CN104724233A - Directly-driven two-wheeled self-balancing electric vehicle - Google Patents

Directly-driven two-wheeled self-balancing electric vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104724233A
CN104724233A CN201510043425.5A CN201510043425A CN104724233A CN 104724233 A CN104724233 A CN 104724233A CN 201510043425 A CN201510043425 A CN 201510043425A CN 104724233 A CN104724233 A CN 104724233A
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China
Prior art keywords
circuit
microcontroller
module
hub motor
wheel hub
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Pending
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CN201510043425.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
丁珠玉
樊利
杨继东
钟昌余
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Southwest University
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Southwest University
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Priority to CN201510043425.5A priority Critical patent/CN104724233A/en
Publication of CN104724233A publication Critical patent/CN104724233A/en
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Abstract

The invention discloses a directly-driven two-wheeled self-balancing electric vehicle. The directly-driven two-wheeled self-balancing electric vehicle comprises a chassis, wherein a steering rod is vertically installed at the upper portion of the chassis, the bottom of the steering rod is connected with a steering potentiometer installed in the chassis, a handle is arranged at the top of the steering rod and is turned to change a resistance value of the steering potentiometer, the steering potentiometer is connected with a microcontroller through a circuit, the microcontroller is connected with a motor driving module through a circuit, the motor driving module is connected with a left hub motor and a right hub motor through circuits respectively, the left hub motor and the right hub motor are respectively connected with rolling wheels arranged on two sides of the chassis, and the microcontroller is connected with a gesture detection module through a circuit, is connected with a wireless communication module through a circuit, is connected with a three-dimensional sensing device through a circuit and is further connected with a key circuit and a liquid crystal display module installed on the handle through circuits. The directly-driven two-wheeled self-balancing electric vehicle has the advantages of being simple in structure, small in size and low in manufacturing cost.

Description

A kind of direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of transportation means, relate to a kind of direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car.
Background technology
Along with the fast development of Chinese society economy, automobilization process is constantly accelerated, and self-propelled vehicle consumption demand is vigorous gradually, and automobile pollution constantly rises violently.Energy shortage and environmental pollution become the social concern of facing mankind, and traffic jam and automobile stop problem are also faced with acid test.Therefore, study novel small portable, economize energy, intelligent traffic instrument convenient and practical, with low cost, an actv. solution route will be provided for problems such as the current vehicle fuel consumption of alleviation China is large, energy resource consumption is many, environmental pollution is large, road traffic congestion, parking difficulty.
There is patent relevant with direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car at present: " a kind of single shaft drying double-wheel self-balancing car " (CN103600796A), it is characterized in that: motor fixing frame and bearing fixed mount are all arranged on car body, motor is arranged on motor fixing frame, motor-driven gear is fixedly connected with motor, motor-driven gear is meshed with transmission gear, transmission gear coordinates with propeller shaft couplings, deflecting bar with turn to transmission gear to be connected, steering rack and wheel steering save mutually hinged." a kind of double-cotrolled type double-wheel self-balancing intelligent vehicle " (CN103612695A), it is characterized in that: physical construction and the control system be installed on this physical construction, control system controls the smooth running of described intelligent vehicle realization within the scope of vertical direction small inclination in the manual mode operation mode of being undertaken by both hands or by the body control operating mode that the Coordinating Activity of health carries out." a kind of structure changes balanced car with two wheels " (CN102582738A), is characterized in that: the entirety symmetrically structure of this two-wheel car, is made up of body installation, actuating device, handle device and electrical controller four parts.
Its shortcoming of above patent of invention is:
1, on physical construction: the Wheel bearing in traditional mechanical frame mode is separated with car body, complicated in mechanical structure, manufacture parts many, productive costs is high.
2, in mode: traditional control method is dumb, manual mode operation or the employing potentiometer of adopting adjusts more, and reliability and sensitivity are not high, have larger potential safety hazard etc.
Compared to existing technology, tool has the following advantages in the present invention, as:
1, left and right wheels of the present invention and wheel hub adopt 8 inch single side axis brushless motor wheel integrations.Exist: the driving system that 1. transmission shaft is integrated with wheel hub is closed, power, transmission and brake equipment is all incorporated in wheel hub, and mechanics is simplified; 2. motor internal directly drives vehicle wheel rotation, and in ride, the foreign matter such as silt can not enter, and transmission shaft, because do not have chain, can get rusty or chain cleavage so do not exist.The advantage such as have low interference, low traveling noise, smooth movements, life-span long and maintenance cost low.So the present invention greatly reduces energy resource consumption, achieve traveling noise low, the object that complete vehicle weight is light, can improve battery durable ability.
