CN104781495B - Improved downhole tool or improvements related - Google Patents

Improved downhole tool or improvements related Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104781495B
CN104781495B CN201280076493A CN201280076493A CN104781495B CN 104781495 B CN104781495 B CN 104781495B CN 201280076493 A CN201280076493 A CN 201280076493A CN 201280076493 A CN201280076493 A CN 201280076493A CN 104781495 B CN104781495 B CN 104781495B
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arm
position
expandable
connected
reamer
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CN201280076493A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104781495A (en
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J-P·拉索
哈丁 J·小兰斯福德
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哈里伯顿能源服务公司
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Priority to PCT/IB2012/055804 priority Critical patent/WO2014064485A1/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B44/00Automatic control systems specially adapted for drilling operations, i.e. self-operating systems which function to carry out or modify a drilling operation without intervention of a human operator, e.g. computer-controlled drilling systems; Systems specially adapted for monitoring a plurality of drilling variables or conditions
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/26Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers
    • E21B10/32Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with expansible cutting tools
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/26Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers
    • E21B10/32Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with expansible cutting tools
    • E21B10/322Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with expansible cutting tools cutter shifted by fluid pressure

Abstract

本文描述了具有带有臂空档(115)的本体(105)的扩孔器工具(100),割刀臂(110)安装在臂空档(115)内以在缩进位置和展开位置之间展开。 Described herein reamer tool (100) having a body (105) with a neutral arm (115) of the cutter arm (110) mounted within the neutral arm (115) to the retracted and deployed positions of inter started. 提供展开机构用于将割刀臂从其缩进位置展开到其展开位置,在处于其缩进的位置和展开的位置,以及在从其缩进位置展开到其展开位置的过程中时,将每个割刀臂保持在基本上平行于本体(105)的纵向轴线的位置中。 Providing deployment means for the cutter arms retracted from its deployed position to its deployed position, it is in its retracted position and a deployed position and a deployed position to its deployed process in its retracted position, each cutter arm in a position substantially parallel to the main body (105) of the longitudinal axis.

Description

向下钻进工具中的改进或有关的改进 Improved downhole tool or improvements related

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及向下钻进工具中的改进或有关的改进,具体来说,尽管不是排外地,但本发明涉及扩孔器工具。 [0001] The present invention relates to an improved downhole tool or related improvements, particularly, although not exclusively, the present invention relates to a reaming tool.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 地层钻探使用长的钻管柱以及偶联在一起的工具。 [0002] The length of Drilling tool and a drill string coupled together. 钻柱的所有元件一起转动,以便转动钻柱端部处的切削钻头。 All the elements rotate together in the drill string, the drill string to rotate the cutter bits at the end. 切削钻头在地层中形成孔,钻柱的其余部分通过该孔沿着钻探方向移动。 Cutting drill hole is formed in an earth formation, the remainder of the drill string is moved along the direction of drilling through the hole. 偶联在钻柱的两个其它元件之间的管下扩孔器,用来拓宽钻头所形成的孔壁。 In the reamer coupling tube between two other elements of the drill string, the drill bit is used to widen the hole wall is formed. 管下扩孔器也被称作扩孔器,其在撤回位置中通常具有总体的直径,该直径等于或小于被钻探的孔的直径。 The tube is also referred reamer reamer, which typically has an overall diameter in the withdrawal position, the diameter is equal to or less than the diameter of the hole being drilled. 当处于展开的位置中时,切削元件从管下扩孔器的本体中移出,以形成大于被钻探的孔直径的直径。 When in the deployed position, the cutting element is removed from the main body tube under reamer to form a larger diameter than the diameter of the hole drilled in. 当管下扩孔器随着钻柱转动而向下钻进地移动时,其在钻头后面拓宽地层中的孔。 When the tube is moved downhole reamer to the drill string is rotated with holes which widen in the formation behind the drill bit. 此外,管下扩孔器可在其向上返回到地面的路上用来打开坍塌的地层。 Further, the pipe reamer may return to the ground in its upward path to enable the formation collapse.

[0003] W0-A-2005/124094描述了一个如此的管下扩孔器或扩孔器工具。 [0003] W0-A-2005/124094 describes such a tube under reamer or reaming tool. 扩孔器工具包括管形本体,本体具有轴向内腔和围绕其外围布置的外壳,以形成外部开口。 Reamer tool includes a tubular body having an axial lumen and a housing disposed around its periphery, to form an external opening. 在每个这些开口中,割刀元件被容纳在其中,割刀元件包括两个割刀臂,割刀臂可在缩进位置和伸展位置之间移动,在缩进位置中,每个割刀元件完全被保持在其相关的外壳内,而在伸展的位置中,每个割刀元件延伸到其开口外,以使更多材料可从地层中的孔壁上切削下来,由此扩大了孔的直径。 In each of these openings, the cutter member is accommodated therein, the cutter knife element comprises two arms, the cutter arm is movable between a retracted position and an extended position, in the retracted position, each of the cutter element is completely retained within its associated housing, and in the extended position, each of the cutter element extends to outside the opening, so that more material can be cut off from the hole wall formation, thereby enlarging the hole diameter of. 驱动机构设置在管形本体内,以在缩进和伸展位置之间移动割刀元件。 A drive mechanism disposed in the tubular body, to move the cutter member between retracted and extended positions.

[0004] 在W0-A-2005/124094所描述的扩孔器工具中,一个割刀臂可枢转地连接到管形本体的一端上,本体的另一端连接到另一个割刀臂,该另一个割刀臂连接到驱动机构,以使两个割刀臂可缩进和伸展。 [0004] In the reamer tool W0-A-2005/124094 described in a cutter arm is pivotally connected to one end of the tubular body, the body and the other end connected to the other cutter arm, which another arm is connected to the cutting blade drive mechanism, so that the two cutter arms are retracted and extended. 两个割刀臂所形成布置在展开时呈“V”形,其中,V的顶点在开口的外面。 Two arrangement "V" shape when deployed shape formed by the cutter arms, wherein the vertex V is outside of the opening.

[0005] —般地,如此的扩孔器工具借助于通过钻柱的流体压力来操作,尤其是,通过工具部分自身的流体。 [0005] - camel, by means of such a reamer tool operated by the fluid pressure in the drill string, in particular, the fluid itself through the tool portion. 流体压力由与钻柱相连的栗的操作来控制。 Fluid pressure controlled by the operation of the drill string Li connected. 在US-A-201/0006339中,流过工具的流体压力用来操作扩孔器,使得扩孔器根据流体压力伸展或缩进。 In US-A-201/0006339, the pressure of the fluid flowing through the tool for operating the reamer, the reamer extended or retracted such that the fluid pressure. 这里,扩孔器组件包括割刀元件和用于在槽上滑动而安装的稳定器垫。 Here, the reamer assembly comprising a cutter member mounted for sliding in a groove stabilizer pad. 在缩进位置中,扩孔器组件容纳在凹陷内,扩孔器组件借助于沿着槽的运动而移至伸展的位置,使它位于凹陷外面。 In the retracted position, the reamer assembly is housed within the recess, the reamer assembly by means of a movement along the slot to position and extended so that it is located outside the recess. 流体压力可被感知而致动扩孔器的伸展和缩进。 Fluid pressure may be sensed actuate reamer extended and retracted.

