing in hydrocarbon stratum is produced;

B) preferably introduce at least one fracturing fluid to the first entrance point with pressure at a predetermined rate, with excitation from The hydrocarbon exploitation on the stratum;

C) during whole the method, the service condition of the pit shaft is monitored under the scheduled time;

Ii) second level is introduced in same pit shaft as follows:

A) produce the neighbouring first order, enter the second entrance point on hydrocarbon stratum through wellbore casing;

B) preferably introduce at least one fracturing fluid to the second entrance point with pressure at a predetermined rate, with excitation from The hydrocarbon exploitation on the stratum;

C) during whole the method, the service condition of the pit shaft is monitored under the scheduled time;

The wherein described first order and the second level are not separated by any isolating tool.

In another embodiment, excite hydrocarbon harvesting method be additionally included in identical pit shaft it is following introduce one or Multiple coherent levels:

A) at least one coherent entrance for entering hydrocarbon stratum adjacent to level above, through wellbore casing is produced;

B) preferably introduce at least one fracturing fluid to the coherent entrance with pressure at a predetermined rate, with excitation from The hydrocarbon exploitation on the hydrocarbon stratum;

C) during whole the method, the service condition of the pit shaft is monitored under the scheduled time;

D) excitation is terminated to allow hydrocarbon to harvest;With

E) by instrument known in the art from the hydrocarbon reservoir recovery of hydrocarbons;The wherein described first order, the second level and described The coherent level of one or more is not separated by any isolating tool.

Every grade of length will be determined by the total length of pit shaft, the position of pit shaft and formation characteristics.It is preferred that every grade of length can be with From about 10 to about 300 meters, more preferably from about 100 to about 200 meters.

Well section between level can be predetermined length, preferably from about 10 to about 100 meters, in another case, the well section Also can be more than 100 meters.

The distance between each entrance can be by there is technology known to relevant knowledge personnel to determine in this area.These Technology can include, but are not limited to think for analysis or numerical model or simulation laboratory effectively necessary to the exploitation of excitation hydrocarbon Model.Such model can include, but are not limited to crack growth simulation and economic evaluation, for example, based on the commodity that use and The price of the cost and natural gas of service and/or the present or future of oil carries out net present value (NPV) or rate of return on investment calculates.It is preferred that Ground, the distance between each entrance can be 25 meters most in every grade.For example, 1000 meters of well sections can have 10 grades in pit shaft, 100 meters/grade, every grade includes as little as one and up to 10 or more entrance.

Preferably, each entrance includes at least one perforation or the point of entrance.More preferably each entrance includes cluster Or multi-openings, they are located adjacent one another with preset distance each other.It is preferred that each perforation in the cluster in identical pit shaft with The distance less than one meter is arranged each other.

According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided isolating tool is not utilized, in hydrocarbon mineral deposit from horizontal wellbore The method that multiple grades of well section pressure break.The example of isolating tool includes but not limited to ball sealer, mechanical packer or graininess bridge Stifled material, or any other isolating tool or machine tool as discussed in this article.

It the described method comprises the following steps:

A) selection is suitable for carrying out the pit shaft of fracturing process without using isolating tool;

B) appropriate level position is selected in the pit shaft, optionally according to earthquake and/or other measurements and research, such as But it is not limited to geophysics, petrophysics, petroleum geology, structural geology and reservoir engineering;

C) at least one perforation, preferably one group of perforation are provided in the first opening of the first order of the pit shaft;

D) at least one excitation fluid or series excitation fluid are pumped at least one perforation;

E) charge velocity and pressure of the observation in selected level;

F) appropriate level position is selected in the pit shaft, optionally according to earthquake and/or other measurements and research, such as But it is not limited to geophysics, rock physics, petroleum geology, tectonic geology and reservoir engineering;

G) at least one perforation, preferably one group of perforation, without making are provided in the coherent opening of the coherent level of the pit shaft With isolating tool,

H) at least one excitation fluid or series excitation fluid are pumped at least one perforation;

I) charge velocity and pressure of the observation in selected level;

J) optional repeat step (f) to (i), does not have isolating tool between the level.

The present invention carries out fracturing operation the time it takes by reducing;And/or by reducing non-pump time, it is described non- Pump time is obtained by reducing and/or eliminating placement isolation between the stages or the requirement of diverting means such as plug;It is and/or logical Cross reduction and/or eliminate and remove the needs of the plug before hydrocarbon exploitation, and cause effectively to prepare hydrocarbon reservoir to carry out hydrocarbon exploitation.

Preferably, according to the present invention, the hydraulic fracturing method be included in need not shunt or isolating device fracturing extremely Few two levels.Example includes, but are not limited to ball sealer, concrete plug, bridge plug or sand plug.

