CN104457754B  SINS/LBL (strapdown inertial navigation systems/long base line) tight combination based AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) underwater navigation positioning method  Google Patents
SINS/LBL (strapdown inertial navigation systems/long base line) tight combination based AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) underwater navigation positioning method Download PDFInfo
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 CN104457754B CN104457754B CN201410796735.XA CN201410796735A CN104457754B CN 104457754 B CN104457754 B CN 104457754B CN 201410796735 A CN201410796735 A CN 201410796735A CN 104457754 B CN104457754 B CN 104457754B
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Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01C—MEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
 G01C21/00—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00
 G01C21/10—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration
 G01C21/12—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning
 G01C21/16—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation
 G01C21/165—Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00  G01C19/00 by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation combined with noninertial navigation instruments
Abstract
The invention provides an SINS/LBL (strapdown inertial navigation systems/long base line) tight combination based AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) underwater navigation positioning method. The SINS/LBL tight combination based AUV underwater navigation positioning method is characterized by comprising three major parts, namely an SINS mounted on an AUV, an LBL underwater sound positioning system laid on the seabed, and a data processing unit. The method comprises the following specific steps: firstly performing a strapdown algorithm on IMU (inertial measurement unit) data to obtain AUV position information, and representing the position information by using earth rectangular coordinates; secondly reckoning an SINS slantrange difference according to the AUV position information provided by the SINS and hydrophone array position coordinates; and thirdly establishing an LBL slantrange difference model according to LBL positioning characteristics, and correcting SINS navigation positioning information according to filter estimation compensation by taking the difference value between the SINS slantdistance difference and the LBL slantdistance difference as an observed quantity of a kalman filter. According to the SINS/LBL tight combination based AUV underwater navigation positioning method, the use of GPS and other radio positioning systems is avoided at the same, and the AUV underwater operation efficiency is improved.
Description
Technical field
The invention mainly relates to AUV underwater navigation technical fields, more particularly to a kind of AUV based on SINS/LBL tight integrations
Underwater navigation localization method, is particularly wellsuited to the track and localization of autonomous underwater vehicle AUV.
Background technology
AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) is that one kind can be completed under water
The underwater tool of the several functions such as detection, attack, delivery, salvaging, because its range of activity is wide, small volume, lightweight, disguised height
The features such as, become an important directions of military affairs marine technology research both at home and abroad.
AUV highprecision independent navigation under water and locating and tracking technology are the premises and key for completing its underwater performance.Existing
In some location technologies, SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems, strapdown inertial navigation system)
Because its have disguised strong, autonomy, antiinterference, data renewal frequency it is high, and the features such as there is degree of precision at short notice,
Thus become the firstselected localization method of AUV Camera calibrations under water.At present, although the development of strapdown inertial technology day
Become ripe, its navigation positioning error does not but change with this dynamic characteristic that time integral dissipates, in longrange, longterm navigation and force
The high accuracy such as device transmitting can't fully meet requirement when navigating.The solution for appearing as this problem of integrated navigation technology is provided
A kind of effective way.
LBL (Long Base Line, Long baselines) acoustic positioning system is for thousand of by the length of base installed in seabed
The transponder basic matrix of rice and the composition of the interrogator on carrier, its positioning principle is using the interrogator on carrier and seabed
The distance between transponder arrays information is solving AUV positions.LBL is widely used to because its sphere of action is wide, positioning precision is high
Underwater hidingmachine.
In recent years, the autonomous navigation technology under water of AUV is applied to mainly with SINS and DVL (Doppler Velocity
Log, Doppler anemometer) integrated navigation based on, (Global Positioning System, the whole world are fixed to be aided with water surface GPS
Position system) amendment.Good navigation accuracy is achieved in testing several times, but voyage is relatively short, for DVL, works as sonar
Sensor is very poor away from measuring speed precision during seabed, and when only pressing close to seabed to AUV, precision is preferable, and for GPS, AUV is needed
Interruption is moved under water, and climbs up on top of the water and could utilize GPS information, and this will waste substantial amounts of time and the energy in the case of deepsea, seriously
Affect the underwater performance efficiency of AUV.
The content of the invention
For the problem of existing AUV underwater navigations precision, the invention provides a kind of AUV based on SINS/LBL tight integrations
Underwater navigation localization method.
