CN104848859A - Three-axis inertial stabilization platform and self-positioning and orientation control method thereof - Google Patents

Three-axis inertial stabilization platform and self-positioning and orientation control method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104848859A
CN104848859A CN201410835098.2A CN201410835098A CN104848859A CN 104848859 A CN104848859 A CN 104848859A CN 201410835098 A CN201410835098 A CN 201410835098A CN 104848859 A CN104848859 A CN 104848859A
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frame
accelerometer
motor
gyro
information
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CN201410835098.2A
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CN104848859B (en
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丁祝顺
张巍
丁伟
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北京航天控制仪器研究所
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C19/00
    • G01C21/10Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration
    • G01C21/12Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning
    • G01C21/16Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation
    • G01C21/18Stabilised platforms, e.g. by gyroscope
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/08Control of attitude, i.e. control of roll, pitch, or yaw

Abstract

Belonging to the technical field of aerial remote sensing, the invention relates to a three-axis inertial stabilization platform and a self-positioning and orientation control method thereof. The method is suitable for air-to-ground observation, basic surveying and mapping, ground reconnaissance and other fields. According to the invention, a strapdown navigation calculation module is added into the control system, by calculating the corresponding frame's angular rate information and linear acceleration information sensed by rate gyroscopes and accelerometers, precise inner frame attitude angle information can be obtained, thereby achieving the purpose of tracking the geographic vertical, and getting rid of the state that current three-axis inertial stabilization platform work relies on POS (position and orientation system).

Description

The control method of a kind of three axle inertially stabilized platforms and self-align orientation thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to aerial remote sens ing technique field, relate to the control method of a kind of three axle inertially stabilized platforms and self-align orientation thereof, the method is applicable to aviation earth observation, base surveying, the fields such as ground reconnaissance.
Background technology
In recent years, the develop rapidly of inertially stabilized platform technology, is widely applied to airborne remote sensing field.Aviation earth observation job requirements high precision real time imagery, but be subject to the impact of various disturbance when flying due to carrier aircraft, and can not ensure stable flying at a constant speed, cause the camera optical axis be arranged in carrier aircraft to rock, image quality declines.Inertially stabilized platform system uses gyrostabilization unit as camera frame, the various disturbance torques on camera rack support axle are compensated by motor output torque, thus suppress the angular motion of carrier aircraft low frequency to the interference of camera, make the unchanged direction in camera frame relative inertness space, ensure image quality.
When current inertially stabilized platform system is used for remote sensing fields, need combined high precision position and attitude measuring system (position and orientation system, POS), the framework that the attitude angle information provided according to POS and rate gyro are measured realizes the closed loop of control system position ring and speed ring relative to the angular rate information of inertial space, follow the tracks of local geographical level and course maintenance.
A kind of light-type airborne remote sensing three axle inertially stabilized platform system described by Chinese patent CN201110078207.7, the geographical level of the stage body attitude angle information trace locality that control system provides according to POS or two accelerometer, when not receiving POS information, the thicker camera attitude angle utilizing accelerometer to provide, realize coarse adjustment to put down, but due to the impact by accelerometer drift and carrier movement, a geographical level that tracking can be kept at short notice local.Three axle inertially stabilized platform Aerostab-2 of Germany's development self do not install accelerometer, also exist and do not have POS to provide attitude reference inoperable problem.
Aerial remote sensing stable platform control system comprises the separate subsystem of roll passage, pitch channel, azimuthal channel three, the effect of roll and pitch channel suppresses aircraft roll and pitch movement to the interference of camera, keeps camera optical axis to overlap with local ground vertical line as far as possible.The effect of azimuthal channel suppresses aircraft yaw angular motion to the interference of camera, keeps camera to aim at a certain course as far as possible.
The control loop of three passages includes rate gyro stable loop and attitude angle (course angle) control loop.Rate gyro stable loop is inner looping, and effect is that the angular motion of isolation body is to the interference of camera.Attitude angle (course angle) control loop is external loop, and effect drives platform stage body to follow the tracks of local horizontal attitude benchmark and reference course.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, proposing the control method of a kind of three axle inertially stabilized platforms and self-align orientation thereof.
The object of the invention is to be achieved through the following technical solutions.