It is preferred that the fracturing fluid is introduced with certain fluid injection rate, pressure limitation is determined by modern well bore construction method It is fixed.It is expected that ground well head pressure depend on mine shaft depth and pit shaft length.The mine shaft depth influences estimated shaft bottom injection The total fluid frictional force that pressure and the pit shaft effect length must pull against under defined charge velocity.In subsurface about 2500 The common surface pressing of pit shaft of about 2500 meters of rice and lateral length can be more preferably from about in approximately more than 15MPa to about 100MPa 35MPa to about 65MPa.In addition, the pressure can also depend on the stratum residing for pit shaft.Trigger and extend needed for hydraulic fracturing The bottomhole injection pressure wanted depends on live rock property, including regional structures stress.These values can be by hydraulic fracturing at The technical staff managed in design technology utilizes petrophysical, sound wave, the measurement of nuclear power pit shaft and oil and structural geology and ground The knowledge of ball physics, is substantially estimated.Those of ordinary skill in the art will adjust introducing method, charge velocity and fluid The amount and concentration of composition and volume and oil field proppant are excited and harvested to allow enough hydrocarbon to exploit.

It is preferred that the fracturing fluid, to be introduced from about one cubic metre per minute of speed, the lower limit is by hydrocarbonaceous underground rock There are knowledge personnel to pass through in hydrocarbonaceous subterranean strata or directly adjacent effectively production in the excitation field of horizontal wellbore in layer Unboiled water forces the required minimum design speed of the mouth that splits and determines, to about 18 cubic metres per minute or bigger, the highest injection Speed is only limited by available ground pumping equipment discharge pressure and rate limit and casing safety operating pressure, more preferably every point 5 to 15 cubic metres of clock.

According to a further aspect of the invention, the excitation or fracturing fluid optionally include tracer or label, preferably Radioactive substance, with the validity for helping to monitor the operating status in pit shaft and determining fracturing process of the present invention.

Preferably, at least two grades after the first order of the horizontal wellbore are not utilizing conventional dividing technology Situation fracturing, and by being excited by the business geophysics emission recording device records for being known as ear-phone in oil gas industry Microseism emission during operation and by the way that gamma ray spectrum can be detected in the industry to determine the γ transmittings isotope, preferably To record, γ launches tracer element index to existing one or more known methods of scandium, iridium and antimony in mineral deposit after excitation operates In the presence of to observe at least one of charge velocity, fluid path and pressure in selected level, so as to select the subsequent level Position, the tape deck with focus on array deployment on the ground or by known instrument and practical deployments it is vertical and/ Or in horizontal wellbore.

According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided continuous fracturing process.Once by as described above Pumping program determines or determines that current level should stop by handling response according to well, then perforating gun will be launched, simultaneous pumping Continue.The perforation that having been observed that this method causes newly to open stores the fracturing fluid largely entered.Pass through pressure rates Response is it has been observed that if fracturing fluid less than 80% enters the new perforation of the present invention, then the perforation of afterbody will be by Pumped according to plan, however, at the level, it would be desirable to which isolating tool or diverting means continue the method for the present invention.In the level, pump Sending will stopping and the drawn out cable perforating gun from pit shaft.Then will be blocked and perforating application has a knowledge personnel progress by horizontal Block and perforating application, completion prepare.

Surprisingly, the new method causes the essential improvement of the fracturing process.In one example, in Horn rivers The shale gas well in basin is excited in the case where mechanical isolation is not required, and causes unexpected positive result, in further detail below Discuss.Therefore, it is suitable for continuous fracturing process.

In one case, the present invention is the continuation method for horizontal/tiltedly multistage fracturing operation.The method can be Using the selection emission type perforating system of cable deployment in continuous pressure break exciting method, and machine is not had to during the exciting method Tool current divider or isolating tool.However, these current dividers can be in the deployment of plan or planless pumping operation stopping.OK In industry it is well known that, when need shunting when, it is necessary in using oil gas industry known mechanical device such as perforation ball sealer, bridge plug or Packer is pressure break well section above to be isolated with current pressure break well section, and these device plans are in each successive waterpower The deployment of pressure break excitation level completion.The present invention reduces the frequency of use of these instruments and/or eliminates in practical applications These mechanical shunt methods.

Single break event is followed by description multi-openings in the prior art, and only there is level-one in well section.At this In invention, there is minimum two-stage (being more than level-one) in each well section.

After one or more entrances are produced in oil well casing to provide and be directly entered adjacent hydrocarbonaceous subterranean strata, Level starts, and is terminated with carrying out the subsequent entrance of hydraulic fracturing excitation activity generation in the oil well casing.For For the skilled person of oil/gas well excitation activity, level is defined as the activity carried out with other physical well activity commands, the activity Often repeat, it is therefore intended that obtain desired well response.Horizontal wellbore hydraulic fracturing excitation operation in the case of, the level with By more than under the speed of natural unexcited exploitation rate, excite and exploit from hydrocarbonaceous reservoir rock.