The purpose of the present invention can be achieved through the following technical solutions, specially：
(1) strapdown inertial navigation system SINS (1) is resolved by strapdown and is obtained leading including the positional information of AUV accordingly
Boat information, the positional information earth geodetic coordinates P of resolving_{SINS}(L_{S},λ_{S},h_{S}) represent, and by P_{SINS}(L_{S},λ_{S},h_{S}) it is converted into use
Earth rectangular coordinate P_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) represent；
(2) the SINS AUV positional information P that primitive is provided according to SINS with target oblique distance difference reckoning module (3) twobytwo_{SINS}
(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) and hydrophone array position P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) calculate SINS oblique distance difference ρ_{SINS}；
(3) SINS/LBL tight integrations module (4) sets up LBL according to the localization characteristics of long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL (2)
Oblique distance differential mode type, by SINS oblique distances difference ρ_{SINS}And oblique distances of LBL hydrophone i (i=1,2,3) and AUV between and hydrophone 0 with
Difference ρ of the oblique distance between AUV_{LBL}Difference be filtered to Kalman filter as external observation information input；
(4) correction module (5) is carried out to SINS (1) according to the Kalman filtered results of SINS/LBL tight integration modules (4)
Correction, finally gives accurate AUV positional informationes P_{AUV}。
The primitive method for calculating that module (3) calculating SINS oblique distances are poor poor with target oblique distance is as follows twobytwo for described SINS：
(1) according to hydrophone position P in long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) and SINS resolving AUV positions
P_{SINS}(x_{s},y_{s},z_{s}) it is calculated the oblique distance of (i=1,2,3) and AUV between hydrophone i and the oblique distance between hydrophone 0 and AUV
Difference
(2) by ρ_{SINSi}Using Taylor series linearisation.If AUV actual positions are P_{AUV}(x, y, z), (δ x, δ y, δ z) is
SINS resolves the error of AUV positions, then x_{S}=x+ δ x, y_{S}=y+ δ y, z_{S}=z+ δ z.By ρ_{SINSi}Taylor series expansion takes first two
：
If
In the same manner
Wherein,G_{ij}(i=0,1,2,3；J=x, y, z)
For known quantity, the general location P that can be resolved by SINS_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) and waterbed transponder arrays primitive position P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},
z_{i}) be calculated, due to the general location P that SINS is resolved_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) there may be larger error, so carrying out equation line
Property when omit higher order term and can cause linearity error, it is possible to use iterative method is resolved, i.e., after first time solution, use it as near
Recalculated like value again.
If：e_{ix}=G_{ix}G_{0x}, e_{iy}=G_{iy}G_{0y}, e_{iz}=G_{iz}G_{0z}, i=1,2,3
Then：
ρ_{SINSi}=R_{i}R_{0}+(G_{ix}G_{0x})δx+(G_{iy}G_{0y})δy+(G_{iz}G_{0z})δz
=R_{i}R_{0}+e_{ix}δx+e_{iy}δy+e_{iz}δz
Described SINS/LBL tight integration modules (4) to implement step as follows：
(1) LBL oblique distance differential mode types are set up
As time delay difference measurements, multipathway effect of acoustic propagation etc. will cause oblique distance difference measurements to have error, it is simplified model,
It is believed that oblique distance mistake difference is made up of constant value biasing and random noise, then LBL hydrophone i (i=1,2,3) with the oblique distance of AUV
It is represented by with difference of the hydrophone 0 with the oblique distance of AUV：
In formula, Δ R_{meas}For LBL hydrophone i (i=1,2, the 3) difference with the oblique distance of AUV and hydrophone 0 and the oblique distance of AUV,
Δ R is oblique distance difference true value, δ R=[δ R_{1} δR_{2} δR_{3}]^{T}For random constant value, ν_{δR}(t)～N (0, Q_{ΔR}) for white Gaussian noise.
(2) SINS/LBL tight integration state equations are set up
SINS/LBL tight integration state equations are described as：
Wherein：X_{SINS}For the state vector of SINS, X_{LBL}For the state vector of LBL, F_{SINS}For the transfer matrix of SINS, F_{LBL}
For the transfer matrix of LBL, W_{SINS}For the system noise vector of SINS, W_{LBL}For the system noise vector of LBL, F is tight integration system
Transfer matrix, X are tight integration system mode vector, and W is tight integration system noise vector.