A kind of three axle inertially stabilized platforms of the present invention, this three axles inertially stabilized platform comprises platform support, platform stage body, inertial measurement cluster, platform driver element and platform electronic assembly;
Platform support is in order to support platform stage body;
The useful load such as platform stage body comprises outside framework, middle frame and inner frame, and inner frame is orientation framework, carrying camera, middle frame is pitching frame, and outside framework is roll framework;
Inertial measurement cluster comprises first rate gyro, the second rate gyro, third speed gyro, the first accelerometer, the second accelerometer and the 3rd accelerometer, first rate gyro, the second rate gyro and third speed gyro are mutually orthogonal installation, and the first accelerometer, the second accelerometer and the 3rd accelerometer are mutually orthogonal installation; First rate gyro, the second rate gyro, third speed gyro, the first accelerometer, the second accelerometer and the 3rd accelerometer are installed in inner frame; First rate gyro, the second rate gyro and third speed gyro to measure obtain the inertial angular rate information in inner frame three directions, first accelerometer, the second accelerometer and the 3rd accelerometer measures obtain the linear acceleration information in inner frame three directions, and the information obtained is supplied to electronic box;
The 3rd torque motor that the first torque motor is defined as middle frame motor, the second torque motor of band reduction gear is defined as outside framework motor and band reduction gear that platform driver element comprises band reduction gear is defined as inner frame motor, inner frame motor to be arranged on middle frame and drive that inner frame rotates, middle frame motor to be arranged on outside framework and drive that middle frame rotates, outside framework motor to be arranged on platform support and to drive outside framework to rotate;
Platform electronic assembly comprises data acquisition module, strap-down navigation resolves module, power amplifier module and the control module that holds position; The information of data collecting module collected first rate gyro, the second rate gyro, third speed gyro, the first accelerometer, the second accelerometer and the 3rd accelerometer; Strap-down navigation resolves module and follows the data arrived according to data collecting module collected, resolves obtain accurate inner frame attitude angle information and positional information through strap-down navigation; Power amplifier module carries out power amplification rear drive motor the result of calculation of stable gesture stability module and rotates towards assigned direction; The control module that holds position receives strap-down navigation and resolves the accurate inner frame attitude angle information obtained, and it is poor with attitude angle setting value, and difference result, through attitude controller calculating generation angular speed setting value, completes gesture stability loop; The gyro angular rate information that angular speed setting value and data collecting module collected obtain is poor, and difference result calculates through angular speed controller and generates motor drive signal, completes angular speed stable loop; Motor drive signal, through power amplifier module rear drive middle frame motor, outside framework motor and inner frame electric machine rotation, realizes stability contorting and attitude level and the course maintenance over the ground of inner frame; The effect of the control module that holds position suppresses aircraft pitch, roll, the interference of crab angle motion to camera, and keep camera optical axis overlap with local ground vertical line and aim at a certain steady, the level of attitude over the ground and the course that realize camera keep.
Three axle inertially stabilized platform systems are made up of three frameworks, outside framework is roll framework, middle frame is pitching frame, inner frame is orientation framework, orientation framework freely can rotate around azimuth axis relative to pitching frame, pitching frame freely can rotate around pitch axis relative to roll framework, and roll framework freely can rotate around roll axle of bowing relative to pedestal, realizes the isolation of the motion of airframe course angle, pitch movement, roll angle motion respectively.Inertial measurement cluster comprises three rate gyros and three accelerometers, orthogonally respectively be arranged on the orientation framework of plateform system, the angular speed relative to inertial space of difference sensitive platforms three frameworks and linear acceleration, control system according to rate gyro responsive to frame corners rate information and accelerometer sensitive to linear acceleration information to resolve through strap-down navigation and draw accurate inner frame attitude angle information and positional information, produce control signal, control signal exports control moment by power driver module driving moment motor, Reverse Turning Control corresponding frame is rotated, reach the object of stable inner frame and the camera optical axis and tracking geographic vertical.
The control method of the self-align orientation of a kind of three axle inertially stabilized platforms of the present invention, step is:
(1) data acquisition.Data collecting module collected three gyros and three accelerometers obtain inner frame relative to the angular rate information of inertial space and linear acceleration information.
(2) strap-down navigation resolves.Strap-down navigation resolves module to carry out strap-down navigation according to the information of collect three gyros and three accelerometers and resolves the accurate attitude angle information and positional information that obtain inner frame.
(3) hold position controlling calculation.The control module that holds position carries out gesture stability calculating according to the attitude angle information of inner frame, carries out rate stabilization controlling calculation according to gyro angular rate information, obtains the drive singal of motor.
(4) power amplification.Motor drive signal is rotated towards assigned direction through power amplification rear drive three motors, reaches and keeps platform stance level and gyro-stabilized object.