The series implemented in this operation is only limited by the dimension constraint for the pit shaft being adjacently positioned with the hydrocarbonaceous reservoir. In the prior art, level order is implemented in 25 meters to 150 meters purpose areas in-between, available horizontal wellbore length exists Between 1000 meters and 3000 meters of length.Such as:1000 meters of horizontal wellbores can use 10 grades of excitations, and level length is per Ji100 meter areas With every 25 meters of entrances, every grade of 4 entrances altogether.Another example can be in the horizontal wellbore that length is 2000 meters Implement identical series, 200 meters every grade and every 20 meters of entrances, every grade of 10 entrances altogether.

In one embodiment, method of the invention can be applied at least two-stage.That is, in traditional plug & After perforation level, at least two " no plug " levels can be carried out.Plug can be placed on it is described without plug level after hole on, remaining level can To be completed with traditional plug and perforation or with the combination without plug level or without plug and perforation & plug levels.

In another embodiment of the invention, whole well can be harvested with without plug level excitation hydrocarbon completely.

In another embodiment of the invention, well can be completed with without plug level, until surface pressing and speed measurement Fracturing fluid is prompted into level above, or hydraulic fracture is produced in the exciting method, but fracturing fluid Into the tomography in subterranean strata, the benefit for continuing the exciting method is counteracted, because the benefit of excitation tomography is uncertain , it is undesirable or invalid, the no blocking method should stop at this point.In this case, plug will be after final stage Run and the method will be continued with without plug level, until pressure and speed measurement again prompt the method should again in Only and using traditional plug & perforations.

In another embodiment of the invention, perforation can be placed in any position in pit shaft.In one example: It is incremented by and conventionally referred to as 3rd area towards the successive level of the heel of the crosspiece of the pit shaft according to from the bottom of pit shaft or toe section Well section can traditionally as carrying out perforation before 2nd area arrangement well section in the wellbore, 2nd area by 3rd areas of Bi closer to The position of toe.One area is traditionally closest to the toe of accessibility cased borehole or first well section of deepest part.Two Area be traditionally in described sleeve pipe pit shaft in next well section of the pre-position of the pit shaft, often regular length etc. At well section.One after the other so named with numerical order from the toe of described sleeve pipe to most accessibility part above in the area (1,2,3,4...40).Only two well sections that the quantity in these areas is implemented from early development Barnett shale increase to more To 40 or more areas.In the present invention, when the application fracturing process without plug, three area well section positions may be considered that now It is two level sequentially, even if it is sequentially disposed in three zone positions based on pit shaft length in the pit shaft.Once this two Level frac treatment is pumped into three zone position, three-level well section will at two zone positions perforation, the step with according to prior art just Chang Shunxu is opposite.When the tradition plug and perforating methods with needing to carry out from the toe of accessibility cased borehole to heel section order Compared to when, a kind of this benefit without plug fracturing process, which is it, provides the machine of execution frac treatment out of order for operator Meeting.In general, operator will not place mechanical plug in the wellbore, then drill out and work, this and embodiments of the present invention suggestion It is opposite.Other benefits of this fracturing process out of order are considered when the arrangement crack starting point between existing hydraulic fracturing When subterranean strata will respond the mode and the pattern that will develop of crack of hydraulic fracturing induced stress.Inventor is thought by existing Have in hydraulic fracture arrangement hydraulic fracture starting point using the stress field of the change in fracturing stratum, will cause when with it is traditional suitable When sequence fracturing process is compared, the improvement of the reservoir volume of excitation.This method is novel, because not using waterpower or machinery Shunt method or isolating tool, it is allowed to which fracturing fluid enters various positions along pit shaft.

In another embodiment, this method is easily used as the refracturing application of existing pit shaft.These are existing Pit shaft can be swashed with the plug perforation method or one kind for various other multistage fracturing methods of casing horizontal well Hair.That is, the pit shaft of the liner of the monotubular of cemented casing, cemented casing or non-cemented casing, such as It is Packers Plus by trade nameBaker FracPointTMDeng those, they utilize Mechanical isolation method, is deployed on casing in the form of mechanical coupler external packer, rock packer and swellable packer.Or Person does not dispose mechanical isolation method in some cases, in the outside of described sleeve pipe column.In addition, these methods use internal shunt The device sliding sleeve of activation (such as ball) is will shunt the fluid into each area along casing string.Other multiple-stage methods can utilize Perforation ball sealer is not shunted as main shunt method, or completely, such as be frequently referred to as " Hail Mary " pressure breaks, wherein Whole pit shaft or a part of pit shaft by complete perforation and are introduced into the fracturing fluid of the pit shaft into the ability of all well sections As " danger Hail Mary " passes in American football.