[0006] US-A-2010/0096191披露了管下扩孔器和稳定工具,其中,刀片元件通过偶联到驱动管上的楔形元件从缩进位置移动到伸展位置,楔形元件与刀片元件的倾斜面互相作用,以实现刀片元件相对于导向通道抬起(伸展)和下降(缩进)运动。 [0006] US-A-2010/0096191 discloses a stable broach tool and a lower tube, wherein the blade member is moved from the retracted position by the coupling to the extended position, the wedge member with the blade member to the wedge element on the drive tube inclined surfaces interact to achieve the blade member relative to the guide channel lift (extension) and lowering (indentation) movement. 当驱动管沿着工具本体的长度移动时,楔形元件连同驱动管一起被曳拉,它们在刀片元件的倾斜面下滑动,致使刀片元件作径向运动而抬起(伸展)到其导向通道之外。 When the length of the drive tube moves along the tool body, the wedge member together with the drive tube pulling, they slide in the inclined surface of the blade member, the blade member causes radial movement of the lift (stretch) to which the guide channel outer. 驱动管沿着工具本体的长度沿相反方向运动,则从刀片元件的倾斜面下抽拔楔形元件,允许刀片元件作径向运动而下降(缩回)到其导向通道内。 Drive tube along the length of the tool body move in opposite directions, from the inclined surface of the blade member pullout wedge element, the blade element allowing radial movement is lowered (retracted) into its guide channels. 刀片元件的伸展受致动机构限制,即,驱动管和楔形元件与致动机构偶联。 Extending blade receiving member actuating mechanism limits, i.e., the drive tube and the wedge member coupled with the actuating mechanism.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0007]因此,本发明的目的是提供改进的扩孔器工具,其中,在扩孔器工具的缩进和伸展位置中,割刀臂或刀片保持平行于扩孔器工具的轴线,同时提供较高的打开范围。 [0007] Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide an improved reamer tool, wherein, in the retracted and extended positions the reamer tool, the cutter arm or blade held parallel to the axis of the reamer tool, while providing higher open range.

[0008] 本发明的另一目的是提供扩孔器工具,其中,打开可在地面上根据打开范围内的某一值进行调整,同时提供更加有效的扩孔器工具。 [0008] Another object of the present invention to provide a reamer tool, wherein the opening can be adjusted according to a value within the range in the open ground, while providing more efficient reamer tool.

[0009] 根据本发明的第一方面,提供一种扩孔器工具,其包括: [0009] According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a reaming tool, comprising:

[0010] 基本上中空的本体,本体具有纵向轴线并包括具有第一外直径的外部壁; [0010] a substantially hollow body having a longitudinal axis and includes an outer wall having a first outer diameter;

[0011] 至少一个臂空档,其形成在围绕本体外围的外部壁的一部分内; [0011] at least one arm neutral, which is formed in a portion of the outer wall around the periphery of the body;

[0012] 至少一个可扩张的臂,其位于相关的臂空档内和安装成可在缩回位置和扩张位置之间扩张,缩回位置在本体内,在扩张位置中,每个可扩张的臂描述了第二外直径,第二外直径大于第一外直径;以及 [0012] at least one expandable arm which is located within an associated arm mounted to be neutral and expandable between a retracted position and an expanded position, a retracted position within the body, in the expanded position, each of the expandable the outer diameter of the second arm is described, the second outer diameter larger than the first outer diameter; and

[0013] 至少一个扩张机构,用于在缩回位置和扩张位置之间扩张相关的可扩张的臂; [0013] at least one expansion mechanism for the expandable arms between a retracted position and an expanded position associated expansion;

[0014] 其特征在于,每个扩张机构包括两个细长的连接件,细长连接件在一端部位置处可枢转地连接到相关的可扩张的臂上,而在另一端部位置处连接到其相关的臂空档,每个可扩张臂相对于其相关的臂空档可枢转地安装在两个端部位置处,使得每个可扩张臂在缩进和扩张两个位置中以及其在缩进和扩张位置之间实施扩张和缩进的过程中,保持基本上与本体的纵向轴线平行。 [0014] wherein each expansion means comprises two elongate connecting member connecting the elongated members at a position at one end portion pivotably connected to an associated expandable arm, and in the other end position connected to its associated arm neutral, each of the expandable arm is neutral with respect to its associated arm pivotally mounted at the two end positions, such that each expandable arms in the retracted and expanded positions in two and between its retracted and expanded position and retracted embodiment of the process of expansion, remains substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body.

[0015] 通过让连接件将各个可扩张臂连接到其相关的臂空档,便可使可扩张臂保持基本上平行于扩孔器工具的纵向轴线,由此,提供打开范围,该范围大于包括楔形构件或类似构件的扩张机构可能的打开范围。 [0015] By having the connection member connecting each arm to its associated expandable arm neutral, so that the expandable arms can be held substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the reamer tool, thereby providing open range, which is greater than the expansion mechanism or the like member includes a wedge member may be an open range.

[0016] 在向下钻进工具包括扩孔器工具的情形中,使可扩张臂保持平行于本体纵向轴线的优点在于,每个切割刀片的攻点是可靠的,攻点是这样的点,即,前导的切割元件在该点与待要切割的材料或地层相啮合。 [0016] In the case of downhole tools comprise a reamer tool, so that the advantages of holding the expandable arm is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body is that the point of attack of each cutting blade is reliable, the point is a point of attack, that is, the leading cutting element engaged at this point to be ground or material to be cut.

[0017]自然,还提供致动机构来致动扩张机构,每个可扩张臂在另一端部位置处可枢转地连接到致动机构。 [0017] Naturally, further provided actuating means to actuate the expansion mechanism, each of the expandable arm at the other end position is pivotally connected to the actuating mechanism.

[0018] 有利地是,扩张机构还包括第三细长的连接件,其可枢转地连接到每个可扩张臂和致动机构。 [0018] Advantageously, the expansion means further comprises a third elongate connecting member pivotally connected to each of the expandable arm and an actuating mechanism.

[0019] 这样,致动机构直接移动可扩张臂,而其它的细长连接件用来保持与纵向轴线基本上平行。 [0019] Thus, the actuating mechanism can be moved directly expandable arms, and the other for holding the elongated connecting member is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis. 在一优选的实施例中,致动机构包括活塞。 In a preferred embodiment, the actuating mechanism comprises a piston.

[0020]向下钻进工具还可包括至少一个返回构件,用来停止致动每个伸展机构。 [0020] The downhole tool may further comprise at least one return means for each extension member is used to stop the actuator. 在一个实施例中,每个返回机构包括抵抗致动机构作用偏置的弹簧。 In one embodiment, each of the return mechanism comprises a spring-actuated against the action of biasing means.

[0021]可设置台肩块,其位于各个臂空档内以限制可扩张臂的扩张。 [0021] shoulder blocks may be provided, which is located within the expansion neutral each arm to limit the expandable arm. 通过选择合适尺寸的台肩块,便可确定可扩张臂的扩张,以提供用于与地层啮合的理想的外直径。 By selecting the appropriate size of the shoulder block, the expansion of the expandable arms can be determined to provide an outer diameter for engagement with the formation of the over.

[0022] 在一优选的实施例中,第二外直径可以高达第一外直径的1.3倍。 [0022] In a preferred embodiment, the second outer diameter up to 1.3 times the first outer diameter. 例如,如果向下钻进工具的外直径是100cm,则可扩张臂可扩张而描绘出达到130cm的外直径。 For example, if the outer diameter of the drilling tool down is 100cm, the expandable arm can be expanded outer diameters up to depict the 130cm.

[0023] 较佳地,向下钻进工具便可扩孔器工具,而每个可扩张臂便可割刀臂。 [0023] Preferably, the downhole tool can reamer tool, and each arm can be expandable cutter arm.

[0024] 根据本发明另一方面,提供用于向下钻井工具的可扩张臂,该可扩张的割刀臂包括至少一个前切割刀片和后切割刀片,每个切割刀片包括多个切割元件,每个前切割刀片和后切割刀片上的一个切割元件对相关的切割刀片提供了攻点。 [0024] In another aspect of the present invention, there is provided according to the well tool downwardly expandable arms, the expandable cutter arm comprises at least a front and a rear cutting blade cutting blades, each cutting blade comprises a plurality of cutting elements, each of the front and rear cutting blade cutting blade on a cutting element of the cutting blade associated with a tapping point provided.