The present invention's advantage is compared with prior art:
Existing three axle inertially stabilized platform systems need the object realizing camera optical axis accurate tracking geographic vertical in conjunction with POS system, and POS system is arranged on platform inner gimbal together with camera, and platform receives the attitude angle information of POS, and then realizes attitude closed loop.When there is no POS system, due to drift characteristic and the carrier movement of accelerometer, the geographic vertical following function that platform only can rely on self rate gyro and accelerometer to realize in short-term.The present invention adds strap-down navigation in the controls and resolves module, to through-rate gyro and accelerometer sensitive to the angular rate information of corresponding frame and linear acceleration information resolve and obtain accurate inner frame attitude angle information, thus reach the object of following the tracks of geographic vertical, having broken away from three current axle inertially stabilized platforms needs to rely on POS just workable present situation.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is structured flowchart of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is control system schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is that strap-down navigation of the present invention resolves schematic diagram.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the invention will be further described.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of three axle inertially stabilized platforms, this three axles inertially stabilized platform comprises platform support 1, platform stage body, inertial measurement cluster, platform driver element and platform electronic assembly;
Platform support 1 is in order to support platform stage body;
The useful load such as platform stage body comprises outside framework 2, middle frame 3 and inner frame 4, and inner frame 4 is orientation framework, carrying camera, middle frame 3 is pitching frame, and outside framework 2 is roll framework;
Inertial measurement cluster comprises first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7, third speed gyro 10, first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9, first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7 and third speed gyro 10 are mutually orthogonal installation, and the first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9 are mutually orthogonal installation; First rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7, third speed gyro 10, first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9 are installed in inner frame 4; The inertial angular rate information obtaining inner frame 4 three directions measured by first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7 and third speed gyro 10, the linear acceleration information obtaining inner frame 4 three directions measured by first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9, and the information obtained is supplied to electronic box 14;
The 3rd torque motor that the first torque motor is defined as middle frame motor 11, the second torque motor of band reduction gear is defined as outside framework motor 12 and band reduction gear that platform driver element comprises band reduction gear is defined as inner frame motor 13, inner frame motor 13 to be arranged on middle frame 3 and drive that inner frame 4 rotates, middle frame motor 11 to be arranged on outside framework 2 and drive that middle frame 3 rotates, outside framework motor 12 to be arranged on platform support 1 and to drive outside framework 2 to rotate;
Platform electronic assembly 14 comprises data acquisition module, strap-down navigation resolves module, power amplifier module and the control module that holds position; The information of data collecting module collected first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7, third speed gyro 10, first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9; Strap-down navigation resolves module and follows the data arrived according to data collecting module collected, resolves obtain accurate inner frame 4 attitude angle information and positional information through strap-down navigation; Power amplifier module carries out power amplification rear drive electric machine rotation the result of calculation of stable gesture stability module; The control module that holds position receives strap-down navigation and resolves the accurate inner frame 4 attitude angle information obtained, and it is poor with attitude angle set-point, and difference result, through attitude controller calculating generation angular speed set-point, completes gesture stability loop; The gyro angular rate information that angular speed set-point and data collecting module collected obtain is poor, and difference result calculates through angular speed controller and generates motor drive signal, completes angular speed stable loop; Motor drive signal is rotated through power amplifier module rear drive middle frame motor 11, outside framework motor 12 and inner frame motor 13, realizes stability contorting and attitude level and the course maintenance over the ground of inner frame 4; The effect of the control module that holds position suppresses aircraft pitch, roll, the interference of crab angle motion to camera, and keep camera optical axis overlap with local ground vertical line and aim at a certain steady, the level of attitude over the ground and the course that realize camera keep.
Data acquisition module in platform electronic assembly 14, strap-down navigation resolve module, power amplifier module and the control module that holds position is realized by numeral, analog hybrid system.Wherein, digital circuits section adopts DSP2812 and FPGA to combine as digital operation processor, and artificial circuit part comprises motor drive ic and peripheral circuit thereof.Wherein, data acquisition module has come primarily of FPGA, and strap-down navigation resolves module and the control module that holds position has been come primarily of DSP2812, and power amplifier module has come primarily of motor drive ic and peripheral circuit thereof.
A control method for the self-align orientation of three axle inertially stabilized platforms, as shown in Figure 2, step is:
(1) data acquisition.FPGA gathers the information of first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7, third speed gyro 10, first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9 every 2ms, and by acquired data storage in internal register, wait for the reading order of DSP2812.