With during this pressure break invention refracturing operation without plug, operator can introduce fracturing fluid all existing Perforation in fully to oppress hydraulic fracturing well section above.In another embodiment, they can penetrate non-perforation area Hole, then starts the method.Once being pumped up the fracturing fluid of enough volumes, next well section between existing perforation will By from toe to heel or with inverted order as described above or to be considered suitable for causing any order from the harvesting of stratum hydrocarbon to carry out Successive perforation and pressure break.In the case of the sliding sleeve or other grade of instrument that are activated in pit shaft there are other methods such as ball, Perforation can introduce at any point between the level instrument.

After the description of following preferred embodiment is read in conjunction with the figure, of the invention other and further purpose, spy Advantage of seeking peace will be easily obvious to those skilled in the art.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of well section in pit shaft according to the present invention, and the pit shaft has not over plug or isolating tool Three levels separated.

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of the prior art, has the three pressure break levels separated by plug.

Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of the prior art, depicts the removal of plug before harvesting level.

Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of the example compared between art methods and method of the invention.

Fig. 5 A-F are the step schematic diagrames of the generation well section of the present invention, and the well section has three separated not over plug Level.

Fig. 6 is two sections of schematic diagram of well, is separated by the plug of the present invention.

Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of art methods in not cemented pit shaft.

Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of fracturing process in non-cementing pit shaft of the invention.

Fig. 9 A-B provide the diagram of the microseism data of well c-E1-J/94-0-8.

Figure 10 A-B-C provide the diagram of the microseism data of well c-C1-J/94-0-8.

Figure 11 depicts the data of level 11,12 and 13, and the level is RA tracers, with tracer utilize present invention introduces pressure The distribution of rip current body.

Figure 12 depicts the production logging for the completion experiment for carrying out artesian well c-E1-J.

Embodiment

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of multistage fracturing method according to the present invention.Extend as can be seen that pit shaft 20 has from perpendicular section 22 Horizontal segment 24.Pit shaft 20 is equipped with " Christmas tree " section 21 of the pit shaft beyond ground 10.The underground of the lower section of shale 11, which exists, to be contained Hydrocarbon reservoir 112, it is the target of hydrocarbon harvesting.Horizontal segment 24 extends between the heel 23 and toe 27 of pit shaft 20.Horizontal segment 24 Casing 25 with cementing 26.Depict two complete levels of fracturing operation, level 201 and level 202.Level 201 has by penetrating The entrance 39 that hole 30 and 31 is formed, to allow to use 34 pressure break hydrocarbon reservoir 112 of fracturing fluid, produces crack 32 and 33.Level 202 has Have that there are the entrance 49 of perforation 40 and 41 and crack 42 and 43.Perforation 30,31,40,41,50 and 51 passes through ability in Fig. 1 Such as perforating gun of instrument known to field technique personnel produces.Level 203 is depicted to introduce through entrance 59 by perforation 50 and 51 and pressed The process of rip current body 34, produces Activate pressure, causes the crack in reservoir 112.Fig. 1 is shown with not over any shunting The well section for three levels 201,202 and 203 that instrument separates.In this case, level 201 and 202 separates predetermined length 29.

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of tradition " plug and perforation " method of the prior art.There is a level of two pressure breaks, 101 and 102, with And perforating and the third level 103 for just carrying out pressure break.According to this method, reservoir 112, which has, includes casing 125 and cementing Casing 126.In the first order 101, perforation 130 and 131 is produced, then introduces fracturing fluid 134 to produce crack 132 and 133. After the completion of level 101, this " plug and perforation " method needs the plug of arrangement first 28.After arrangement plug 28,102 perforating of level is to produce Raw perforation 130 and 131, then introduces fracturing fluid to produce crack 132 and 133.After the pressure break for completing level 102, the second plug 28 are arranged in after level 102.Continue this " plug and perforation " method, until the total length of horizontal wellbore by pressure break and excites reservoir 112 exploit for hydrocarbon.

Fig. 3 show described " plug and perforation " method completed after Fig. 2 and show the well excited completely 124.The well has the casing 125 of cementing 126.Well 124 is made of several grades of 101-105, and each level is separated by plug 28.In It is, in order to be drilled out from 112 recovery of hydrocarbons of reservoir, plug 28 by the mechanism of drilling device 70.This " plug and perforation " existing skill Art method includes multiple steps, and time and cost are added to the method.For example, as described above, it is necessary to coil pipe or other machines Tool drills out device and removes plug (being 5 plugs herein).

Fig. 4 shows experiment of traditional fracturing process compared with the present invention.