According to error features during strapdown inertial navigation system longterm work, site error, velocity error, attitude is selected to miss
Difference, gyroscopic drift and accelerometer bias are used as quantity of state：
X_{SINS}=[δ V_{E} δV_{N} δV_{U} φ_{E} φ_{N} φ_{U} δL δL δh ▽_{bx} ▽_{by} ▽_{bz} ε_{bx} ε_{by} ε_{bz}]^{T}
In formula, δ V_{E}、δV_{N}、δV_{U}Be respectively strapdown east orientation, north orientation, day to velocity error,It is prompt respectively
Connection east orientation, north orientation, day to misalignment, δ L, δ λ, δ h are strapdown latitude, longitude, height error respectively, three site errors by
Terrestrial coordinate system is described, ▽_{bx}、▽_{by}、▽_{bz}It is biased error that strapdown adds three axial directions of table, ε_{bx}、ε_{by}、ε_{bz}It is Strapdown Gyro Using
Three are axially drifted about.
X_{LBL}=[δ R_{1} δR_{2} δR_{3}]^{T}
In formula, δ R_{1}、δR_{2}、δR_{3}The oblique distance of respectively LBL hydrophone i (i=1,2,3) and AUV is with hydrophone 0 with AUV's
The Random Constant Drift of the difference of oblique distance.
System noise acoustic matrix
W_{LBL}=[0 0 0]^{T}
Systematic state transfer matrix
In formula,
Wherein：F_{ij}For F_{9×9}Element
R_{N}For the radius of curvature of reference ellipsoid meridian plane Inner, R_{N}=R_{e}(12e+3e sin^{2} L)
R_{E}For the radius of curvature of vertical meridian plane Inner, R_{E}=R_{e}(1+e sin^{2} L)
Wherein：R_{e}For the major axis radius of reference ellipsoid；Ovalitys of the e for ellipsoid.
F_{37}=2 ω_{ie} cos LV_{E}
F_{57}=ω_{ie} sin L
C_{ij}For attitude transfer matrixElement
F_{LBL}=0_{3×3}
(3) SINS/LBL tight integration measurement equations are set up.
Tight integration system is using the hydrophone that SINS the is calculated difference poor with the oblique distance that LBL measurements are obtained with the oblique distance difference of AUV
As observed quantity.In tight integration system, if the oblique distance difference that LBL is measured is ρ_{LBLi}, the position of waterbed transponder arrays primitive is P
(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}), the AUV positions that SINS is measured are P_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}), the AUV positions P measured by SINS_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) and
The position of waterbed transponder arrays primitive is P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) determined by oblique distance difference be ρ_{SINSi}。
SINS oblique distances are poor：
ρ_{SINSi}=R_{i}R_{0}+(G_{ix}G_{0x})δx+(G_{iy}G_{0y})δy+(G_{iz}G_{0z})δz
=R_{i}R_{0}+e_{ix}δx+e_{iy}δy+e_{iz}δz
LBL oblique distances are poor
Then measure and can be write as
Then have：
When system adopts earth rectangular coordinate system (Ox_{e}y_{e}z_{e}) as navigational coordinate system when, can with above formula construct system measurements
Equation.It is that, with longitude and latitude and altitude location, therefore dx, dy, dz dl, d λ, dh are represented in practical application.
By
Measurement equation is Z_{3×1}=H_{3×18}X_{18×1}+V_{ΔR(3×1)}
In formula,
IfWherein a_{ij}(i=1,2,3；J=1,2,3 it is) matrix H_{1}Element
H_{1}Nonzero element is as follows:
a_{i1}=(R_{N}+h)sin L cos λe_{i1}(R_{N}+h)sin L sin λe_{i2}+[R_{N}(1e^{2})+h]e_{i3}
a_{i2}=(R_{N}+h)cos L sin λe_{i1}(R_{N}+h)cos L cos λe_{i2}
a_{i3}=cos L cos λ e_{i1}+cos L sin λe_{i2}+sin Le_{i3}(i=1,2,3)
Described correction module (5) enters to SINS (1) according to the Kalman filtered results of SINS/LBL tight integration modules (4)
Row correction, finally gives accurate AUV positional informationes P_{AUV}。
Compared with prior art, the invention has the advantages that：
(1) solve the problems, such as SINS systematic errors with time integral, it is ensured that AUV longterm autonomous navigator fixs under water
Precision, while avoid the use of GPS and other radio positioning systems, be that underwater performance saves time and energy consumption, improve
AUV underwater performance efficiency.