[0025]如此的可扩张割刀臂还可包括位于平面的各侧的第一侧和第二侧,每侧离平面相应的预定距离,以使用于前刀片的攻点和用于后刀片攻点离该平面等距离。 [0025] As the expandable cutter arm further includes a first side and a second side each side of a plane, on each side from the plane corresponding to a predetermined distance, prior to use in the point of attack of the blade and a rear blade attack point equidistant from the plane.

[0026] 通过让每个割刀臂的攻点离该平面等距离,则可提高扩孔器工具的效率。 [0026] By tapping point so that each cutter arm is equidistant from the plane, the efficiency can be improved reamer tool. 此外,提供更加柔性的扩孔器工具,打开尺寸的范围可容纳在其中。 Furthermore, a more flexible reamer tool, opening size range therein.

[0027] 用于第一侧的预定距离可不同于用于第二侧的预定距离。 [0027] The predetermined distance may be different for the first side of the second side for a predetermined distance.

[0028] 在一个实施例中,切割元件可包括多晶金刚石切割元件。 [0028] In one embodiment, the cutting element may comprise a polycrystalline diamond cutting element.

[0029] 根据本发明另一方面,提供一种扩孔器工具,具有至少一个如上所述的可扩张割刀臂。 [0029] According to another aspect of the present invention, a reamer tool, as described above having at least one expandable cutter arm.

[0030] 根据本发明另一方面,提供具有纵向轴线的扩孔器工具,该扩孔器工具包括至少一个具有多个切割元件的可扩张的割刀臂,切割元件布置成形成至少一个前切割刀片和后切割刀片,前切割刀片上的切割元件和后切割刀片上的切割元件之一提供用于其相关切割刀片的攻点,其特征在于,用于前切割刀片的攻点和用于后切割刀片的攻点离延伸通过纵向轴线的平面等距离。 [0030] According to another aspect of the present invention, a reamer tool having a longitudinal axis, the reamer tool comprising at least one arm cutter having a plurality of cutting elements of an expandable cutting elements arranged to form at least one front cutting after the blade and the cutting blade, the cutting element before the cutting blade and one after the cutting blade cutting elements on its associated cutting blade to provide a point of attack, characterized in that, prior to the point of attack for the cutting blade and the cutting blade extending from the point of attack by a plane equidistant from the longitudinal axis.

[0031] 扩孔器工具较佳地还包括至少一个扩张机构以及致动机构,扩张机构用于在缩回位置和扩张位置之间扩张相关的可扩张割刀臂,而致动机构用于致动各个扩张机构。 [0031] reamer tool preferably further comprises at least one actuating mechanism and the expansion mechanism, the expansion mechanism is used between a retracted position and an expanded position associated expanded expandable cutter arm actuated means for actuating dynamic expansion of the various institutions.

[0032] 在一优选的实施例中,各个扩张机构包括至少两个细长的连接件,连接件在一端部位置处可枢转地连接到相关的可扩张割刀臂,并在另一端部位置处连接到其相关的臂空档,每个可扩张的割刀臂相对于其相关的臂空档可枢转地安装在两个端部位置处,于是,在缩进位置和扩张位置中,并在缩进位置和扩张位置之间实施扩张和缩进的过程中,每个可扩张的割刀臂保持基本上平行于纵向轴线。 [0032] In a preferred embodiment, each of the expansion means comprises at least two elongate connecting member connecting member at one end position is pivotally connected to an associated expandable cutter arm, and the other end portion at a position connected to its associated arm neutral, each expandable cutter arms with respect to its associated arm neutral pivotally mounted at the two end positions, thus, a retracted position and an expanded position in , and between a retracted position and an embodiment of an expanded position and retracted in the process of expansion, each expandable cutter arms remain substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis.

[0033] 扩张机构有利地还包括第三细长的连接件,其可枢转地连接到各个可扩张的割刀臂和致动机构,各个可扩张的割刀臂在另一端部位置处可枢转地连接到致动机构。 [0033] Advantageously, the expansion means further comprises a third elongate connecting member pivotally connected to a respective expandable cutter arm and an actuating mechanism, each expandable cutter arm at the other end position pivotally connected to the actuating mechanism.

[0034] 致动机构较佳地包括活塞。 [0034] Preferably the actuating means comprises a piston. 扩孔器工具还可包括至少一个用于停止致动各个扩张机构的返回构件。 It returns the reamer tool may further comprise at least one member for stopping the expansion of each actuating mechanism.

[0035]可设置台肩块,其位于各个臂空档内以限制可扩张割刀臂的扩张。 [0035] The shoulder blocks may be provided, which is located within the expansion neutral each arm to limit the expandable cutter arm. 割刀臂的打开范围可高达扩孔器工具外直径的1.3倍,根据台肩块的尺寸,台肩块可限制打开。 Open cutter arm range up to 1.3 times the outer diameter of the reamer tool in accordance with the size of the shoulder block, the shoulder block open limit.

[0036] 根据本发明另一方面,提供用于向下钻进工具控制模块,向下钻进工具包括具有纵向轴线的基本上中空的本体;围绕基本上中空本体外围形成的至少一个臂空档;至少一个位于相关臂空档内并安装成在缩进位置和扩张位置之间实施扩张的可扩张臂,缩进位置位于基本上中空的本体之内,在扩张位置中,可扩张臂描绘出大于第一外直径的第二外直径;至少一个扩张机构,用于在缩进位置和扩张位置之间扩张相关的可扩张臂;以及用于操作每个可扩张臂的活塞,该控制模块包括: [0036] According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a control module for downhole tools, downhole tool comprising a substantially hollow body having a longitudinal axis; at least one arm around the neutral form substantially hollow body peripheral ; positioned within an associated at least one arm mounted between a neutral and a retracted position and an expanded position of the expandable arms may be expanded embodiment, a retracted position substantially located within the hollow body, in the expanded position, the expandable arm depicted a second outer diameter larger than the first outer diameter; at least one expansion means for expanding the expandable associated arm between a retracted position and an expanded position; and each of a piston for operating the expandable arm, the control module comprising :

[0037] 安装在本体内的元件,其可在第一位置和第二位置之间移动; [0037] mounted within the body member, which is movable between a first position and a second position;

[0038] 控制该元件运动的马达;以及 [0038] Motor control movement of the element; and

[0039]与马达相关连的齿轮机构,用于将来自马达的驱动力传递到该元件; [0039] Related gear mechanism connected with the motor, for the driving force from the motor is transmitted to the element;

[0040] 其特征在于,控制模块还包括腔室和端口,该腔室与活塞相连,端口具有打开位置和关闭位置,该打开和关闭位置由元件的相应的第二和第一位置确定。 [0040] wherein the control module further comprises a chamber and a port, which is connected to the piston chamber, the port having an open position and a closed position, the open and closed positions are determined by respective first and second element position.

[0041] 其特征还在于,在打开位置中,端口允许流体流入腔室和提高其中的压力,以操作活塞来扩张每个可扩张臂。 [0041] characterized in that, in the open position, the port and allow fluid flow into the chamber to increase the pressure therein, to operate to expand each expandable piston arm.

[0042] 在一优选的实施例中,马达和齿轮机构安装在该元件和本体外壁之间。 [0042] In a preferred embodiment, the motor and gear mechanism mounted between the body member and the outer wall. 电源较佳地位于扩孔器工具的本体内。 Power tool preferably located in the reamer body. 这具有保护控制模块的优点,即,马达、齿轮机构和电源免遭扩孔器工具在其中运行的环境影响。 This has the advantage that the protection control module, i.e., a motor, a gear mechanism, and power from environmental impact reamer tool in which to run.

[0043] 在一个实施例中,电源包括电池。 [0043] In one embodiment, the power source comprises a battery. 在另一实施例中,电源包括涡轮机,其布置成对马达发电。 In another embodiment, the power supply includes a turbine arranged to power the motor.