Fig. 5 A-D show the present invention for being not required isolating tool to form multiple each levels of level and pressure break.Pit shaft 22 has water Flat section 24 and Christmas tree section 21.Fig. 5 A show the entrance 39 that casing 25 is introduced through in pit shaft 24, and the entrance connects Nearly toe 27 and remote heel 23, there is provided the entrance of hydrocarbon reservoir 20.In this example, entrance 39 is by perforation 30 and 31 groups Into.Fig. 5 B are shown by the 34 pressure break hydrocarbon reservoir 20 of fracturing fluid by first entrance 39.Introduced and pressed by first entrance point 39 Rip current body 34, produces crack 32 and 33, generates the first order.Fig. 5 C, which are shown, starts the second level, the second level and described first Level is coherent and is separated not over plug with the first order.The second entrance 49 with perforation 40 and 41 is produced, then adjacent to second Entrance introduces fracturing fluid 34 to produce crack 42 and 43 (referring to Fig. 5 D).Fig. 5 E and 5F show with it is described before cascade The third level passed through and separated not over plug or current divider with level above.The third level is by producing together with perforation 50 and 51 The 3rd entrance 59 produced is simultaneously and then pressure break is formed with forming crack 52 and 53.This method can by introduce other levels after It is continuous, wherein the level is separated not over any plug.

Fig. 6 shows the first well section 271, it includes the group of several coherent levels 201,202,203 and 300, the well section with Second well section 272 is separated by plug 28.Second well section 272 includes three coherent level 201', 202' and 203', again without logical Any plug is crossed to separate.The casing 225 of the pit shaft is cementing 226.

Each pit shaft 224 can include the multiple well sections separated by plug, at the same each well section can include not over Fill in multiple levels of isolation.Series in each well section can be based on the limitation of the geology of hydrocarbon reservoir, the service condition of well, operator Operate decision or other conditions well known by persons skilled in the art and change.

Fig. 7 shows the another embodiment of the prior art, and wherein pit shaft 324 is not cemented.It is not cemented There is pit shaft 324 external casing packer 327 to be spaced apart level 301.In not cemented pit shaft 324 it is this " plug and Perforation " method also needs to the arrangement plug 328 after each perforation 330 pressure break 332.Bridge plug 328 is used for inside casing 325 Draw shunting body 334 between pressure break level.Bridge plug 328 must be driven off before recovery of hydrocarbons, unless using pressure break plug.However, behaviour Author often drills out pressure break plug to improve flow behavior.

Fig. 8 shows new method, wherein compared with the existing fracturing technique that Fig. 7 describes, the quantity of bridge plug 328 substantially subtracts It is few.In the present invention, bridge plug 328 introduces after 5 pressure break levels.Each of level 301,302,303,304 and 305 is included and penetrated Hole step 330,340,350 and pass through the fracturing step 332,342,352 of fracturing fluid 334 respectively.Pumping several pressure break levels Afterwards, it may be necessary to bridge plug 328, so that once the above loss in crack becomes unable to receive, increase enters the flow of new perforation. Alternatively, the validity of fracturing step can be from record microseismic event monitoring with efficiency.Microseismic event in monitoring well can be from closest Gully (offsetwell) or pass through other means known in the art carry out.

The new method shown in Fig. 8 reduces bridge plug quantity in pit shaft, thus effectively reduce downtime and with arrangement The cost of pass is plugged with removing.

Embodiment

In the examples below, carried out in the horizontal wellbore with casing traditional " plug and perforation ", followed by this hair Bright method, to evaluate its feasibility.Referring now to Figure 4, carry out following activity:

Level 101,102,103 is produced up to 300 using the prior art " plug and perforation ", then pressure break, between each level Utilize plug 28.

After completing pressure break level 300, plug 28 is introduced into pit shaft 124.Pit shaft 124 has the casing 125 of cementing 126.Level 201 Perforating 230 and 231 and pressure break 232 and 233, followed by the perforation 241,240,251,250 and pressure break 242 of level 202 and 203, 243、252、253.R/A tracers are pumped into during pressure break in (not shown) level 202 and 203.Use three kinds of tracers:Testing 1 kind of isotope and 2 kinds of isotopes in test grade 203 in level 202.2 kinds of isotopes of R/A materials are found in these grades, are referred to Show the perforation in all levels using the present invention and determine pressure break scope, it causes the excitation of all well sections 201,202 and 203.

This operation is implemented on the basis of discrete in two example wells.In these example wells, pumping program is So that three purpose areas do not have to carry out perforation in the case of any plug between them.Radio isotope and microseism hydraulic fracturing Mapping confirms the success of the method for the present invention.

Two wells (c-C1-J/94-0-8 and c-E1-J/94-0-8) are selected referring now to Fig. 9 A, 9B&10A, 10B, 10C- The test present invention.Select the level 12,13,14 in the level 11,12 and 13 and well E1 in well C1.Surveyed using microseism and radioactive substance The validity of fixed each " no plug " level.All test grades pump according to plan, in level 12 and 13 observe some charge velocities and Pressure gap, shows that some fracturing fluids enter open perforation from level above.