(2) strap-down navigation resolves.DSP2812 reads the information of first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7, third speed gyro 10, first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and three accelerometer 9 by address and data bus from FPGA every 2ms, and carries out a strap-down navigation and resolve.Strap-down navigation resolves principle as shown in Figure 3, and coordinate system is wherein defined as follows: inertial coordinates system o-x iy iz i, inner frame coordinate system o-x by bz b, geographic coordinate system o-x ny nz n.The inertial measurement cluster be arranged on inner frame 4 records the angular speed of inner frame 4 relative to inertial space and acceleration after error compensation, with (geographic coordinate system is relative to the angular velocity of inertial space) synthesis obtains the angular speed of inner frame 4 relative to geographic coordinate system and then to be resolved by attitude battle array and obtain the pose transformation matrix that inner frame 4 coordinate is tied to geographic coordinate system and the angle of pitch crab angle (ψ), roll angle (γ).The linear acceleration that first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9 record warp realize acceleration from inner frame 4 coordinate system b converting to geographic coordinate system n speed, the positional information of platform inner gimbal 4 is obtained through navigation calculation.
Due to move except inner frame 4 in the output of first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7, third speed gyro 10, first accelerometer 6, second accelerometer 8 and the 3rd accelerometer 9 angular velocity, except linear acceleration, still containing the various error signals self produced in the measurements, according to the error model of used rate gyro, accelerometer, error compensation process need be done to output.The output of first rate gyro 5, second rate gyro 7 and third speed gyro 10 draws the angular velocity of satellite motion of inner frame 4 after error compensation, carries it into quaternion differential equation formula (formula 1),
q 0 · = 1 2 ( - q 1 ω ibx b - q 2 ω iby b - q 3 ω ibz b ) q 1 · = 1 2 ( q 0 ω ibx b - q 3 ω iby b + q 2 ω ibz b ) q 2 · = 1 2 ( q 3 ω ibx b + q 0 ω iby b - q 1 ω ibz b ) q 3 · = 1 2 ( - q 2 ω ibx b + q 1 ω iby b + q 0 ω ibz b ) (formula 1)
Separate this differential equation, try to achieve 4 first q of instantaneous hypercomplex number 0, q 1, q 2, q 3value, can obtain pose transformation matrix thus (formula 2).
C b n = q 2 0 + q 2 1 - q 2 2 - q 2 3 2 ( q 1 q 2 - q 0 q 3 ) 2 ( q 0 q 2 + q 1 q 3 ) 2 ( q 1 q 2 + q 0 q 3 ) q 2 0 - q 2 1 + q 2 2 - q 2 3 2 ( q 2 q 3 - q 0 q 1 ) 2 ( q 1 q 3 - q 0 q 2 ) 2 ( q 0 q 1 + q 2 q 3 ) q 2 0 - q 2 1 - q 2 2 + q 2 q 3 (formula 2)
Known pose transformation matrix after, the stage body angle of pitch can be calculated by formula 3 crab angle (ψ), roll angle (γ).
(formula 3)
(3) hold position controlling calculation.The controlling calculation that holds position comprises gesture stability and calculates and angular speed controlling calculation, and wherein angular speed controlling calculation performs once every 2ms, and gesture stability calculates and performs once every 10ms.The control module that holds position resolves the accurate inner frame 4 attitude angle information obtained according to strap-down navigation, itself and attitude angle set-point is poor, and difference result calculates through attitude controller and generates angular speed set-point, completes gesture stability loop; The gyro angular rate information that angular speed set-point and data collecting module collected obtain is poor, and difference result calculates the drive singal generating middle frame motor 11, outside framework motor 12 and inner frame motor 13 through angular speed controller, complete angular speed stable loop.
(4) power amplification.The drive singal of middle frame motor 11, outside framework motor 12 and inner frame motor 13 to be regenerated by the controlling calculation that holds position every 2ms and once enters power amplifier module afterwards, to be become from 3.3V level through power amplifier chip and peripheral circuit thereof and after 28V level, to drive that middle frame motor 11 drives middle frame 3, outside framework motor 12 drives outside framework 2, inner frame motor 13 drives inner frame 4 to rotate towards the direction reducing attitude angle difference respectively, reach and keep platform stance level and gyro-stabilized object.
The content be not described in detail in instructions of the present invention belongs to the known prior art of professional and technical personnel in the field.

