CN104964310B - A kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber - Google Patents

A kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104964310B
CN104964310B CN201510323981.8A CN201510323981A CN104964310B CN 104964310 B CN104964310 B CN 104964310B CN 201510323981 A CN201510323981 A CN 201510323981A CN 104964310 B CN104964310 B CN 104964310B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
support plate
combustion chamber
cavity
plate structure
sudden expansion
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN201510323981.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104964310A (en
Inventor
林鹏
方祥军
黎军
王霄
王亚妹
陶佳欣
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Beihang University
Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute Aviation Industry of China AVIC
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Beihang University
Shenyang Aircraft Design and Research Institute Aviation Industry of China AVIC
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Priority to CN201510323981.8A priority Critical patent/CN104964310B/en
Publication of CN104964310A publication Critical patent/CN104964310A/en
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Abstract

The invention belongs to sub- burning ramjet technical field, a kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber is disclosed, including order sets and is sequentially communicated:Distance piece, sudden expansion section, cavity, etc. straight section and jet pipe;The distance piece, sudden expansion section, distance of the respective bottom plate of cavity apart from the top increase successively;Support plate chamber is provided with the support plate structure, the support plate structure is provided with fuel inflow entrance, high temperature bleed inflow entrance and multiple spray-holes connected with the support plate chamber.The present invention makes fuel and incoming air good mixing effect by using the combination of sudden expansion section, cavity and support plate structure;Support plate structures slope is set, fuel mixture the having a very wide distribution in runner that support plate structure sprays;Fuel is contacted in advance with high temperature bleed stream in support plate intracavitary, fuel is obtained energy, and fast and easy participates in burning, and speed of ignition is fast;Cavity can form continual and steady flame, help to propagate and stablize flame.

Description

A kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber
Technical field
The present invention relates to sub- burning ramjet technical field, more particularly to a kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber.
Background technology
Punching engine is the aerojet hair that a kind of deceleration pressurization by the air stream that heads at a high speed is operated Motivation, its simple structure, without complicated rotatable parts the compressor and turbine as turbojet, into starting The air compression of machine is the stagnation (punching press supercharging) by high velocity air come what is obtained.Punching engine can be largely classified into two species Type:(supersonic combustion punching press is started for sub- burning ramjet (subsonic combustion punching engine) and scramjet engine Machine).
Combustion chamber is the core component of sub- burning ramjet, because sub- burning ramjet is worked under high altitude conditions , environment temperature is low, atmospheric density is very low in combustion chamber, entry of combustion chamber air velocity is higher, and these factors cause combustion chamber Ignition difficulties, stable burning are also relatively difficult.
The content of the invention
(1) technical problem to be solved
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is:In order to solve sub- burning ramjet igniting and stable difficult ask of burning Topic.
(2) technical scheme
In order to solve the above-mentioned technical problem, the invention provides a kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber, the combustion chamber Rectangular cross-section, the bottom plate that its bottom is not waited by multistage and its distance from top constitutes, and forms the length side along the combustion chamber Set and be sequentially communicated to order:Distance piece, sudden expansion section, cavity, etc. straight section and jet pipe;The sudden expansion section in cavity with setting There is support plate structure, the distance piece, sudden expansion section, distance of the bottom plate of cavity apart from the top increase successively, described to wait straight section The distance between bottom plate and the top be less than the distance between the bottom plate of the cavity and described top;Sudden expansion section with Support plate structure is provided with cavity, the bottom of the support plate structure is connected with the bottom plate of sudden expansion section, the top of the support plate structure The cavity top is stretched at end;Support plate chamber is provided with the support plate structure, the support plate structure is provided with to be connected with the support plate chamber Logical:Fuel inflow entrance, high temperature bleed inflow entrance and multiple spray-holes.
Wherein, the axis of multiple spray-holes is each perpendicular to the length direction of the combustion chamber.
Wherein, the bottom of the support plate structure is fixedly connected on the bottom plate of the sudden expansion segment trailer, the support plate structure Top tilted to the jet pipe direction, and extend to the cavity top.