Microseismic event is prompted, and is produced newly along the direction for the maximum horizontal stress predicted in new perforation peripheral region The reservoir volume that is excited.The radio isotope in region also around the whole experiment perforation of measurement, and material is most highly concentrated Degree association is pumped into the level fluid of " no plug " test grade.

First well:

Referring to Fig. 9 A and 9B

Without plug crushing test, the c-E1-J/ of well c-E1-J/94-0-8, Muskwa level 12,13 and 14 microseismic events record 94-0-8 Otter Park A wells have following technical specification:

It is not provided with filling between level

5 perforation cluster/levels

125m grades of well sections

150T sand, every grade of 3375m3

The data of in-situ processing

Relatively new perforation have recorded microseismic event, have a color dot, and level well section above it is opposite event it is seldom.Such as figure In 9B best seen from, most of event of most of event away from level 12 of level 13.In an identical manner, the major part of level 14 Most of event of the event away from level 13.

Figure 12 indicates the coefficient of mining of the level 12,13 and 14 of well c-E1-J.These levels not over any diverting means every Open.Described three coefficient of minings without plug level are more than the average coefficient of mining of whole pit shaft.

Second well:

Referring to Figure 10 A, 10B, 10C and 11

Without plug crushing test, well c-C1-J/94-0-8, Muskwa level 11,12 and 13 microseismic event recording technique specifications:

It is not provided with filling between level

5 perforation cluster/levels

125m grades of well sections

250T sand, every grade of 3375m3

The data of in-situ processing

As in Figure 10 C for level 13 and 12 best seen from, relatively new perforated interval have recorded microseismic event and preceding The event that the level well section in face is opposite is seldom.

It can be seen that in fig. 11, the fracturing fluid that the level 11,12 and 13 of radioactive tracer shows to be introduced into the level has The overall distribution of profit.

If determine that most of fluid enters newly during pumping operation according to plan by observing pressure and rate response Perforated interval, then the level then terminates according to plan, next purpose area it is opposite perforating gun transmitting and terminate, simultaneous pumping after It is continuous.

However, if it is determined that pumped fluid enters the percentage deficiency of new perforation, and it is expected if continuing pumping, can be with Before next purpose area launches perforating gun, graininess shunting material is introduced into frac treatment.This shunting material is not penetrated Hole ball sealer or other machine tools for being used to block the stream in area downwards, it allows to carry out uninterrupted pumping operation.When these When bulk material reaches all perforated intervals, the fluid being substantially reduced into perforated interval before these is injected, for once The material continues to carry out fracturing operation in next perforated interval when moving past next purpose area.Once the granular substance is clear Except the opposite perforation tool in next purpose area, then the rifle transmitting, produce new perforation and in the case where not stopping pumping after Continue the no blocking method.

Therefore many changes can be carried out to preferred embodiment under without departing from its scope to the present invention.Think herein Comprising full content be considered as the present invention explanation without limited significance.

Claims (20)