[0044] 控制模块还可包括至少一个位置传感器,用来探测本体内元件的位置。 [0044] The control module may further comprise at least one position sensor for detecting the position of the body member. 此外,还可提供至少一个压力传感器,用于探测腔室内的压力。 Further, it may also be provided at least one pressure sensor for detecting pressure in the chamber.

[0045] 此外,可设置至少一个传感器,其至少探测流过向下钻进工具的流体中压力变化,每个传感器对马达提供控制信号。 [0045] Further, the at least one sensor may be provided, which detect at least a pressure change in the fluid flowing through downhole tool, each sensor provides a control signal to the motor. 此外,可提供至少一个传感器来探测向下钻进工具的转速变化,每个传感器对马达提供控制信号。 Further, the at least one sensor may be provided to detect the change in speed downhole tool, each sensor provides a control signal to the motor.

[0046] 此外,可提供通讯系统,控制信号通过该通讯系统提供给马达。 [0046] Further, the communication system can be provided, a control signal is supplied to the motor via the communication system. 在一个实施例中,该通讯系统包括有线的连接,控制信号在该有线连接上传输。 In one embodiment, the communication system comprises a wired connection, a control signal is connected to the wired transmission.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0047] 为了更好地理解本发明,现将参照附图,仅是借助于举例而已,附图中: [0047] For a better understanding of the present invention, with reference to the drawings now, only by means of example only, to the accompanying drawings in which:

[0048]图1示出根据本发明的扩孔器工具的示意的剖视图,该扩孔器工具显示为处于缩进位置中; [0048] FIG. 1 shows a schematic cross-sectional view of the reamer tool of the present invention, the reamer tool is shown in a retracted position;

[0049]图2类似于图1,但示出了处于伸展位置中的扩孔器工具; [0049] FIG. 2 is similar to FIG. 1, but showing a reamer tool in an extended position;

[0050]图3示出了安装在图1和2中所示扩孔器工具的臂上的割刀; [0050] FIG. 3 shows a tool mounted on the arm of the reamer shown in Figures 1 and 2 of the cutter;

[0051]图4示出了用于图1和2中所示扩孔器工具的控制系统的剖视图,该扩孔器工具处于缩进的位置中; [0051] FIG. 4 shows a cross-sectional view of FIG. 1 and 2 for the control system shown in the reamer tool, the reamer tool in a retracted position;

[0052]图5类似于图4,但示出了带有处于伸展位置中的扩孔器工具的控制系统。 [0052] FIG. 5 is similar to FIG. 4, but showing a control system in an extended position with the reamer tool.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0053] 现将参照特殊的实施例并参照附图来披露本发明,但本发明不局限于此。 [0053] Referring now to particular embodiments and with reference to the accompanying drawings to disclose the invention, but the present invention is not limited thereto. 所描述的附图仅是示意的,并无限制意义。 The drawings described are only schematic and not limitation. 在附图中,某些元件的尺寸可以放大,为图示的方便不按比例绘制。 In the drawings, the size of some of the elements may be exaggerated, not drawn to scale for the convenience of illustration.

[0054] 将会理解到,术语“垂直的”和“水平的”在这里是用来指附图的特定定向,这些术语对于这里描述的具体实施例没有限制。 [0054] It will be understood here to refer to a specific orientation of the drawings, these terms to the specific embodiments described herein is not limited by the terms "vertical" and "horizontal." 此外,术语“顶部”和“底部”用来指钻柱的零件,它们分别面向地面或钻柱的顶部,以及远离地面或钻柱的底部。 In addition, the terms "top" and "bottom" is used to refer to the part of the drill string, which are facing the ground or top of the drill string, and away from the ground or the bottom of the drill string.

[0055] 本发明涉及改进的扩孔器工具和操作如此扩孔器工具或其它向下钻进工具的控制系统。 [0055] The present invention relates to improved operation of such reamer and reaming tools or other downhole tool control system tools. 下面参照图1至3来描述扩孔器工具,并参照图4和5来描述控制系统。 1 to 3. Referring to FIG described reamer tool, and with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5 will be described control system.

[0056]尽管以下参照具有割刀臂的扩孔器工具来描述本发明,但本发明同样适用于也可用于稳定之目的的向下钻进工具。 [0056] Although the following with reference to the reamer cutter arm tool of the present invention will be described, but the present invention is equally applicable to the purpose it may also be used to stabilize the downhole tool. 在该情形中,割刀臂被稳定垫臂代替,当稳定垫臂展开时,其接触地层壁而稳定钻柱,工具形成钻柱的一部分。 In this case, the cutter arm pad arm is stabilized in place, when the stabilizer arms deployed pad which contacts the formation wall of the drill string stabilizer tool forms part of the drill string. 此外,尽管控制系统参照扩孔器工具的使用进行描述,但控制系统不限于使用在扩孔器工具上,其可用于任何其它的向下钻进工具。 Further, although the control system with reference to the use of reamer tool will be described, but the control system is not limited to use on a reamer tool, which can be used in any other downhole tool.

[0057] 扩孔器工具以及其它的向下钻进工具,都是可以操作的,S卩,借助于流过相关钻柱的流体压力变化来实施伸展和缩进。 [0057] reamer tools and other downhole tools, are operable, S Jie, by means of a pressure fluid flowing through the drill string to change related embodiment extended and retracted. 与钻柱相连的栗控制着流体的流动。 Li the drill string is connected to control the flow of fluid. 位于钻柱中合适位置处的传感器探测流体压力的变化。 Variations in the drill column is located at a suitable position sensor detecting the fluid pressure.

[0058] 首先参照图1和2,图中示出扩孔器工具100的纵向剖视图。 [0058] Referring first to FIGS. 1 and 2, longitudinal sectional view of the reamer tool 100 shown in FIG. 扩孔器工具100包括具有三个割刀臂110的扩孔器本体105,割刀臂110安装在相应的外壳内,或安装在扩孔器本体105内形成的臂空档115内。 Reamer tool 100 includes a cutting blade having three arms 105 a reamer body 110, the cutter arm 110 mounted within the respective housing, or the gap 115 is mounted in the arm 105 is formed in the reamer body. 三个割刀臂110围绕扩孔器本体105的外围等距离间距,但在图1和2中仅示出一个如此的割刀臂。 Three cutter arm 110 around the periphery of the reamer body 105 equidistant spacing, but in FIGS. 1 and 2 show only one such cutter arm.

[0059] 每个割刀臂110包括切割元件或切割刀片120,如图所示,切割刀片120在相应的枢转点140、145、150处可枢转地各安装在三个细长连接件125、130、135。 [0059] Each arm 110 includes a cutting knife or cutting blade member 120, as shown, each of the cutting blade 120 is mounted in the three elongated connecting member at respective pivot points 140, 145 are pivotally 125,130,135. 两个细长连接件125、130也在相应枢转点155、160处可枢转地附连到外壳或臂空档115。 Two elongate members 125, 130 are connected to the respective pivot points 155, 160 is pivotably attached to the housing 115 or the arm neutral. 第三个细长连接件135借助于枢转点165也可枢转地安装在活塞170上。 The third elongate member 135 is connected by means of a pivot point 165 may also be pivotally mounted on the piston 170.

[0060] 活塞170包括致动机构,活塞可操作而从如图1所示的第一位置移动到如图2所示的第二位置,以伸展割刀臂110,具体来说,切割元件或切割刀片120从缩进位置到伸展位置,那里,切割元件或切割刀片120延伸到扩孔器本体105外面,并形成增大的外直径,该外直径是扩孔器本体105正常外直径的1.3倍。 [0060] The piston 170 comprises an actuating mechanism, the piston is moved from a first position operable as shown in FIG. 1 to a second position shown in FIG. 2, the cutter arm 110 to extend, in particular, a cutting element or the cutting blade 120 from a retracted position to an extended position, where the cutting element or the cutting blade 120 extends to the outside of the reamer body 105, and form the outer diameter is increased, the outer diameter of the outer diameter of the reamer 105 normal body 1.3 times.