2, mode of the present invention be utilize that human body midstance judges forwards, backwards, the acceleration and deceleration of left and right four direction with turn to, adopt novel capacitance-type digital gyro instrument.More traditional mechanical type gyroscope: 1. image data is simpler, and data processing is more convenient, and signal disturbing is less; 2. the signal exported due to mechanical gyroes instrument is analog signal, need to carry out amplification shaping filter to analog signal, by MCU, AD conversion is carried out to the output of each axle again, need to take 3 (3 axles export) AD passages, need accurate reference source, temperature influence is large, also higher to the requirement of RC filter circuit, affects the design and fabrication of circuit.Digital gyroscope is adopted then not need to adopt in circuit layout to amplify plastic filter circuit, make circuit layout simple, acquisition precision is high, tracking speed is controlled, good to ambient temperature tolerance performance, can effectively improve car body stationarity, reduce the deterministic process of car body self-balancing, improve safety and the traveling comfort of passenger.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car, the Wheel bearing solved in existing machinery frame mode is separated with car body, complicated in mechanical structure, and volume is large, the problem that productive costs is high.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention comprises chassis, chassis upper is vertically installed with deflecting bar, deflecting bar can stretch adjustment highly, to adapt to the operating personal of differing heights, be mounted on bottom deflecting bar and turn to potential device in chassis, deflecting bar top is provided with handle, operating personal is held and carry out course changing control on handle, swing handle, change the resistance value turning to potential device, potential device is turned to connect microcontroller by circuit, microcontroller connects motor drive module by circuit, motor drive module connects left wheel hub motor and right wheel hub motor respectively by circuit, microcontroller detects the resistance value size turning to potential device, thus by motor drive module to left wheel hub motor and right wheel hub motor carry out differential control realize turn to, left wheel hub motor is connected with right wheel hub motor the roller being arranged on both sides, chassis respectively, microcontroller connects attitude detection module by circuit, the lateral attitude of Real-Time Monitoring car body also sends the data to microcontroller and processes, microcontroller connects wireless communication module by circuit, wireless communication module be used for system in commissioning process with the data exchange of upper computer, microcontroller connects three-dimensional sensing device by circuit, three-dimensional sense answers device inside to comprise three-axis gyroscope and three axle accelerators, three-axis gyroscope sensing vehicle body attitude signal the Acceleration Signal being transferred to microcontroller and three axle accelerators carries out mixed processing, export the foundation that mixed signal judges as vehicle body attitude, microcontroller is also mounted on key circuit on handle and LCD MODULE by circuit, key circuit comprises button S1, S2, S3, S1 calls the data that current gyro gathers, S2 is the data of left and right hub rotation, S3 is switching key and confirms button, LCD MODULE carries out data display for coordinating key circuit, power module is powered to system.
Further, described microcontroller adopts ECU micro controller module, and the STM32F103RCT6 that control chip adopts ST company to generate is as kernel control chip.
Further, described left wheel hub motor and right wheel hub motor are brushless motor.
Further, described LCD MODULE is NOKIA 5110 Liquid Crystal Module.
Further, described attitude detection module adopts the three-dimensional sensing device of condenser MPU-6050.
Further, described wireless communication module model is ZigBeeCC2530.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows that structure is simple, volume is little, and cost is low.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is balance truck Facad structure schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is balance truck construction profile schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is balance truck circuit module connection diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is balance truck control flow chart of the present invention.
In figure, 1. chassis, 2. deflecting bar, 3. turn to potential device, 4. handle, 5. microcontroller, 6. motor drive module, 7. left wheel hub motor, 8. right wheel hub motor, 9. roller, 10. attitude detection module, 11.ZigBeeCC2530 wireless communication module, 12. three-dimensional sensing devices, 13. key circuits, 14. LCD MODULEs, 15. power modules.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with detailed description of the invention, the present invention is described in detail.