1. the method for well section, the method bag are excited in the subsurface formations for being provided with the inclined shaft cylinder with cemented casing Include:
I) first order is introduced as follows:
A) at least one first entrance point entered through the cemented wellbore casing in the subsurface formations is produced;
B) at least one first fracturing fluid is introduced at least one first entrance point, to excite from the subsurface formations The hydrocarbon exploitation of reservoir;
Ii) second level is introduced in same pit shaft as follows:
A) produce the neighbouring first order and relative to first entrance point uplink arrangement, through the cemented pit shaft Casing enters the second entrance point of the subsurface formations;
B) at least one second fracturing fluid is introduced to the second entrance point, to excite the hydrocarbon from the reservoir of the subsurface formations Exploitation;
Wherein, while at least one second fracturing fluid of the introducing carries out, at least one first entrance point is in institute State in pit shaft not with the second entrance point fluid isolation;And
It is described to introduce at least one first fracturing fluid and cause the induced stress in the subsurface formations, thus it is introduced at least A kind of second fracturing fluid is diverted to the second entrance point from least one first entrance point.
2. according to the method described in claim 1, wherein described produce at least one first entrance point including being shot through the pit shaft Casing is to produce at least one first perforation, wherein at least one first entrance point passes through at least one first perforation In a corresponding perforation limit;With
Wherein described generation second entrance point includes being shot through the wellbore casing to produce the second perforation, wherein the second entrance Point is limited by second perforation.
3. according to the method described in claim 2, each perforation and described second in wherein described at least one first perforation Perforation is substantially perpendicular to the wellbore casing.
4. according to the method described in claim 3, each perforation and described second in wherein described at least one first perforation Perforation is arranged along the basic lastrow of the wellbore casing or substantially around the wellbore casing.
5. according to the method described in claim 1, further include:
From the subsurface formations recovery of hydrocarbons to ground, wherein hydrocarbon harvesting is further comprising the steps of:
Stop introducing at least one first fracturing fluid and at least one second fracturing fluid;
Reduce the pressure in pit shaft;With
The hydrocarbon is harvested to ground by the pit shaft.
6. according to the method described in claim 1, further include:
Iii) determine whether the flow of at least one second fracturing fluid is more than at least one first fracturing fluid Flow;And if the flow of at least one second fracturing fluid is more than the flow of at least one first fracturing fluid, Then
Iv the third level) is introduced as follows in same pit shaft:
A) produce the neighbouring second level and relative to second entrance point uplink arrangement, through the cemented pit shaft Casing enters the 3rd entrance in the subsurface formations;
B) at least one 3rd fracturing fluid is introduced to the 3rd entrance to excite the hydrocarbon of the reservoir from the subsurface formations Exploitation;
Wherein, while at least one 3rd fracturing fluid of the introducing carries out, at least one first entrance point and institute State second entrance point in the pit shaft not with the 3rd entrance fluid isolation.
7. the method for new well section is excited in the subsurface formations of inclined shaft cylinder and cmtd csg are provided with, the described method includes:
I) it is following to introduce the first order with predetermined length:
A) at least one first entrance point entered through the cemented wellbore casing in the subsurface formations is produced;
B) at least one first fracturing fluid is introduced at least one first entrance point, to excite from the subsurface formations Hydrocarbon is exploited;
C) frac pressure in the pit shaft is monitored;
Ii the second level with predetermined length) is introduced in same well as follows:
A) produce the neighbouring first order and relative to first entrance point uplink arrangement, through the cemented pit shaft Casing enters the second entrance point of the subsurface formations;
B) at least one second fracturing fluid is introduced to the second entrance point, to excite the hydrocarbon from the subsurface formations to exploit;
Wherein while at least one second fracturing fluid of the introducing carries out, at least one first entrance point is described In pit shaft not with the second entrance point fluid isolation;With
Iii) from the reservoir recovery of hydrocarbons of the subsurface formations;
It is wherein described to be introduced to a kind of few first fracturing fluid and cause the induced stress in the subsurface formations, so that introduced At least one second fracturing fluid is diverted to the second entrance point from least one first entrance point.
8. according to the method described in claim 7, wherein described produce at least one first entrance point including being shot through the pit shaft Casing is so that produce at least one first perforation, wherein at least one first entrance point passes through described at least one first A corresponding perforation in perforation limits;With
Wherein described generation second entrance point includes being shot through the wellbore casing to produce the second perforation, wherein the second entrance Point is limited by second perforation.
9. according to the method described in claim 8, wherein described at least one first perforation is multiple first perforations and wherein institute State each perforation in the first perforation and be spaced distance less than one meter.
10. according to the method described in claim 7, further include, in step iii) before:
Determine whether the flow of at least one second fracturing fluid is more than the flow of at least one first fracturing fluid; And if the flow of at least one second fracturing fluid is more than the flow of at least one first fracturing fluid,
It is following in same pit shaft to introduce the third level with predetermined length:
A) produce the neighbouring second level and relative to second entrance point uplink arrangement, through the cemented pit shaft Casing enters the 3rd entrance in the subsurface formations;
B) at least one 3rd fracturing fluid is introduced to the 3rd entrance to excite the hydrocarbon of the reservoir from the subsurface formations Exploitation;
Wherein, while at least one 3rd fracturing fluid of the introducing carries out, at least one first entrance point and institute State second entrance point in the pit shaft not with the 3rd entrance fluid isolation.
11. the method for multiple grades of horizontal wellbore well section pressure break the described method comprises the following steps in hydrocarbon mineral deposit:
A) selection is suitable for carrying out the pit shaft of the fracturing process;
B) appropriate level position is selected in the pit shaft;
C) cemented casing is shot through to form at least one first perforation of the first order of the pit shaft;.
D) fluid or series first is excited to excite fluid to be pumped at least one first perforation at least one first;