Wherein, the fuel inflow entrance and the high temperature bleed inflow entrance may be contained within the bottom plate of the sudden expansion section.
Wherein, the support plate structure by two pieces windward plate and one block of leeward plate surround, the plate windward is isolated with described Section is relative, and the leeward plate is relative with the jet pipe;Multiple spray-holes are respectively arranged at described in two pieces plate and institute windward State the junction of leeward plate.
Wherein, plate is equipped with along the recessed of the support plate structure length directional spreding with leeward plate junction windward described in two pieces Groove, the bottom land of the groove is connected with the spray-hole.
Wherein, the angle of the length direction of the support plate structure and the length direction of the combustion chamber is 45 degree.
Wherein, gap is left between the top of the support plate structure and the top of the combustion chamber.
Wherein, the ratio between difference in height of bottom plate of the length of the cavity, the bottom plate with the cavity and sudden expansion section is small In 10;The junction of the bottom plate of the cavity and the bottom plate of the grade straight section is provided with rebound, and the inclination angle of the rebound is 45 degree.
Wherein, the high temperature bleed inflow entrance is used to the high temperature gas flow in turbogenerator introducing the support plate chamber.
(3) beneficial effect
Above-mentioned technical proposal has the following advantages that:A kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber of the present invention, by using sudden expansion The combination of section, cavity and support plate structure, makes fuel and incoming air good mixing effect, and fuel residence time increases;Fuel with High temperature bleed stream is contacted in advance in support plate intracavitary, fuel is obtained energy, and fast and easy participates in burning, and speed of ignition is fast;Cavity Interior formation low speed recirculating zone, contributes to successful ignition, forms continual and steady flame, contributes to flame propagation and stable burning; High temperature bleed stream is provided by turbogenerator, without being specially equipped with other equipment, the energy effectively discharged using turbogenerator, Save the energy;The setting of groove can produce disturbance to incoming air, form small recirculating zone, make from mixing that spray-hole comes out Close gas to be mixed with incoming air, help to lengthen residence time of the fuel in combustion chamber.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the side view of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is Fig. 1 upward view;
Fig. 3 is the close-up schematic view of support plate structure division in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is Fig. 3 A-A to sectional view.
Wherein, 1, distance piece;2nd, sudden expansion section;3rd, support plate structure;31st, plate windward;32nd, leeward plate;33rd, fuel inflow entrance; 34th, high temperature bleed inflow entrance;35th, spray-hole;36th, groove;37th, support plate chamber;4th, cavity;The 5th, the straight section such as;6th, jet pipe.
Embodiment
With reference to the accompanying drawings and examples, the embodiment to the present invention is described in further detail.Implement below Example is used to illustrate the present invention, but is not limited to the scope of the present invention.
In the description of the invention, it is necessary to explanation, unless otherwise indicated, " multiple " be meant that two or two with On;The orientation of the instruction such as term " on ", " under ", "left", "right", " interior ", " outer ", " front end ", " rear end ", " head ", " afterbody " Or position relationship is, based on orientation shown in the drawings or position relationship, to be for only for ease of the description present invention and simplify description, and It is not instruction or implies that signified device or element there must be specific orientation, with specific azimuth configuration and operation, therefore It is not considered as limiting the invention.In addition, term " first ", " second ", " the 3rd " etc. are only used for describing purpose, and can not It is interpreted as indicating or implying relative importance.
In the description of the invention, in addition it is also necessary to explanation, unless otherwise clearly defined and limited, term " installation ", " connected ", " connection " should be interpreted broadly, for example, it may be being fixedly connected or being detachably connected, or integratedly be connected Connect;Can be mechanical connection or electrical connection;Can be joined directly together, can also be indirectly connected to by intermediary.It is right For one of ordinary skill in the art, visual concrete condition understands the concrete meaning of above-mentioned term in the present invention.