[0061] 将会认识到,在根据本发明的扩孔器工具100的其它实施例中,三个割刀臂110及其切割元件或切割刀片12限定的外直径,按照需要与扩孔器本体105的外直径相比,可具有另外的比例,因此,不局限于高达扩孔器本体105外直径的1.3倍。 [0061] It will be appreciated, in other embodiments according to the present invention, the reamer tool 100, cutter arms 110 and three cutting elements or cutting blades 12 defined in outer diameter, as required with the reamer body as compared to an outer diameter of 105, it may have another ratio, therefore, is not limited to up to 1.3 times the outer diameter 105 of the reamer body. 外直径受台肩块175限制,在将扩孔器工具100形成其一部分的钻柱引入到地层中的井筒内之前,根据形成地层中井筒所需要的扩孔器工具100的外直径,在地面上选定台肩块175的尺寸。 The outer diameter of the shoulder block 175 by limitation, in the reamer tool 100 prior to forming part of a drill string which is introduced into the formation in the wellbore, an outer diameter 100 formed according to the formation in a wellbore require reaming tool, ground size shoulder 175 on the selected block.

[0062] 将会认识到,不同尺寸的台肩块可设置有扩孔器工具100,选择合适尺寸的台肩块来限制割刀臂110的伸展,以控制由伸展的割刀臂110和切割元件或切割刀片120限定的外直径,控制在从扩孔器本体105相同的外直径到该外直径1.3倍的打开范围内。 [0062] It will be appreciated that different sizes may be provided with a shoulder block reamer tool 100, to select the appropriate size of the shoulder block to limit extension of the cutter arm 110 to be controlled by extending the arm 110 and the cutting knife the outer diameter of the cutting element or blade 120 is defined, the control in the same outer diameter of the reamer body 105 to 1.3 times the outer diameter of the inner opening range.

[0063] 在割刀臂110从其相应的外壳或形成在扩孔器本体105内的臂空档115内伸展时,各个割刀臂110的切割结构(未示出)始终保持平行于扩孔器本体105的纵向轴线180。 [0063] In the cutter arm 110 from its respective housing or the extension arm is formed in the gap 115 of the reamer body 105, the structure of each cutting knife arm 110 (not shown) always remains parallel to the reaming the longitudinal axis of the body of 180,105. 如上所述,形成在连接件125、130、135相应连接件上的枢转点140、145、150、155、160、165有效地提供枢转轴,围绕这些轴可发生转动以伸展和缩回割刀臂110,使切割元件或切割刀片120进出相应的外壳或臂空档115。 As described above the pivot point, formed on the respective connecting member connecting member 125,130,135 140,145,150,155,160,165 effective to provide a pivot axis, rotation about these axes may occur to extend and retract cutting the arm 110, the cutting blade or the cutting element 120 out of the respective housing or arm 115 neutral. 然而,设置在相应连接件125、130上的枢转点140、145确保;当割刀臂110伸展时,割刀臂110保持平行于扩孔器本体105,用于切割并缩回到其相应的外壳或臂空档115内。 However, the respective connecting member provided on the pivot point 125, 130 140, 145 ensure that; when the cutter arm extension 110, cutter arm 110 remains parallel to the reamer body 105, for cutting and retracted to its respective the housing 115 or the arm neutral. 设置在细长连接件135上的枢转点150用来根据活塞170或其它致动机构来伸展和缩回相关的割刀臂110,这将在下文中作详细描述。 The pivot point is provided on the elongate connecting member 135 to 150 to extend and retract the associated cutter arm 110, which will be described in detail below according to a piston 170 or other actuation mechanism.

[0064] 通过使用扩张机构,该机构利用可枢转地连接到割刀臂110和外壳或臂空档115以及活塞170或其它致动机构的细长连接件,割刀臂110和切割元件或切割刀片120的有效直径可伸长到扩孔器本体105的外直径的1.3倍。 [0064] By using the expansion mechanism which is pivotably connected to the use of the knife to the arm or arm 110 and the housing 115 and an elongated connecting member neutral piston 170 or other actuation mechanisms, cutter arms 110 and the cutting element or the effective diameter of the cutting blade 120 may be stretched to 1.3 times the outer diameter of the body 105 of the reamer. 此外,扩张量可容易地被合适的台肩块175限制。 Further, the amount of expansion can readily by suitable shoulder blocks 175 limit.

[0065]伸展割刀臂110的力由施加到活塞170上的压力提供,缩回割刀臂的力由弹簧185(下面参照图4和5进行描述)提供。 Force [0065] The cutter arm extension 110 is provided by the pressure applied to the piston 170, the cutter arm retracts the force provided by a spring 185 (refer to FIGS. 4 and 5 below described). 施加的压力由流过扩孔器本体105的流体流动提供,这将在下文中详细描述。 Pressure exerted by the fluid flowing through the reamer body 105 provides flow, which will be described in detail below.

[0066] 如图1和2所示,扩孔器本体105是带有中空中心部分190的大致管形,其形成流体流动路径。 [0066] 1 and 2, the reamer 105 is a generally tubular body portion 190 with a hollow center 2, which forms the fluid flow path. 活塞170安装在扩孔器本体105内,并由流过其中的流体进行操作,这将在下文中参照图4和5作详细描述。 The piston 170 is mounted within the reamer body 105, by which the fluid flowing through the operation, which will be described in detail below with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5.

[0067] 在以上描述的扩孔器工具100的实施例中,根本地是要在与其中使用扩孔器工具的地层接触的扩张阶段过程中,确保切割元件,例如,被称作roc割刀的多晶的金刚石割刀,充分地发挥功能。 [0067] In an embodiment of the reamer tool 100 described above, the expansion to be a fundamental stage in which the use of the reamer tool during formation of the contact, ensure that the cutting element, e.g., knife referred roc polycrystalline diamond cutter, function adequately. 这将参照图3进行详细描述。 This will be described in detail with reference to FIG.

[0068] 在图3中,图中更详细地显示了图1和2所示的扩孔器工具100的割刀臂110的一部分200。 [0068] In FIG. 3, there is shown a portion 200 of FIG. 1 and 2 the reamer cutter tool shown in 100 of arm 110 in more detail. 切割元件相对于割刀臂110的定位显示在图中。 Positioning the cutting element relative to the cutter arm 110 is shown in FIG. 该部分200显示具有两个切割刀片205、210的单一的割刀臂110(图1)、前切割刀片205和后切割刀片210。 The display portion 200 having two single knife cutting blades 205, 210 of the arm 110 (FIG. 1), before the cutting blade 205 and the cutting blade 210. 〔术语“前”和“后”是指切割刀片与形成在地层中的井筒壁接触的次序,且由扩孔器工具100 (图1)形成其一部分的钻柱(未示出)的转动方向确定。 [The term "front" and "rear" refer to the order of the cutting blade and the wellbore wall is formed in contact with the formation, and the tool is formed by the reamer 100 (FIG. 1) which is part of a drill string (not shown) in the direction of rotation determine. ]

[0069] 在图3所示的实施例中,五个切割元件215、220、225、230、235在前切割刀片205上可见,而六个切割元件240、245、250、255、260、265在后切割刀片210上可见。 [0069] In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, the cutting elements 215,220,225,230,235 five forward cutting blade 205 is visible, while the six cutting elements 240,245,250,255,260,265 visible on the cutting blade 210. 前切割刀片205上的切割元件215和后切割刀片210上的切割元件240具有相应的攻点270、275,它们离与扩孔器本体105的纵向轴线180相一致的平面280等距离地间距开(图1)。 Front cutting blades on the cutting element 205,215 and a cutting element on the cutting blade 210,240 having a respective tapping points 270, 275, 280 are equally spaced from a plane from consistent with the longitudinal axis of the reamer body 105 of 180 (figure 1). 这意味着从前切割刀片205的侧边285到平面280的距离小于从后切割刀片210的侧边290到平面280的距离。 This means that the front side of the cutting blade 285 to 205 is less than the distance from the plane 280 from the rear side of the cutting blade 290 to 210 of the 280 plane.