(2) present invention introduces SINS and LBL tight integrations, to inertial navigation system and sound system combination application
Research has certain meaning.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is SINS/LBL tight integration alignment system theory diagrams；
Fig. 2 is long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL schematic diagrams；
Fig. 3 is hydrophone node locating schematic diagram.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, further elucidate the present invention.
As shown in figure 1, the present invention is placed on the length in seabed by the strapdown inertial navigation system SINS (1) on AUV, cloth
Baseline acoustic positioning system LBL (2) and data processing unit three parts composition.Data processing unit includes SINS primitives twobytwo
With the poor computing module of AUV oblique distances (3), SINS/LBL tight integration modules (4) and correction module (5).By tight with LBL using SINS
The method of combination completes AUV independent navigations under water, implements step as follows：
(1) inertial measurement component (IMU) output data is resolved by strapdown and obtains AUV positional informationes, use earth ground
Coordinate P_{SINS}(L_{S},λ_{S},h_{S}) represent, and by P_{SINS}(L_{S},λ_{S},h_{S}) be converted into earth rectangular coordinate P_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) represent.
Described SINS (1) system includes IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit, Inertial Measurement Unit) element
And strapdown resolves module, for obtaining inertial data, strapdown resolves module is used to be resolved by strapdown, is navigated IMU elements
Information, including positional information P_{SINS}。
1) SINS attitude matrixs and attitude angle are calculated
Attitude matrix is calculated using Quaternion Method, according to Euler's theorem, orientation etc. of the moving coordinate system with respect to reference frame
Imitate and rotate an angle, θ around certain Equivalent Axis in moving coordinate system, if the unit vector in Equivalent Axis direction is represented with u,
The orientation of moving coordinate system is determined completely by two parameters of u and θ.
A quaternary number can be constructed with u and θ：
To above formula derivation, simultaneously abbreviation can obtain quaternion differential equation：
In formula
Quaternion differential equation is solved according to complete card approximatioss to obtain：
In formula
In formula
The spin velocity for making terrestrial coordinate system relative inertness coordinate system is ω_{ie}, (its value is 15.04088 °/h), L is represented
Local latitude, λ represent local longitude, then
ω_{ie} ^{n}：Vector of the spin velocity of terrestrial coordinate system relative inertness coordinate system in geographic coordinate system, be：
ω_{ie} ^{b}：Vector of the spin velocity of terrestrial coordinate system relative inertness coordinate system in carrier coordinate system, be：
Attitude matrix in formula is determined by initial angle in carrier stationary；When carrier is rotated relative to geographic coordinate system,
Attitude matrix and then changes, and tries to achieve (similarly hereinafter) after being corrected by quaternary number immediately.
ω_{en} ^{n}:Vector of the geographical coordinate with respect to terrestrial coordinate system rotational angular velocity in geographic coordinate system, be：
V_{E}、V_{N}The respectively east orientation and north orientation speed of carrier movement；
R_{N}For the radius of curvature in reference ellipsoid meridian plane, R_{N}=R_{e}(12e+3e sin^{2}L)；
R_{E}For the radius of curvature in the plane normal of vertical meridian plane, R_{E}=R_{e}(1+e sin^{2}L)；
Wherein R_{e}For the major axis radius of reference ellipsoid；Ovalitys of the e for ellipsoid.
And because,Then
ω_{en} ^{b}:Vector of the geographical coordinate with respect to terrestrial coordinate system rotational angular velocity in carrier coordinate system, be：
ω_{ib} ^{b}：Gyro output angle speed, is designated as
ω_{nb} ^{b}：Carrier coordinate system is designated as with respect to the vector of the rotational angular velocity in carrier coordinate system of geographic coordinate system
Can then obtain
ω_{nb} ^{b}=ω_{ib} ^{b}ω_{ie} ^{b}ω_{en} ^{b}
After quaternary number is corrected immediately, can be by first realtime update attitude matrix of quaternary number according to following formula
Realtime attitude angle is can extract from attitude battle array
2) SINS speed calculation
Ratio force vector in carrier coordinate system is f^{b}, then have in geographic coordinate system：
Direction cosine matrix in formulaIn carrier stationary, determined by initial angle；When the relative geographic coordinate system of carrier
During rotation, direction cosine matrixAnd then change, try to achieve after being corrected by quaternary number immediately.