As Figure 1-4, the invention discloses a kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber, the section of the combustion chamber is square Shape, the bottom plate that its bottom is not waited by multistage with its distance from top is constituted, and is formed and is set along the length direction order of the combustion chamber And be sequentially communicated:Distance piece 1, sudden expansion section 2, cavity 4, etc. straight section 5 and jet pipe 6;The sudden expansion section 2 is with cavity 4 provided with branch Hardened structure 3, the distance piece 1, sudden expansion section 2, distance of the bottom plate of cavity 4 apart from the top increase successively, described to wait straight section 5 The distance between bottom plate and the top be less than the distance between the bottom plate of the cavity 4 and described top;The sudden expansion section 2 With being provided with support plate structure 3 in cavity 4, the bottom of the support plate structure 3 is connected with the bottom plate of sudden expansion section 2, and the branch is hardened The top of structure 3 is stretched into the cavity 4;Support plate chamber 37 is provided with the support plate structure 3, the support plate structure 3 is provided with and institute State the connection of support plate chamber 37:Fuel inflow entrance 33, high temperature bleed inflow entrance 34 and multiple spray-holes 35.
Setting on cavity 4:
Because punching engine is worked under high altitude conditions, temperature aloft is low, atmospheric density is very low in combustion chamber, burning Chamber inlet air velocity is very high, and these conditions add the difficulty of combustion chamber ignition and flame stabilization.
Liquid fuel is in punching engine domestic demand by atomization, evaporation, mixing and burning process;Further, since combustion chamber Interior mainstream speed is very high, makes fuel very short in combustion chamber residence time, can only use millisecond unit timing;While hydrocarbon fuel Firing delay it is longer, add igniting and flame stabilization difficulty.
Therefore, the key of igniting and flame stabilization technology is exactly to reduce ignition lag distance, in distance as short as possible The radical source set up required for chemically reactive, a reliable incendiary source is provided for burning, so that real in high velocity air Now stablize burning.
Flame stabilization technology forms recirculating zone to realize generally by certain mode.Some local velocitys in recirculating zone Less than the spread speed of turbulent flame, thus possess the necessary condition of flame stabilization, once there are the enough incendiary sources of power, Flammable mixed gas can just be lighted.High-temperature combustion product returns to upstream by recirculating zone, forms the incendiary source of steady and continuous, backflow Area plays a part of heat accumulation, in the form of turbulent mass transfer and heat exchange, is flammable mixed gas transmission heat and active material, obtains flame To be propagated rapidly in combustion chamber.
Cavity 4 can stablize flame, and its main mechanism is that cavity 4 provides a low speed recirculating zone, the internal high temperature of cavity 4 Gas utensil plays the role of incendiary source, and the high-temperature product of burning returns to upstream by recirculating zone, lights the mixed of incoming air and fuel Gas is closed, a continual and steady flame is formed.
The effect of cavity 4 is equivalent to flameholder, and flameholder is located at the edge of runner, can largely subtracted Flammule stabilizer is to the blocking action of main flow, so as to greatly reduce the pressure loss of air-flow.Simultaneously because cavity 4 is by backward With two step compositions of forward direction, recirculating zone is locked in cavity 4, therefore backflow plot structure is relatively stable, is conducive to increasing fuel Residence time so that in recirculating zone fuel distribution tend to be uniform, substantially improve igniting and the fire of scramjet combustor Flame stability.
In the present invention, it is to keep air current flow and burning steady that the size of rebound, the i.e. trailing edge angle of cavity 4, which is chosen, It is fixed, specifically how to keep, to see specific Flow Field Distribution and turbulent combustion reaction, it is preferred to use 45 degree of inclination corner structures Rebound.
To overcome the shortcoming present in wall propellant spray, it is proposed that directly in the center spray combustion of high speed incoming air Material, this can be realized by inserting the support plate structure 3 come flow center, while the sweptback large-scale structure of support plate structure 3 also has Help enhancing mixing.Especially for big runner combustion chamber, the fuel injection scheme using support plate structure 3 of the present invention seems It is particularly necessary.