Structure of the present invention as depicted in figs. 1 and 2, its circuit module connects as shown in Figure 3, the present invention includes chassis 1, chassis 1 upper vertical is provided with deflecting bar 2, deflecting bar 2 can stretch adjustment highly, to adapt to the operating personal of differing heights, be mounted on bottom deflecting bar 2 and turn to potential device 3 in chassis 1, deflecting bar 2 top is provided with handle 4, operating personal is held and carry out course changing control on handle 4, swing handle 4, change the resistance value turning to potential device 3, potential device 3 is turned to connect microcontroller 5 by circuit, microcontroller 5 connects motor drive module 6 by circuit, motor drive module 6 connects left wheel hub motor 7 and right wheel hub motor 8 respectively by circuit, microcontroller 5 detects the resistance value size turning to potential device 3, thus by motor drive module 6 pairs of left wheel hub motors 7 and right wheel hub motor 8 carry out differential control realize turn to, left wheel hub motor 7 is connected with right wheel hub motor 8 roller 9 being arranged on both sides, chassis 1 respectively, microcontroller 5 connects attitude detection module 10 by circuit, the lateral attitude of Real-Time Monitoring car body also sends the data to microcontroller 5 and processes, microcontroller 5 connects wireless communication module 11 by circuit, wireless communication module 11 for system in commissioning process with the data exchange of upper computer, microcontroller 5 connects three-dimensional sensing device 12 by circuit, three-dimensional sensing device 12 inside comprises 3 axle gyroscopes and 3 axle accelerators, 3 axle gyroscopes sensing vehicle body attitude signals the Acceleration Signal being transferred to microcontroller 5 and 3 axle accelerator carries out mixed processing, export the foundation that mixed signal judges as vehicle body attitude, microcontroller 5 is also mounted on key circuit 13 on handle 4 and LCD MODULE 14 by circuit, key circuit 13 comprises button S1, S2, S3, S1 calls the data that current gyro gathers, S2 is the data of left and right hub rotation, S3 is switching key and confirms button, LCD MODULE 14 carries out data display for coordinating key circuit 13, power module 15 is powered to system.
Wherein microcontroller 5 adopts ECU micro controller module, and the STM32F103RCT6 that control chip adopts ST company to generate is as kernel control chip.Left wheel hub motor 7 and right wheel hub motor 8 are brushless motor.LCD MODULE 14 is NOKIA 5110 Liquid Crystal Module.Attitude detection module 10 adopts the three-dimensional sensing device of condenser MPU-6050.Wireless communication module 11 model is ZigBeeCC2530.
Microcontroller 5 adopts ECU micro controller module, the STM32F103RCT6 that control chip adopts ST company to generate is as kernel control chip, STM32 series requires High Performance based on aiming at, low cost, the Embedded Application custom-designed ARM Cortex-M3 kernel of low-power consumption, power supply voltage 3.3V, there is AD conversion, PWM (pulse width modulation), DMA (Direct Memory Access), UART (Universal AsynchronousReceiver/Transmitter), timer, the functional modules such as interruption, the transmitting-receiving of system data can be realized by software programming, process, the operations such as storage, meet battery-driven car demand for control.Maximum operation frequency 72MHz, can perform control routine fast, realizes more quick, the stability contorting of balance truck.Chip periphery has accessed 8MHz crystal oscillator, ensures that chip clock is more accurate.
LCD MODULE 14 is NOKIA 5110 Liquid Crystal Module, LCD MODULE 14 is furnished with the dot matrix LCD of 84x48, can show 4 row Chinese characters, adopts serial interface to communicate with primary processor, interface signal line quantity significantly reduces, and comprises eight signal line of VDD-to-VSS.Support multiple serial communication protocol, transfer rate, up to 4Mbps, can write display data, the N-free diet method time at full speed.By conducting resinl link block and printing version, but not connecting cable, can module be fixed in printed board with the crampons in module, thus be convenient to very much install and change.Lcd controller/driver chip has been tied on LCD wafer, and the volume of module is very little.Adopt low voltage power supply, working current during normal display at 200 below μ A, and has power-down mode.
Attitude detection module 10 is for the lateral attitude of Real-Time Monitoring car body.This module adopts the three-dimensional sensing device of condenser MPU-6050, this device integration 3 axle sensor gyroscopes and 3 axis accelerometers.The full lattice sensing range of cireular frequency of MPU-6050 is ± 250, ± 500, ± 1000 with ± 2000 °/sec (dps), accurately can follow the trail of quick and action at a slow speed, further, the full lattice sensing range of accelerator that user's programmable controls is ± 2g, ± 4g, ± 8g and ± 16g.Transmission can pass through the I being up to 400kHz 2c or be up to the SPI of 20MHz, the vehicle body attitude signal sensed is passed through I by it 2c port transmission processes to ECU microcontroller, and the oscillator of the built-in temperature-sensitive sticker of this module and ± 1% variation simultaneously, can meet system requirements.