Specific force equation of the carrier in inertial navigation system be：
Being write as component form has：
In formula：f^{n}For the projection that carrier acceleration is fastened in navigation coordinate, f^{n}=[f_{E} f_{N} f_{U}]^{T}；V^{n}Represent that hull is being led
Velocity in boat coordinate system, V^{n}=[V_{E} V_{N} V_{U}]^{T}；g^{n}For gravity acceleration, g^{n}=[0 0g]^{T}。
Integration above formula, you can try to achieve each velocity component V that carrier is fastened in navigation coordinate_{E}、V_{N}、V_{U}。
3) position calculation
The differential equation for obtaining longitude and latitude height can be expressed as follows：
In formula, h is height.
The more new formula of the longitude and latitude height of integration above formula can obtain longitude and latitude and height：
Then obtain position P (λ, L, h).
4) by the AUV for 3) obtaining earth rectangular coordinate system coordinate P_{SINS}(L_{S},λ_{S},h_{S}) which is converted in earth ground
The coordinate P of coordinate system_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S})。
Can be by formula
Obtain P_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S})。
In formula:R_{N}For the radius of curvature of reference ellipsoid meridian plane Inner, R_{N}=R_{e}(12e+3e sin^{2} L)
R_{E}For the radius of curvature of vertical meridian plane Inner, R_{E}=R_{e}(1+e sin^{2} L)
Wherein：R_{e}For the major axis radius of reference ellipsoid；Ovalitys of the e for ellipsoid.
(2) primitive is calculated SINS with target oblique distance difference twobytwo
1) the AUV positions P resolved according to SINS_{SINS}(x_{s},y_{s},z_{s}) and long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL in hydrophone base
First position P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) be calculated between oblique distance and hydrophone 0 and AUV of the hydrophone i (i=1,2,3) and AUV between
The difference of oblique distance
Described long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL (2) four positions in seabed are placed on by cloth known to hydrophone constitute,
As shown in Fig. 2 the distance between each hydrophone is 4km.As shown in figure 3, lash ship is utilized, using ultra short base line to hydrophone
It is accurately positioned, is calculated accurate coordinates value.GPS, IMU and compass are installed on lash ship, lash ship bottom is provided with transducer array.
Relative position of each hydrophone under transducer array coordinate is calculated according to ultra short base line, with reference to lash ship GPS location,
The factor such as lash ship attitude and each alignment error can calculate absolute position of each hydrophone node under terrestrial coordinates.
2) by ρ_{SINSi}Using Taylor series linearisation.If AUV actual positions are P_{AUV}(x, y, z), (δ x, δ y, δ z) are SINS
The error of AUV positions is resolved, then x_{S}=x+ δ x, y_{S}=y+ δ y, z_{S}=z+ δ z.By ρ_{SINSi}Taylor series expansion takes first two and obtains：
If
In the same manner
Wherein,G_{ij}(i=0,1,2,3；J=x, y, z)
For known quantity, the general location P that can be resolved by SINS_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) and waterbed transponder arrays primitive position P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},
z_{i}) be calculated, due to the general location P that SINS is resolved_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) there may be larger error, so carrying out equation line
Property when omit higher order term and can cause linearity error, it is possible to use iterative method is resolved, i.e., after first time solution, use it as near
Recalculated like value again.
If：e_{ix}=G_{ix}G_{0x}, e_{iy}=G_{iy}G_{0y}, e_{iz}=G_{iz}G_{0z}, i=1,2,3
Then：
ρ_{SINSi}=R_{i}R_{0}+(G_{ix}G_{0x})δx+(G_{iy}G_{0y})δy+(G_{iz}G_{0z})δz
=R_{i}R_{0}+e_{ix}δx+e_{iy}δy+e_{iz}δz
(3) SINS/LBL tight integrations
1) LBL oblique distance differential mode types are set up
As time delay difference measurements, multipathway effect of acoustic propagation etc. will cause oblique distance difference measurements to have error, it is simplified model,
It is believed that oblique distance mistake difference is made up of constant value biasing and random noise, then LBL hydrophone i (i=1,2,3) with the oblique distance of AUV
It is represented by with difference of the hydrophone 0 with the oblique distance of AUV：
In formula, Δ R_{meas}For LBL hydrophone i (i=1,2, the 3) difference with the oblique distance of AUV and hydrophone 0 and the oblique distance of AUV,
Δ R is oblique distance difference true value, δ R=[δ R_{1} δR_{2} δR_{3}]^{T}For random constant value, ν_{δR}(t)～N (0, Q_{ΔR}) for white Gaussian noise.