The operation principle and effect of support plate structure 3:
High speed incoming air flows through two pieces of support plate structure 3 plate 31 windward, and the pressure difference of formation makes incoming air in plate windward 31 afterbody is produced and flows to vortex, and suction fuel material and air can be rolled up in downstream communication process by flowing to vortex, increase spray-hole The contact area of 35 fuel sprayed and incoming air, increases local concentration gradient, so as to enhance fuel and to flow sky The mixing of gas.Support plate structure 3 is overall to tilt backwards, along with the effect of two blocks of plates 31 windward so that the both sides shape of support plate structure 3 Into the region expanded outwardly, flow expansion is bigger with positive pressure difference, and it is stronger to flow to whirlpool, and mixing enhancing effect is more preferable.
Because the support plate structure 3 of this mode is arranged in the middle of main flow, high speed incoming air can be directly injected fuel into Main flow among, good fuel space distribution and mixed effect, especially when combustion chamber runner is larger, wall spray can be provided It is difficult to meet to require in the penetration of fuel, at this moment the advantage of the propellant spray effect of support plate structure 3 is more protruded;And warp The support plate structure 3 for crossing particular design can be good at producing vortex, further enhance mixing, and the bottom shape of support plate structure 3 Into recirculating zone can play the effect of certain stable flame.
The sweepback angle (angle of inclination) of support plate structure 3 is 45 degree preferably with the angle of the length direction of combustion chamber, tool The inclined angle of body, be also as the case may be depending on, it is therefore an objective to reduce loss while, enhancing mixing.
In combustion, support plate structure 3 has formation office after the effect of " connection flame device ", the leeward plate 32 of support plate structure 3 The low regime in portion, contributes to flame to propagate to the top of support plate structure 3 from the bottom of support plate structure 3 along the length direction of support plate structure 3, Make flame spread to whole combustion chamber runner.
The setting of groove 36:
Groove 36 can produce disturbance to incoming air, form small recirculating zone, make the mixing come out from spray-hole 35 Gas is mixed with incoming air, helps to lengthen residence time and fuel wearing primary air in of the fuel in combustion chamber Saturating depth.
The setting of sudden expansion section 2:
Sudden expansion section 2 relies primarily on the recirculating zone at sudden expansion section to stablize flame, is not take up combustion chamber mainstream channel, herein The flame stabilization mode being combined using support plate structure 3, cavity 4, sudden expansion section 2, can solve the problem of its flame scope is narrower.
During work, swiftly flowing incoming air enters combustion chamber through distance piece 1, into sudden expansion section 2 after circulation area increase Plus, flow velocity declines, air pressure rise, and the gas in combustion chamber can be prevented to be flowed back to the direction of distance piece 1;Fuel is through fuel inflow entrance 33 enter support plate chamber 37;One high temperature bleed stream sent by turbogenerator enters support plate chamber 37 by high temperature bleed inflow entrance 34 Interior, the The fuel stream in support plate chamber 37 is mixed with high temperature bleed stream, and fuel is brought rapidly up, and obtains the energy needed for fuel vaporization, is saved The process for having gone fuel to be atomized and evaporate in a combustion chamber, obtains the burning extent more shorter than normal temperature fuel, and ignition ability is improved; After fuel is mixed with high temperature bleed in support plate chamber 37, sprayed by spray-hole 35, into the recirculating zone of the formation of cavity 4, because Flow velocity is relatively low in this recirculating zone, igniting easily success, so being typically chosen with igniter in backflow class mark fire, is held to be formed Continue stable flame, the straight section 5 such as flame is further propagated to.
Specifically, the axis of multiple spray-holes 35 is each perpendicular to the length direction of the combustion chamber.What fuel sprayed The flow direction of direction and incoming air is mutually perpendicular to, and is more beneficial for the mixing of fuel and incoming air, is conducive to igniting.