[0070]在图3所示的实施例中,切割元件215、220、225、230、235、240、245、250、255、260、265包括如图所示的I3DC元件。 [0070] In the embodiment illustrated in Figure 3, including cutting 215,220,225,230,235,240,245,250,255,260,265 I3DC elements as shown in FIG. 尽管^^一个PDC元件可见,但呈现在每个刀片205、210上的I3DC元件的数量,是根据roc元件的尺寸和扩孔器工具本身的尺寸确定的。 While a PDC element ^^ visible, but the number of blades present in each of the elements 205, 210 I3DC, is determined based on the size and the reamer tool roc element itself. 然而,将会认识到,也可使用其它类型的切割元件,例如,浸渍过的切割元件。 However, it will be appreciated, may also be other types of cutting elements, e.g., impregnated cutting elements.

[0071] 让攻点270、275离平面280等距离间距开,则攻点270、275对打开范围内的任何打开尺寸将都接触地层。 [0071] Let tapping points 270, 275 from a plane 280 equally spaced from, the point of attack of 270,275 open any opening size in the range are to contact the formation. 如果攻点270、275离平面280不等距离间距开,则割刀臂将只有一个可能的打开尺寸来确保前和后切割刀片与地层接触。 If the attack point ranging from 280 spaced from 270,275 from the plane, the cutter arm is only possible to ensure that the opening size of the front and rear blade cutting contact with the formation.

[0072] 如上所述的前和后切割刀片205、210具有不同数量的切割元件215、220、225、230、235、240、245、250、255、260、265,它们彼此不对齐,于是,切割元件215、240的攻点270、275相对于扩孔器本体105有不同的高度。 [0072] As described above the front and rear of the cutting blade 205, 210 having different numbers of cutting elements 215,220,225,230,235,240,245,250,255,260,265, they are not aligned with each other, then, 215,240 points of attack of the cutting element 270, 275 relative to the reamer body 105 have different heights.

[0073] 扩孔器工具100的有效外直径(S卩,打开尺寸),是由攻点270、275的位置确定的。 The effective outer diameter of the [0073] 100 of the reamer tool (S Jie, opening size) is determined by the position of the tapping points 270,275.

[0074] 现参照图4和5,图中示出扩孔器工具100的示意的纵向剖视图。 [0074] Referring now to Figures 4 and 5, a schematic longitudinal sectional view of the reamer tool 100 shown in FIG. 先前参照图1和2描述过的那些部件具有相同的附图标记。 Have the same reference numerals as those components previously described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2.

[0075] 扩孔器工具100包括具有割刀臂110的扩孔器本体105,如上所述,割刀臂110安装在相应的外壳或形成在扩孔器本体105内的臂空档115内。 [0075] The reamer 100 includes a reamer tool body 110 of the cutter arm 105, as described above, the cutter arm 110 is mounted in a corresponding housing formed in the arm or neutral reamer 115 within body 105. 为清晰起见,没有示出连接件和如上所述地操作割刀臂110的枢转点。 For purposes of clarity, are not shown connected to the operating member and the pivot point of the cutter arm 110 as described above. 弹簧185用来使扩张的割刀臂返回到其缩回的位置,弹簧185示意地显示为方块。 Expansion of the spring 185 to enable the cutter arm returns to the retracted position, the spring 185 is schematically shown as a block.

[0076] 如上所述,由于流体流过扩孔器工具100,施加到活塞170上的压力提供了伸展割刀臂110的力,而缩回割刀臂的力由弹簧185提供。 [0076] As described above, since the fluid flows through the reamer tool 100, the pressure applied to the piston 170 provides a force extending knife arm 110, the cutter arm retracts the force provided by a spring 185. 在割刀臂伸展过程中,作用在活塞170上的压力形成的力大于弹簧185提供的力。 In the cutter arm extension process, the pressure force acting on the piston 170 is formed is greater than the force of the spring 185 is provided. 一旦作用在活塞170上的压力充分地下降,使得作用的力变得小于弹簧185提供的力,则弹簧185致使割刀臂110缩回到其相应的外壳或臂空档115内。 Once the pressure acting on the piston 170 is sufficiently decreased, so that the force becomes smaller than the acting force of the spring 185 is provided, the spring 185 causes the cutter arm 110 is retracted within its respective housing 115 neutral or arms. 这将在下文中详细描述。 This will be described in detail below.

[0077] 展开割刀臂110的控制系统300设置在扩孔器本体105内,控制系统300包括电动机310、齿轮系统315和可移动的套筒320,该电动机310和齿轮系统315容纳在套筒320和扩孔器本体105的外壁325之间。 [0077] Expanding the cutter arm 300 of the control system 110 is provided within the reamer body 105, the control system 300 includes a motor 310, a gear system 315 and the movable sleeve 320, the motor 310 and the gear system 315 housed in the sleeve 325,320 between the outer body 105 and the reamer. 电动机310以第一预定速度转动,齿轮系统315将该第一预定速度减小到慢的第二预定速度,该第二预定速度用来操作可移动的套筒320。 The motor 310 is rotated at a first predetermined speed, the gear system 315 is reduced to a first predetermined speed slower second predetermined speed, the second predetermined speed for operating the movable sleeve 320. 在一个实施例中,滚珠螺杆(未示出)可用来将来自齿轮系统315的转动输出转换为线性运动,该线性运动用来移动套筒320以打开和关闭端口385,这将在下文中详细描述。 In one embodiment, the ball screw (not shown) may be used to convert rotational output from the gear system 315 into a linear motion, linear motion for moving the sleeve 320 to open and close the port 385, which will be described in more detail below . 然而,将会认识到,其它的结构布置也可用来将来自齿轮系统315的转动运动转换为可移动套筒320的线性运动,例如,齿轮系统315的小齿轮或蜗轮形成部分可啮合设置在可移动套筒320上的齿条元件。 However, it will be appreciated that other configurations may also be disposed to the rotational movement from the gear system 315 is converted into linear movement of the movable sleeve 320, e.g., a pinion gear or worm gear system 315 is formed may be disposed at the engaging portion may be rack member 320 on the mobile sleeve.

[0078]电动机310可由电池(未示出)供电,或由设置在钻柱(也未示出)内的涡轮机供电,涡轮机产生来自流过其中的流体流动的电流。 [0078] The motor 310 may be a battery (not shown) powered, or provided by a drill string (also not shown) within the power turbine, wherein the turbine generates a current flows from the fluid flow. 尽管描述了齿轮系统315,但将会认识到,可借助于将马达输出转换为线性运动的任何合适的装置,将来自马达的驱动力转换为线性运动。 Although a gear system 315, it will be appreciated that, by means of the output of the motor is converted to linear motion by any suitable means, the driving force from the motor into a linear motion.

[0079] 每个割刀臂110的外壳或臂空档115由中空的中心部分190的壁330和扩孔器本体105的外壁325的一部分335限定。 [0079] or an outer wall of the housing 115 of each cutter arm neutral arm 110 by a wall of the central hollow portion 190 of the reamer 330 and 325 of body 105 defines a portion 335. 活塞170由邻近于割刀臂110的腔室340限定,如图所示,腔室340由中心部分190的壁330、扩孔器本体105的外壁325、套筒320、第一圆柱形部分345、第二圆柱形部分350和端壁355限定。 The piston 170 is adjacent to the cutter arm 340 defines a chamber 110, as shown, the chamber 340 from the central portion 190 of the wall 330, the outer wall of the reamer body 325 105, the sleeve 320, a first cylindrical portion 345 The second cylindrical portion 350 and the end wall 355 is defined. 端壁355还在电动机310和控制系统300的齿轮系统315之间形成屏障。 Barrier 315 is formed between the end wall 355 also controls a motor 310 and gear system 300 of the system.