2) SINS/LBL tight integration state equations are set up
SINS/LBL tight integration state equations are described as：
Wherein：X_{SINS}For the state vector of SINS, X_{LBL}For the state vector of LBL, F_{SINS}For the transfer matrix of SINS, F_{LBL}
For the transfer matrix of LBL, W_{SINS}For the system noise vector of SINS, W_{LBL}For the system noise vector of LBL, F is tight integration system
Transfer matrix, X are tight integration system mode vector, and W is tight integration system noise vector.
According to error features during strapdown inertial navigation system longterm work, site error, velocity error, attitude is selected to miss
Difference, gyroscopic drift and accelerometer bias are used as quantity of state：
X_{SINS}=[δ V_{E} δV_{N} δV_{U} φ_{E} φ_{N} φ_{U} δL δL δh ▽_{bx} ▽_{by} ▽_{bz} ε_{bx} ε_{by} ε_{bz}]^{T}
In formula, δ V_{E}、δV_{N}、δV_{U}Be respectively strapdown east orientation, north orientation, day to velocity error,It is prompt respectively
Connection east orientation, north orientation, day to misalignment, δ L, δ λ, δ h are strapdown latitude, longitude, height error respectively, three site errors by
Terrestrial coordinate system is described, ▽_{bx}、▽_{by}、▽_{bz}It is biased error that strapdown adds three axial directions of table, ε_{bx}、ε_{by}、ε_{bz}It is Strapdown Gyro Using
Three are axially drifted about.
X_{LBL}=[δ R_{1} δR_{2} δR_{3}]^{T}
In formula, δ R_{1}、δR_{2}、δR_{3}The oblique distance of respectively LBL hydrophone i (i=1,2,3) and AUV is with hydrophone 0 with AUV's
The random constant error of the difference of oblique distance.
System noise acoustic matrix
W_{LBL}=[0 0 0]^{T}
Systematic state transfer matrix
In formula,
Wherein：F_{ij}For F_{9×9}Element,
R_{N}For the radius of curvature of reference ellipsoid meridian plane Inner, R_{N}=R_{e}(12e+3e sin^{2} L)
R_{E}For the radius of curvature of vertical meridian plane Inner, R_{E}=R_{e}(1+e sin^{2} L)
Wherein：R_{e}For the major axis radius of reference ellipsoid；Ovalitys of the e for ellipsoid.
F_{37}=2 ω_{ie} cos LV_{E}
F_{57}=ω_{ie} sin L
C_{ij}For attitude transfer matrixElement
F_{LBL}=0_{3×3}
3) SINS/LBL tight integration measurement equations are set up
Tight integration system is using the hydrophone that SINS the is calculated difference poor with the oblique distance that LBL measurements are obtained with the oblique distance difference of AUV
As observed quantity.In tight integration system, if the oblique distance difference that LBL is measured is ρ_{LBLi}, the position of waterbed transponder arrays primitive is P
(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}), the AUV positions that SINS is measured are P_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}), the AUV positions P measured by SINS_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) and
The position of waterbed transponder arrays primitive is P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) determined by oblique distance difference be ρ_{SINSi}。
SINS oblique distances are poor：
LBL oblique distances are poor
Then measure and can be write as
Then have：
When system adopts earth rectangular coordinate system (Ox_{e}y_{e}z_{e}) as navigational coordinate system when, can with above formula construct system measurements
Equation.It is that, with longitude and latitude and altitude location, therefore dx, dy, dz dl, d λ, dh are represented in practical application.