The bottom of the support plate structure 3 is fixedly connected on the bottom plate of 2 afterbodys of the sudden expansion section, the support plate structure 3 Top is tilted to the direction of jet pipe 6, and extends to the top of cavity 4.The fuel inflow entrance 33 and the high temperature bleed stream Entrance 34 may be contained within the bottom plate of the sudden expansion section 2.By two pieces, plate 31 and one block of leeward plate 32 enclose the support plate structure 3 windward Into the plate windward 31 is relative with the distance piece 1, and the leeward plate 32 is relative with the jet pipe 6;Multiple injections Hole 35 is respectively arranged at described in two pieces the junction of plate 31 and the leeward plate 32 windward.The junction of plate 31 windward described in two pieces For fillet structure.Plate 31 is separated into two strands of air-flows to incoming air two through support plate structure 3 windward, then in the tail of plate 31 windward Portion is mixed with fuel with the gaseous mixture of high temperature bleed so that two strands of air-flows staggeredly can be contacted fully.
Further, plate 31 is equipped with along the length side of support plate structure 3 with the leeward junction of plate 32 windward described in two pieces To the groove 36 of distribution, the bottom land of the groove 36 is connected with the spray-hole 35.The gaseous mixture of fuel and high-temperature gas is through spray After perforation 35 sprays, under the small recirculating zone effect first formed in groove 36, blended with incoming air, still further below trip diffusion.With Spray-hole 35 is compared, and the contact area of groove 36 is bigger, is conducive to gaseous mixture with come the mixing flowed, being more beneficial for igniting.
It is preferred that, the angle of the length direction of the support plate structure 3 and the length direction of the combustion chamber is 45 degree.It is described Gap is left between the top of the top of support plate structure 3 and the combustion chamber.The top of support plate structure 3 is hanging, and with burning ceiling Portion leaves gap, even if support plate structure 3 is deformed in burning, and deformation buffering, protection branch can also be carried out by free end Hardened structure 3.After fuel is mixed with high temperature bleed stream in support plate chamber 37, it is diffused into by spray-hole 35 in runner;Due to cavity 4 Sectional area increases suddenly, can form a low regime, looks for one to hold ignitable region igniting in cavity 4, flame is by recessed The diffusive transport forwards, backwards of chamber 4, the region at the rear portion of support plate structure 3 is influenceed smaller by Incoming gas, is conducive to flame propagation, makes flame Straight section 5 is extremely waited along the upward back-propagation of leeward plate 32 of support plate structure 3, that is, propagates to whole flow passage area;Support plate structure 3 exists The mixing of enhancing air-flow is played in the technical program, expands the purpose of distributed areas and " connection flame " of the fuel in runner.
The ratio between difference in height of bottom plate of the length of the cavity 4, the bottom plate with the cavity 4 and sudden expansion section 2 is less than 10, i.e. cavity 4 are D with respect to the depth of sudden expansion section 2, and the anterior-posterior length of cavity 4 is L, L/D<10.The bottom plate of the cavity 4 and institute The junction for the bottom plate of straight section 5 such as stating is provided with rebound, and the inclination angle of the rebound is 45 degree, i.e. the trailing edge angle of cavity 4 is 45 degree.
The high temperature bleed inflow entrance 34 is used to the high temperature gas flow in turbogenerator introducing the support plate chamber 37.Asia combustion Punching engine will be typically used in combination with turbogenerator, i.e., when turbogenerator works, and one is introduced from turbogenerator Stock 600K or so hot gas is flow in support plate chamber 37, to be preheated to fuel, and fuel is sprayed in support plate chamber 37.
As can be seen from the above embodiments, in the present invention, high temperature bleed stream is provided by turbogenerator, without being specially equipped with Other equipment, the energy effectively discharged using turbogenerator saves the energy;Fuel and high temperature bleed stream are pre- in support plate chamber 37 First contact, fuel is obtained energy, fast and easy participates in burning, and speed of ignition is fast;The setting of groove 36 can be to incoming air Disturbance is produced, small recirculating zone is formed, makes to be mixed with incoming air from the gaseous mixture that spray-hole 35 comes out, helps to mix Close uniformly and lengthen residence time of the fuel in combustion chamber;The combination of sudden expansion section 2, cavity 4 and support plate structure 3, in injection Vortex, fuel and incoming air good mixing effect are formed at hole 35;Cavity 4 contributes to successful ignition, and lasting point is stablized in formation Burning things which may cause a fire disaster, propagating flame and stable burning.