ZigBeeCC2530 wireless communication module 11 for system in commissioning process with the data exchange of upper computer.Zigbee is the low-power consumption territory fidonetFido based on IEEE802.15.4 standard.According to the wireless communication technology that the technology of this agreement defined is a kind of short range, low-power consumption, be characterized in closely, low complex degree, self-organizing, low-power consumption, high data rate, mainly be applicable to automatically control and remote control field, various equipment can be embedded, communication can be realized simply and easily by the UART interface of ECU microcontroller.
LCD MODULE 14 is for the man-machine interaction in balance truck operational process, so that driver can clearly understand current vehicle speed and operation mode.
Motor drive module 6 is for driving left and right two brushless motors, i.e. left wheel hub motor 7 and right wheel hub motor 8 normal rotation.Motor drive module 6 designs: the rotor due to brushless motor is permanent magnetic steel, is connected with output shaft together with shell, and stator is winding coil, eliminates brush motor and is used for the commutating brush of checker electromagnetic field.The current wave sweep frequency changing and be input on coil of stator of motor and waveform is relied on when brushless motor rotates, the magnetic field rotated around motor geometry axle center is formed around winding coil, the epitrochanterian permanent magnetic steel of this field drives rotates, thus realizes the rotation of motor.The driving circuit of brushless motor is mainly bridge-type and drives, by three-phase bridge circuit, according to specific sequential, and switching valve Q7 ~ Q12.Design adopts IR2101S driving chip to drive high-power FET IRF3205, is controlled the break-make of electric bridge, reach alternating current on coil of stator of motor by main control chip STM32F103RCT6 output pwm signal, thus drive motor.IRF3205 is a kind of high-power FET, has extremely low conduction impedance and fast speed switching rate, and the voltage between IRF3205 drain electrode and source electrode maximumly reaches 55V, grid turning-on voltage 10V, maximumly bears electric current 110A.Turning-on voltage due to IRF3205 needs to reach 10V, project adopts IR2101S to drive, and by its bootstrap circuit boost, makes control voltage reach more than 10V, electric bridge can be cut-off normally according to STM32F103RCT6 incoming signal, reach the object driving brushless motor.Fig. 4 is software control flow process of the present invention.
Battery-driven car advantage of the present invention is: adopt novel capacitance-type digital gyro instrument.More traditional mechanical type gyroscope, image data is more reliable and more stable, data processing is more convenient, and signal disturbing is less, and circuit layout is simple, acquisition precision is high, tracking speed is controlled, good to ambient temperature tolerance performance, can effectively improve car body stationarity, reduce the judgement of self-balancing in car body start-up course, improve safety and the traveling comfort of passenger.Left and right wheels of the present invention and wheel hub adopt 8 inch single side axis brushless motor wheel integrations.Solve the complicated in mechanical structure of existing invention, automatic intelligent controls complicated problem, outward appearance is simplicity generosity more.The present invention adopts lithium battery power supply.Lithium cell has high stored energy density, lightweight, and service life is relatively long, and self-discharge rate is low, memory-less effect, high/low temperature strong adaptability, and the advantages such as environmental protection can improve cruise duration, reduces carbon emission amount.
Meanwhile, the present invention is a small portable, economize energy, intelligent traffic instrument convenient and practical, with low cost, can alleviate the problems such as the current vehicle fuel consumption of China is large, energy resource consumption is many, environmental pollution is large, road traffic congestion, parking difficulty.This car is using electric energy as propulsion source, two-wheeled side by side configuration, be a small portable, economize energy, intelligent traffic instrument convenient and practical, with low cost, the problems such as, energy resource consumption many, environmental pollution large, road traffic congestion, parking difficulty large in alleviation China current vehicle fuel consumption provide an actv. scheme.