[0080] 环形密封360、365设置在第一圆柱形部分345和相应的壁330和套筒320之间。 [0080] The annular seal 360, 365 is disposed between the first cylindrical portion 345 and the corresponding wall 330 and the sleeve 320. 另外的环形密封370、375设置在套筒320和第二圆柱形部分350之间,以及在套筒320和中空的中心部分190的壁380。 Additional annular seal 370, 375 is provided between the sleeve 320 and the second cylindrical portion 350, and a wall 380 of the sleeve 320 and the central portion 190 of the hollow. 密封360可安装在第一圆柱形部分345或壁330上,因为第一圆柱形部分345不相对于壁330移动。 The seal 360 may be mounted on the first cylindrical wall portion 345 or 330, because the first cylindrical portion 345 does not move relative to the wall 330.

[0081] 第一和第二圆柱形部分345、350形成端口385,当套筒320处于第一位置中时,端口被可移动的套筒320密封住,如图4所示,于是,流体如箭头390所示地流过中空的中心部分190。 [0081] The first and second cylindrical portions 345, 385 formed in the port, when the sleeve 320 is in the first position, the sleeve port is movable seals 320, shown in Figure 4, then, as fluid flowing through the hollow center of the arrow 190 shown in part 390. 当套筒320处于第二位置中时,如图5所示,端口385打开,流体可如箭头395所示地流入腔室340内。 When the sleeve 320 is in the second position, shown in Figure 5, port 385 is opened, flows into the chamber 340 as shown by arrow 395 fluid.

[0082] 另一附加的密封400也如图所示地设置在活塞170和扩孔器本体105的外壁325之间,以在活塞170从图4所示的位置移动到图5所示的位置时,阻止钻探流体进入。 [0082] Another additional seal 400 is also provided as shown in FIG piston 170 between the outer wall 325 and the reamer body 105, to position the piston 170 from FIG. 4 to the position shown in FIG. when, to prevent drilling fluid from entering.

[0083]电动机310的操作,以与箭头390相同的方向有效地移动套筒320而打开端口 385,而沿相反方向移动而关闭端口385,来自电动机310的驱动力通过齿轮系统315传递到套筒320。 Operation [0083] motor 310 to move the sleeve 320 in the same effective direction of arrow 390 to open the port 385, is moved along the opposite directions to close the port 385, the driving force from the motor 310 is transmitted to the sleeve 315 via a gear system 320. 借助于通过中空的中心部分190的增大的流体流量和/或增大的钻柱(未示出)的转速,对电动机310提供控制信号。 By means (not shown) the rotational speed of the motor 310 provides a control signal by increasing a hollow central portion 190 of the fluid flow and / or increased drill string. 提供至少一个合适的传感器(未示出)来探测压力和/或转速的变化,并对电动机310提供控制信号,例如,压力传感器用来探测压力的变化,加速计用来探测转速的变化。 Providing at least one suitable sensor (not shown) to detect changes in pressure and / or speed of the motor 310 and provides a control signal, e.g., a pressure sensor for detecting pressure variations, accelerometer for detecting changes in the rotational speed. 然而,也可使用其它的传感器来探测转速的变化。 However, other sensors may also be used to detect changes in speed.

[0084] 将会认识到,电动机310可以是双向电动机,其沿两个方向运转以实现端口385的打开和关闭。 [0084] It will be appreciated, the motor 310 may be a bidirectional motor, which operates to achieve opening and closing the port 385 in both directions. 作为对电动机310的替代方案,电螺线管可用来实现端口385的打开和关闭。 As an alternative to the motor 310, an electrical solenoid 385 may be used to achieve the opening and closing of the port.

[0085]自然,电动机310和齿轮系统315被密封在由套筒320和外壁325形成的区域410内,于是,该区域受到保护免遭钻探环境的影响,即,泥浆、岩石等,其进入到中空的中心部分190内。 [0085] Naturally, the motor 310 and the gear system 315 is sealed in the region 410 by the sleeve 320 and the outer wall 325 is formed, then, the affected area is protected from the drilling environment, i.e., mud, rocks, etc., it proceeds to within the hollow center portion 190. 在一优选的实施例中,该区域410充满油,以防止来自钻探环境的碎片进入。 In a preferred embodiment, the region 410 is filled with oil, in order to prevent debris from entering the drilling environment.

[0086] 在割刀臂110扩张之前,割刀臂110如上所述地容纳在其相应的外壳或臂空档115内。 [0086] Before expansion the cutter arms 110, 110 as described above, cutter arm received within its respective housing 115 neutral or arms. 流体流动如箭头390所示地流过中空的中心部分190 (图4)。 Fluid flow stream as shown by arrow 390 through the hollow central portion 190 (FIG. 4). 如上所述地,当借助于流过中空的中心部分190的流体压力变化和/或钻柱的转速变化,将控制信号送到电动机310时,电动机310操作可移动的套筒320,使其沿如箭头390所示的与流体流动相同的方向移动而打开端口385 (图5)。 As described above, when the aid flows through the hollow center portion 190 of the fluid pressure changes and / or changes in the rotational speed of the drill string, the control signal to 310, operation of the motor 310 of the sleeve 320 is movable motor along it the fluid flow in the same direction indicated by arrow 390 is moved to open the port 385 (FIG. 5).

[0087] 当端口385打开时,流体流入腔室340内,其中建立起压力。 [0087] When the port 385 is opened, the fluid flows into the chamber 340, which pressure builds. 当腔室340内的压力达到某一值时,此时,活塞170作用的力大于弹簧185作用的力,活塞170从图4所示的位置推向臂空档115,以如图5所示地扩张割刀臂110。 When the pressure in the chamber 340 reaches a certain value, at this time, a force greater than the force acting piston 170 acting spring 185, the piston 170 towards arm 115 from the neutral position shown in FIG. 4 to FIG. 5 expanding cutter arm 110. 活塞170朝向臂空档115的运动致使每个割刀臂110围绕连接件135上的枢转点150以及连接件125上的枢转点140、145枢转,于是,割刀臂110从如图1和4所示的其相关的臂空档115内扩张到如图2和5所示的位置。 Movement of the arm 170 toward the neutral piston 115 causes each cutter arm 110 about the pivot point on the connecting members 150 and 135 pivot point 140, 145 is pivotally connected to the upper member 125, thus, the cutter arm 110 from FIG. neutral within its associated arm 115 shown in FIG. 1 and 4 to the expanded position shown in FIG. 2 and 5. 腔室340内形成的流体流出与割刀臂110相连的管嘴415外,将活塞170保持在如图2和5所示的位置,因此,扩张割刀臂110,直到端口385通过电动机310和齿轮系统315的操作被套筒320关闭。 A fluid outflow pipe connected to the nozzle 110 of the cutter arm 415 is formed outside the chamber 340, the piston 170 in the position shown in FIG. 2 and 5, thus expanding cutter arm 110 until the ports 310 and 385 by a motor operation of the gear system 315 of the sleeve 320 is closed.