Described above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art For member, without departing from the technical principles of the invention, some improvement and replacement can also be made, these improve and replaced Also it should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber, it is characterised in that the rectangular cross-section of the combustion chamber, its bottom is by multistage Constituted with the bottom plate that its distance from top is not waited, form what is set and be sequentially communicated along the length direction order of the combustion chamber:Every From section (1), sudden expansion section (2), cavity (4), etc. straight section (5) and jet pipe (6);The sudden expansion section (2) is with being provided with branch in cavity (4) Hardened structure (3), the distance of the distance piece (1), sudden expansion section (2), the bottom plate of cavity (4) apart from the top increases successively, institute State etc. the distance between the bottom plate of straight section (5) and described top be less than between the bottom plate of the cavity (4) and the top away from From;
The sudden expansion section (2) is with being provided with support plate structure (3), bottom and the sudden expansion section of the support plate structure (3) in cavity (4) (2) bottom plate connection, the cavity (4) top is stretched on the top of the support plate structure (3);It is provided with the support plate structure (3) Support plate chamber (37), the support plate structure (3) is provided with what is connected with the support plate chamber (37):Fuel inflow entrance (33), high temperature draw Air flow inlet (34) and multiple spray-holes (35);
Wherein, the length of the cavity (4), with the difference in height of the bottom plate of the cavity (4) and the bottom plate of sudden expansion section (2) it Than less than 10;The junction of the bottom plate of the cavity (4) and the bottom plate of the grade straight section (5) is provided with rebound, the rebound Inclination angle be 45 degree.
2. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the axle of multiple spray-holes (35) Line is each perpendicular to the length direction of the combustion chamber.
3. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that the bottom of the support plate structure (3) On the bottom plate for being fixedly connected on sudden expansion section (2) afterbody, the top of the support plate structure (3) is to the jet pipe (6) direction Tilt, and extend to described cavity (4) top.
4. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that the fuel inflow entrance (33) and institute High temperature bleed inflow entrance (34) is stated to may be contained within the bottom plate of the sudden expansion section (2).
5. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that the support plate structure (3) is by two pieces Plate (31) and one piece of leeward plate (32) surround windward, the plate windward (31) with the distance piece (1) relatively, the leeward plate (32) it is relative with the jet pipe (6);Multiple spray-holes (35) be respectively arranged at described in two pieces windward plate (31) with it is described The junction of leeward plate (32).
6. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that plate (31) and the back of the body windward described in two pieces Aerofoil (32) junction is equipped with the groove (36) being distributed along support plate structure (3) length direction, the groove of the groove (36) Bottom is connected with the spray-hole (35).
7. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the length of the support plate structure (3) The angle of the length direction of direction and the combustion chamber is 45 degree.
8. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the top of the support plate structure (3) Gap is left between the top of the combustion chamber.
9. Asia burning ramjet combustion chamber as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the high temperature bleed inflow entrance (34) For the high temperature gas flow in turbogenerator to be introduced into the support plate chamber (37).
CN201510323981.8A 2015-06-12 2015-06-12 A kind of sub- burning ramjet combustion chamber Expired - Fee Related CN104964310B (en)

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US10794331B2 (en) * 2017-07-31 2020-10-06 The Boeing Company Scramjets and associated aircraft and methods
CN109539312B (en) * 2018-10-12 2019-08-23 南京航空航天大学 A kind of space cavity Asia combustion guidance combustion chamber and engine chamber
CN110686275B (en) * 2019-09-23 2020-09-25 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 Combustion chamber flame stabilizing structure for reinforcing mixing and flame propagation
CN112577070B (en) * 2020-12-04 2022-05-27 中国人民解放军国防科技大学 Low-resistance and high-efficiency scramjet engine thrust chamber integrated design method
CN112432204B (en) * 2020-12-04 2022-04-22 中国人民解放军国防科技大学 Reentrant structure and scramjet that can internal flow drag reduction
CN114484503B (en) * 2022-01-05 2023-03-21 中国科学院力学研究所 Self-adaptive geometric throat combustion chamber of wide-range ramjet engine

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