By
Measurement equation is Z_{3×1}=H_{3×18}X_{18×1}+V_{ΔR(3×1)}
In formula,
Wherein a_{ij}(i=1,2,3；J=1,2,3 it is) matrix H_{1}Element
H_{1}Nonzero element is as follows:
a_{i1}=(R_{N}+h)sin L cos λe_{i1}(R_{N}+h)sin L sin λe_{i2}+[R_{N}(1e^{2})+h]e_{i3}
a_{i2}=(R_{N}+h)cos L sin λe_{i1}(R_{N}+h)cos L cos λe_{i2}
a_{i3}=cos L cos λ e_{i1}+cos L sin λe_{i2}+sin Le_{i3}(i=1,2,3)
4) discretization of system state equation and measurement equation
X_{k}=φ_{k,k1}X_{k1}+Γ_{k1}W_{k1}
Z_{k}=H_{k}X_{k}+V_{k}
In formula, X_{k}For the state vector at k moment, that is, it is estimated vector；Z_{k}For the measurement sequence at k moment；W_{k1}For k1
The system noise at moment；V_{k}For the measurement noise sequence at k moment；Φ_{k,k1}For the step state transfer square at k1 moment to k moment
Battle array；Γ_{k1}It is system noise input matrix, H_{k}For the calculation matrix at k moment,
The optimal estimation of state is calculated using standard Kalman filtering equations：
State onestep prediction vector
X_{k/k1}=φ_{k,k1}X_{k1}
State Estimation is calculated
X_{k}=X_{k/k1}+K_{k}(Z_{k}H_{k}X_{k/k1})
Filtering gain
K_{k}=P_{k/k1}H_{k} ^{T}(H_{k}P_{k/k1}H_{k} ^{T}+R_{k})^{1}
Onestep prediction mean square error matrix
Estimate mean square error equation
(4) correct
According to the state estimation that filtering is obtained, it is corrected by following methods.
1) speed and position correction
Before filtering next time, the speed and position that each strapdown resolving is obtained is corrected by following formula：
2) inertia type instrument output calibration
Before filtering next time, the inertia type instrument output required when resolving of each strapdown is being corrected by following formula using front：
3) attitude matrix, the correction of quaternary number
Attitude updating：Before filtering next time, each strapdown is resolved obtain as the following formulaBe corrected.
Quaternary number is corrected：Because strapdown is resolved and uses Quaternion Algorithm, changed using quaternary number in algorithm
What in generation, updated, it is all also to need to be corrected quaternary number.Quaternary number can be by the attitude matrix for updatingIt is converted to.
Claims (1)
1. a kind of AUV underwater navigation localization methods based on SINS/LBL tight integrations, it is characterised in that：Navigation positioning system used
By the strapdown inertial navigation system SINS (1) on the AUV, cloth be placed on seabed long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL (2) and
Data processing unit is constituted, wherein, described strapdown inertial navigation system SINS (1) is including strapdown resolves module, described length
Baseline acoustic positioning system LBL (2) four positions in seabed are placed on by cloth known to hydrophone array constitute, at described data
Reason unit includes that primitive calculates module (3), SINS/LBL tight integration modules (4) and correction module with AUV oblique distances difference to SINS twobytwo
(5) integrated navigation is completed using SINS/LBL tight integration methods, methods described is realized through the following steps：
(1) strapdown inertial navigation system SINS (1) resolves the navigation letter for obtaining positional information accordingly including AUV by strapdown
Breath, the positional information earth geodetic coordinates P of resolving_{SINS}(L_{S},λ_{S},h_{S}) represent, and by P_{SINS}(L_{S},λ_{S},h_{S}) be converted into and use the earth
Rectangular coordinate P_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) represent；
(2) the SINS AUV positional information P that primitive is provided according to SINS with AUV oblique distances difference reckoning module (3) twobytwo_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},
z_{S}) and hydrophone array position P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) calculate SINS oblique distance difference ρ_{SINS}；
(3) SINS/LBL tight integrations module (4) sets up LBL oblique distances according to the localization characteristics of long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL (2)
Differential mode type, by SINS oblique distances difference ρ_{SINS}And the oblique distance and the oblique distance between hydrophone 0 and AUV between LBL hydrophone i and AUV it
Difference ρ_{LBL}Difference be filtered to Kalman filter as external observation information input, wherein, i=1,2,3；