E) charge velocity and pressure of the observation in selected level;
F) appropriate level position is selected in the pit shaft;
G) be shot through cemented casing with formed the coherent level of the pit shaft relative at least the one of the first perforation uplink A second perforation,
H) fluid or series second is excited to excite fluid to be pumped at least one second perforation at least one second, wherein It is described be pumped at least one second excite fluid carry out while, at least one first perforation in the pit shaft not with At least one second perforation fluid isolation;
I) charge velocity and pressure of the observation in the level;
J) optional repeat step (f) to (i), does not have mechanical isolation instrument between the level;
It is wherein described to be pumped into few a kind of first excitation fluid or the excitation fluid of series first so that being induced in the hydrocarbon mineral deposit Stress, so that at least one second being pumped into excites fluid or series second to excite fluid from least one first perforation It is diverted at least one second perforation.
12. according to the method for claim 11, wherein at least one of described first and second excitations fluid also includes Radioactive substance is with the validity of fracturing step in the definite perforation.
13. according to the method for claim 11, wherein step i) further includes definite at least one second excitation fluid Or series second excites whether the flow of fluid is more than at least one first excitation fluid or series first excites fluid Flow;And if at least one second excitation fluid or series second excite the flow of fluid to be more than described at least one the One excitation fluid or series first excite the flow of fluid, then carry out step j).
14. according to the method for claim 11, wherein after the first stage at least two grades of well described in pressure break, and Described at least two grades by pressure break while, all levels are arranged as being in fluid communication with each other, and the position of subsequent level passes through in institute State in mineral deposit and charge velocity, fluid path and pressure difference are observed in selected level to microseism and radioactive indicator mapping to select Select.
15. the method for new well section is excited in substantially horizontal pit shaft in subsurface formations, the described method includes:
I) first order is introduced as follows:
A) the first entrance point entered through cemented wellbore casing in the subsurface formations is produced;
B) at least one first fracturing fluid is introduced to the first entrance point with enough speed, to excite from the underground The hydrocarbon exploitation of layer;
C) during the whole introducing first order, the service condition of the pit shaft is monitored under the scheduled time;
Ii) second level is introduced in same pit shaft as follows:
A) produce the neighbouring first order and relative to first entrance point uplink arrangement, through the cemented pit shaft Casing enters the second entrance point of the subsurface formations;
B) at least one second fracturing fluid is introduced to the second entrance point with enough speed, to excite from the underground The hydrocarbon exploitation of layer;
C) during the whole introducing second level, the service condition of the pit shaft is monitored under the scheduled time;
Iii at least one coherent level) is introduced in same pit shaft as follows:
A) produce neighbouring previous stage and relative to second entrance point uplink arrangement, through the cemented wellbore casing Into at least one coherent entrance of the subsurface formations;
B) at least one 3rd fracturing fluid is introduced at least one coherent entrance with enough speed, to excite from institute State the hydrocarbon exploitation of subsurface formations;
C) during the whole at least one coherent level of introducing, the operation bar of the pit shaft is monitored under the scheduled time Part;
D) excitation is terminated to allow hydrocarbon to harvest;With
E) from the reservoir recovery of hydrocarbons of the subsurface formations;
Wherein while at least one second fracturing fluid of the introducing carries out, at least one first entrance point is described In pit shaft not with the second entrance point fluid isolation;With
Wherein it is described introduce at least one 3rd fracturing fluid and carry out while, at least one first entrance point and described Both second entrance points are not isolated in the pit shaft with least one coherent entrance;With
It is wherein described to be introduced to a kind of few first fracturing fluid and cause the induced stress in the subsurface formations, so that:(i) drawn The second fracturing fluid of at least one entered is diverted to the second entrance point from least one first entrance point;(ii) institute The 3rd fracturing fluid of at least one of introducing is diverted at least one coherent entrance from the first entrance point;With
It is wherein described to be introduced to a kind of few second fracturing fluid and cause the induced stress in the subsurface formations, so that introduced At least one 3rd fracturing fluid is diverted at least one coherent entrance from the first entrance point.
16. according to the method for claim 15, wherein step ii) c) further include definite at least one second pressure break stream Whether the flow of body is more than the flow of at least one first fracturing fluid;And if at least one second fracturing fluid Flow be more than the flow of at least one first fracturing fluid, then carry out step iii), and if described at least one the The flow of two fracturing fluids is not more than the flow of at least one first fracturing fluid, then in step iii) a) foregoing description is extremely A few coherent level and the second level fluid isolation.
17. a kind of method that wellbore fluids passage by cementing pit shaft excites subsurface formations, including:
By the wellbore fluids passage from treatment fluid sources injection treatment fluid to pass through the cementing through first entrance point Pit shaft reaches the firstth area in the subsurface formations, so as to fulfill the pressure break in firstth area;
While being arranged in firstth area by the wellbore fluids passage and the treatment fluid fluid communication, pass through The wellbore fluids passage is from treatment fluid sources injection treatment fluid to be reached through second entrance point by the cementing pit shaft The secondth area in the subsurface formations is directed to the effect in secondth area in the treatment fluid for reaching at least a portion injection, from And realize the pressure break in secondth area,
Wherein described second entrance point is arranged relative to the first entrance point uplink.
18. according to the method for claim 17, wherein the first entrance, second entrance point or both are by described Perforation in cementing pit shaft limits.
19. according to the method for claim 17, it is additionally included in after the pressure break for realizing firstth area by the cementing Pit shaft produces the second entrance point.
It is 20. described according to the method for claim 18, wherein the generation second entrance point includes being shot through cementing pit shaft Second entrance point is limited by the perforation.
CN201280077552.1A 2012-10-04 2012-11-21 The improvement hydraulic fracturing method of inclined shaft cylinder CN105026684B (en)

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