Claims (2)

1. three axle inertially stabilized platforms, is characterized in that: this three axles inertially stabilized platform comprises platform support (1), platform stage body, inertial measurement cluster, platform driver element and platform electronic assembly;
Platform support (1) is in order to support platform stage body;
Platform stage body comprises outside framework (2), middle frame (3) and inner frame (4), inner frame (4) is orientation framework, carrying useful load, middle frame (3) is pitching frame, and outside framework (2) is roll framework;
Inertial measurement cluster comprises first rate gyro (5), the second rate gyro (7), third speed gyro (10), the first accelerometer (6), the second accelerometer (8) and the 3rd accelerometer (9), first rate gyro (5), the second rate gyro (7) and third speed gyro (10) are mutually orthogonal installation, and the first accelerometer (6), the second accelerometer (8) and the 3rd accelerometer (9) are mutually orthogonal installation; First rate gyro (5), the second rate gyro (7), third speed gyro (10), the first accelerometer (6), the second accelerometer (8) and the 3rd accelerometer (9) are installed in inner frame (4); The inertial angular rate information obtaining inner frame (4) three directions measured by first rate gyro (5), the second rate gyro (7) and third speed gyro (10), the linear acceleration information obtaining inner frame (4) three directions measured by first accelerometer (6), the second accelerometer (8) and the 3rd accelerometer (9), and the information obtained is supplied to electronic box (14);
The first torque motor that platform driver element comprises band reduction gear is defined as middle frame motor (11), the 3rd torque motor that the second torque motor with reduction gear is defined as outside framework motor (12) and band reduction gear is defined as inner frame motor (13), inner frame motor (13) is arranged on middle frame (3) and goes up and drive inner frame (4) to rotate, middle frame motor (11) is arranged on outside framework (2) and goes up and drive middle frame (3) to rotate, outside framework motor (12) is arranged on platform support (1) and goes up and drive outside framework (2) to rotate,
Platform electronic assembly (14) comprises data acquisition module, strap-down navigation resolves module, power amplifier module and the control module that holds position; The information of data collecting module collected first rate gyro (5), the second rate gyro (7), third speed gyro (10), the first accelerometer (6), the second accelerometer (8) and the 3rd accelerometer (9); Strap-down navigation resolves module and follows the data arrived according to data collecting module collected, resolves obtain inner frame (4) attitude angle information and positional information through strap-down navigation; Power amplifier module carries out power amplification rear drive motor the result of calculation of stable gesture stability module and rotates towards assigned direction; The control module that holds position receives strap-down navigation and resolves inner frame (4) the attitude angle information obtained, and it is poor with attitude angle setting value, and difference result, through attitude controller calculating generation angular speed setting value, completes gesture stability loop; The gyro angular rate information that angular speed setting value and data collecting module collected obtain is poor, and difference result calculates through angular speed controller and generates motor drive signal, completes angular speed stable loop; Motor drive signal is rotated through power amplifier module rear drive middle frame motor (11), outside framework motor (12) and inner frame motor (13), realizes stability contorting and attitude level and the course maintenance over the ground of inner frame (4).
2. a control method for the self-align orientation of three axle inertially stabilized platforms, is characterized in that step is:
(1) information of data collecting module collected first rate gyro, the second rate gyro, third speed gyro, the first accelerometer, the second accelerometer and the 3rd accelerometer obtains inner frame relative to the angular rate information of inertial space and linear acceleration information;
(2) strap-down navigation resolves module and carries out strap-down navigation according to the information of the first rate gyro collected, the second rate gyro, third speed gyro, the first accelerometer, the second accelerometer and the 3rd accelerometer and resolve the accurate attitude angle information and positional information that obtain inner frame;
(3) control module that holds position carries out gesture stability calculating according to the attitude angle information of inner frame, information according to first rate gyro, the second rate gyro, third speed gyro carries out rate stabilization controlling calculation, obtains the drive singal of middle frame motor, outside framework motor and inner frame motor;
(4) drive singal of frame motor, outside framework motor and inner frame motor rotates towards assigned direction through power amplification rear drive middle frame driven by motor middle frame, outside framework driven by motor outside framework, inner frame driven by motor inner frame, reaches and keeps platform stance level and gyro-stabilized object.
CN201410835098.2A 2014-12-26 2014-12-26 A kind of control method of three axle stable inertia platforms and self-align orientation thereof CN104848859B (en)

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CN104949676A (en) * 2015-05-20 2015-09-30 苏州科技学院 Drift scanning camera synchronous satellite real-time orbit determination device
CN106052595A (en) * 2016-05-25 2016-10-26 中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学 Three-axis turntable axis perpendicularity detection method based on laser gyro strap-down inertial navigation
CN106052595B (en) * 2016-05-25 2017-04-05 中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学 Three-axle table axis verticality detection method based on laser gyro strap down inertial navigation
CN106075935A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-11-09 中北大学 A kind of multi-functional household experiment porch educational toy based on stabilized platform
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