The above is only to better embodiment of the present invention, not any pro forma restriction is done to the present invention, every any simple modification done above embodiment according to technical spirit of the present invention, equivalent variations and modification, all belong in the scope of technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car, it is characterized in that: comprise chassis (1), chassis (1) upper vertical is provided with deflecting bar (2), deflecting bar (2) can stretch adjustment highly, to adapt to the operating personal of differing heights, deflecting bar (2) bottom is mounted on and turns to potential device (3) in chassis (1), deflecting bar (2) top is provided with handle (4), operating personal is held and carry out course changing control on handle (4), swing handle (4), change the resistance value turning to potential device (3), potential device (3) is turned to connect microcontroller (5) by circuit, microcontroller (5) connects motor drive module (6) by circuit, motor drive module (6) connects left wheel hub motor (7) and right wheel hub motor (8) respectively by circuit, microcontroller (5) detects the resistance value size turning to potential device (3), thus by motor drive module (6) to left wheel hub motor (7) and right wheel hub motor (8) carry out differential control realization turn to, left wheel hub motor (7) and right wheel hub motor (8) are connected the roller (9) being arranged on chassis (1) both sides respectively, microcontroller (5) connects attitude detection module (10) by circuit, the lateral attitude of Real-Time Monitoring car body also sends the data to microcontroller (5) and processes, microcontroller (5) connects wireless communication module (11) by circuit, wireless communication module (11) for system in commissioning process with the data exchange of upper computer, microcontroller (5) connects three-dimensional sensing device (12) by circuit, three-dimensional sensing device (12) inside comprises three-axis gyroscope and three axle accelerators, (3) axle gyroscope senses vehicle body attitude signal and is transferred to microcontroller (5) and carries out mixed processing with the Acceleration Signal of three axle accelerators, export the foundation that mixed signal judges as vehicle body attitude, microcontroller (5) is also mounted on key circuit (13) on handle (4) and LCD MODULE (14) by circuit, key circuit (13) comprises button S1, S2, S3, S1 calls the data that current gyro gathers, S2 is the data of left and right hub rotation, S3 is switching key and confirms button, LCD MODULE (14) carries out data display for coordinating key circuit (13), power module (15) is powered to system.
2. according to direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car a kind of described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described microcontroller (5) adopts ECU micro controller module, control chip is that the STM32F103RCT6 of ST company generation is as kernel control chip.
3. according to direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car a kind of described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described left wheel hub motor (7) and right wheel hub motor (8) are brushless motor.
4. according to direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car a kind of described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described LCD MODULE (14) is NOKIA 5110 Liquid Crystal Module.
5. according to direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car a kind of described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described attitude detection module (10) adopts the three-dimensional sensing device of condenser MPU-6050.
6., according to direct-driving type double-wheel self-balancing battery-driven car a kind of described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described wireless communication module (11) model is ZigBeeCC2530.
CN201510043425.5A 2015-01-28 2015-01-28 Directly-driven two-wheeled self-balancing electric vehicle Pending CN104724233A (en)

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Cited By (7)

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CN104986281A (en) * 2015-07-09 2015-10-21 郑磊 Self-adapting manual-automatic integrated power-driven balance vehicle
CN105329399A (en) * 2015-10-28 2016-02-17 合肥工业大学 Control system and control method of scooter
CN105947041A (en) * 2016-05-13 2016-09-21 东南大学 Double-wheel self-balancing vehicle and method thereof
CN106041934A (en) * 2016-06-30 2016-10-26 杭州电子科技大学 Slip form self-adaption control method of two-wheel self-balance robot
CN106078744A (en) * 2016-06-30 2016-11-09 杭州电子科技大学 A kind of double-wheel self-balancing robot Sliding Mode Adaptive Control system
CN106335584A (en) * 2016-09-22 2017-01-18 哈尔滨理工大学 Double-wheel balance vehicle control system
CN110171513A (en) * 2019-03-27 2019-08-27 广东技术师范学院天河学院 A kind of Double-wheel self-balancing vehicle

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CN104986281A (en) * 2015-07-09 2015-10-21 郑磊 Self-adapting manual-automatic integrated power-driven balance vehicle
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CN106041934B (en) * 2016-06-30 2018-07-20 杭州电子科技大学 A kind of double-wheel self-balancing robot Sliding Mode Adaptive Control method
CN106078744B (en) * 2016-06-30 2018-07-20 杭州电子科技大学 A kind of double-wheel self-balancing robot Sliding Mode Adaptive Control system
CN106335584A (en) * 2016-09-22 2017-01-18 哈尔滨理工大学 Double-wheel balance vehicle control system
CN110171513A (en) * 2019-03-27 2019-08-27 广东技术师范学院天河学院 A kind of Double-wheel self-balancing vehicle

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