[0088] 一旦接收到另一控制信号,S卩,流体流动的压力中另一变化和/或钻柱的转速中的变化,则电动机310再次被致动而将可移动的套筒320从如图5所示的位置移回到如图4所示的位置,由此关闭端口385,于是,不再有流体如箭头395所示地流入腔室340内。 [0088] Upon receiving the further control signal, S Jie, another pressure fluid flow changes and changes in speed and / or the drill string, the motor 310 is actuated again to the movable sleeve 320, such as from position shown in FIG. 5 moves back to the position shown in Figure 4, thereby closing the ports 385, thus, no fluid flows into the chamber as indicated by arrows 340 to 395 shown in FIG. 流体流出管嘴415外,直到腔室340内压力减小,使得弹簧185的力致使割刀臂110返回到其相关的外壳或臂空档115,返回到如图1和4所示的位置。 Fluid outflow nozzle 415, the chamber 340 until the pressure is reduced, so that the force of the spring 185 causes the cutter arm 110 returns to its neutral or arms associated housing 115, a return to the position shown in FIG. 4 and FIG. 此外,由于弹簧185作用的力,活塞170会被推回到如图1所示的其初始位置。 Further, since the acting force of the spring 185, the piston 170 will be pushed back to its initial position as shown in FIG. 1.

[0089]替代地,不是运行电动机310,而是通过关掉与钻柱相连的栗,使得流过钻柱的流体流动被切断,腔室340内的压力由于没有进一步的流体流过端口385和流入腔室340而下降,由此可使割刀臂110缩回。 [0089] Alternatively, the motor 310 is not running, but Li by switching off the drill string is connected such that the fluid flow stream through the drill string is shut off, the pressure in the chamber 340 as no further fluid flow through port 385 and It is lowered into the chamber 340, thereby allowing the cutter arm 110 is retracted. 一旦腔室340内的压力下降到某一值,此时,弹簧185作用的力超过腔室340内压力提供的力,则活塞170移回到如图1和4所示的位置,割刀臂110缩回,同时由于割刀臂110围绕点140、145、150枢转而仍平行于纵向轴线180;连接件125、130在相应的外壳或臂空档115内围绕点155、160枢转;以及当活塞从如图5所示的位置移回到如图4所示的位置时,由于活塞170的运动使得连接件围绕枢转点165枢转。 Once the pressure in the chamber 340 drops below a certain value, at this time, the acting force of the spring 185 exceeds the force of the pressure chamber 340 is provided, the piston 170 is moved back to the position shown in FIGS. 1 and 4, the cutter arm 110 retracts, while the pivoting points 140, 145 remain parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cutting blade 180 since the arms 110 around; connecting member 125, 130 pivots about point 155, 160 within the respective housing or neutral arm 115; and when the piston moves from the position shown in Figure 5 moves back to the position shown in Figure 4, due to the movement of the piston 170 causes the pivot link about the pivot point 165.

[0090] 如上所述,控制系统300包括电源(未示出),但其也可包括其它电子设备,例如,用于探测腔室340内压力的压力传感器,用于测量套筒320和活塞170运动速度和钻柱转速,以及割刀臂110在扩张和缩回阶段过程中的速度的加速度计。 [0090] As described above, the control system 300 includes a power supply (not shown), but may also include other electronic devices, e.g., a pressure sensor for detecting the pressure within the chamber 340, the sleeve 320 and the piston for measuring 170 the drill string rotational speed and the speed of movement, and an accelerometer and rate of expansion during the retraction phase of the cutter arm 110. 此外,可提供通讯装置(未示出),在如上所述的流体流动压力的变化或钻柱转速的变化未提供控制信号的情形中,控制信号可通过通讯装置提供给电动机。 Further, the communication means may be provided (not shown), in the case of pressure changes in the fluid flow as described above or variations of the rotational speed of the drill string does not provide the control signal, the control signal may be provided to the motor via the communication means.

[0091] 电源可由一个或多个电池提供,或通过有线连接从地面供电。 [0091] The power provided by one or more batteries, the power supply from the ground or through a wired connection. 此外,有线连接可形成通讯装置的一部分,控制信号可通过该部分传送到电动机。 Further, a wired connection may form part of a communication device, the control signal may be transmitted to the motor through this portion.

[0092] 将会认识到,割刀臂扩张机构可用于其它的工具,例如,向下钻进稳定器,且割刀臂可使用其它扩张机构来扩张。 [0092] It will be appreciated, expandable cutter arm mechanism can be used for other tools, e.g., downhole stabilizer, and the other cutter arm may be used to expand the expansion mechanism.

[0093]尽管描述了本发明的特殊的实施例,但将会认识到,该实施例不是限制性的,其它的实施例可落入到如附后权利要求书定义的本发明范围之内。 [0093] While particular embodiments of the invention described, it will be appreciated that the embodiments are not limiting, other embodiments may fall within the scope of the appended claims as defined in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1.一种向下钻进工具,包括: 基本上中空的本体,其具有纵向轴线并包括具有第一外直径的外壁; 至少一个臂空档,其围绕本体外围形成在外壁一部分内; 至少一个可扩张臂,其位于相关的臂空档内并安装成在缩进位置和扩张位置之间实施扩张,缩进位置位于本体之内,在扩张位置中,每个可扩张臂描绘出大于第一外直径的第二外直径; 至少一个扩张机构,用于在缩进位置和扩张位置之间扩张相关的可扩张臂,其中,每个扩张机构包括第一细长连接件和第二细长连接件,所述第一细长连接件在一端部位置处可枢转地连接到相关的可扩张臂,并在另一端部位置处连接到其相关的臂空档,所述第二细长连接件在一端部位置处可枢转地连接到相关的可扩张臂,并在另一端部位置处连接到其相关的臂空档,每个可扩张的臂相对于其相关的臂空档可枢转地安 CLAIMS 1. A downhole tool, comprising: a substantially hollow body having a longitudinal axis and comprising an outer wall having a first outer diameter; neutral at least one arm, which is formed in a portion of the outer wall around the periphery of the body; at least one expandable arm which is located within an associated arm mounted between a neutral and a retracted position and an expanded position expanded embodiment, the retracted position of the body of the, in the expanded position, each may be greater than the first expandable arm depicted the outer diameter of the second outer diameter; at least one expansion means for expansion between a retracted position and an expanded position associated expandable arms, wherein each of the expansion mechanism includes a first elongated connecting member and a second elongated connector member, said first elongated member connected at one end position is pivotally connected to an associated expandable arms, and is connected to its associated arm at the other end portion of the neutral position, the second elongated connector at one end position member is pivotally connected to an associated expandable arms, and is connected to its associated arm at a neutral position of the other end portion, each of the expandable arm relative to its associated arm pivotable neutral turn to Ann 装在其相应端部位置处,于是,在缩进位置和扩张位置中,并在缩进位置和扩张位置之间实施扩张和缩进的过程中,每个可扩张的臂保持基本上平行于纵向轴线;以及用来致动扩张机构的致动机构,其中,所述扩张机构还包括第三细长连接件,所述第三细长连接件独立于所述第一细长连接件和所述第二细长连接件,且在一端部位置处可枢转地连接到相关的可扩张臂并在另一端部位置处连接到致动机构。 Mounted at its respective end position, then, in the retracted position and an expanded position, and the implementation process of expansion and retracted between a retracted position and an expanded position, each of the expandable arms remain substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis; and actuating means for actuating the expansion mechanism, wherein said expansion means further comprises a third elongated member connected to said third elongated member is connected independently of the first connecting member and the elongated said second elongated member is connected, at one end position and is pivotally connected to an associated expandable and connected to the actuating arm means at the other end position.
2.如权利要求1所述的向下钻进工具,其特征在于,所述致动机构包括活塞。 2. The downhole tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the actuating mechanism comprises a piston.
CN201280076493A 2012-10-22 2012-10-22 Improved downhole tool or improvements related CN104781495B (en)

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CN106567677A (en) 2017-04-19
US8807246B2 (en) 2014-08-19
CN106639883B (en) 2019-01-15
MX2015002626A (en) 2016-01-22
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WO2014064485A1 (en) 2014-05-01
US20140110171A1 (en) 2014-04-24

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