(4) correction module (5) is corrected to SINS (1) according to the Kalman filtered results of SINS/LBL tight integration modules (4),
Finally give accurate AUV positional informationes P_{AUV}；With AUV oblique distances difference, primitive calculates that module (3) calculating SINS oblique distances are poor to SINS twobytwo
Method it is as follows：
(1) the AUV positions P resolved according to SINS_{SINS}(x_{s},y_{s},z_{s}) and long baseline acoustic positioning system LBL in hydrophone primitive position
Put P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) oblique distance that is calculated between hydrophone i and AUV and the oblique distance between hydrophone 0 and AUV differenceWherein, i=1,2,
3；
(2) by ρ_{SINSi}Using Taylor series linearisation, if AUV actual positions are P_{AUV}(x, y, z), (δ x, δ y, δ z) are solved for SINS
The error of AUV positions is calculated, then x_{S}=x+ δ x, y_{S}=y+ δ y, z_{S}=z+ δ z；By ρ_{SINSi}Taylor series expansion takes first two and obtains：
If
In the same manner
Wherein,G_{ij}For known quantity, i=
0,1,2,3, j=x, y, z, the general location P that can be resolved by SINS_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) and waterbed transponder arrays primitive position P_{i}
(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) be calculated, due to the general location P that SINS is resolved_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) there may be larger error, so entering
Higher order term is omitted during row equation linearisation and can cause linearity error, resolved using iterative method, i.e., after first time solution, made with it
Recalculated for approximation again；
If：e_{ix}=G_{ix}G_{0x}, e_{iy}=G_{iy}G_{0y}, e_{iz}=G_{iz}G_{0z}, i=1,2,3
Then：
The SINS/LBL tight integrations module (4) to implement step as follows：
(1) LBL oblique distance differential mode types are set up；As time delay difference measurements, multipathway effect of acoustic propagation etc. will cause oblique distance difference measurements
There is error, be simplified model, it is believed that oblique distance mistake difference is made up of constant value biasing and random noise, then LBL hydrophone i and AUV
Difference of the oblique distance with hydrophone 0 with the oblique distance of AUV be represented by：
In formula, Δ R_{meas}For the oblique distance and hydrophone 0 and the difference of the oblique distance of AUV of LBL hydrophone i and AUV, Δ R is that oblique distance difference is true
Value, δ R=[δ R_{1} δR_{2} δR_{3}]^{T}For random constant value, v_{ΔR}～N (0, Q_{ΔR}) for white Gaussian noise, i=1,2,3；
(2) SINS/LBL tight integration state equations are set up；
SINS/LBL tight integration state equations are described as：
Wherein：X_{SINS}For the state vector of SINS, X_{LBL}For the state vector of LBL, F_{SINS}For the transfer matrix of SINS, F_{LBL}For LBL
Transfer matrix, W_{SINS}For the system noise vector of SINS, W_{LBL}System noise for LBL is vectorial, and F is that tight integration system is shifted
Matrix, X are tight integration system mode vector, and W is tight integration system noise vector；According to strapdown inertial navigation system longterm work
When error features, select site error, velocity error, attitude error, gyroscopic drift and accelerometer bias as quantity of state：
In formula, δ V_{E}、δV_{N}、δV_{U}Be respectively strapdown east orientation, north orientation, day to velocity error,It is strapdown east respectively
To, north orientation, day to misalignment, δ L, δ λ, δ h are strapdown latitude, longitude, height error respectively, and three site errors are by the earth
Coordinate system is described,It is biased error that strapdown adds three axial directions of table, ε_{bx}、ε_{by}、ε_{bz}It is three of Strapdown Gyro Using
Axially drift about；
X_{LBL}=[δ R_{1} δR_{2} δR_{3}]^{T}
In formula, δ R_{1}、δR_{2}、δR_{3}The respectively oblique distance of LBL hydrophone i and AUV is random with the difference of the oblique distance of AUV with hydrophone 0
Constant value drift, wherein, i=1,2,3；System noise acoustic matrix
W_{LBL}=[0 0 0]^{T}
Systematic state transfer matrix
In formula,
Wherein：F_{ij}For F_{9×9}Element
R_{N}For the radius of curvature of reference ellipsoid meridian plane Inner, R_{N}=R_{e}(12e+3esin^{2}L)
R_{E}For the radius of curvature of vertical meridian plane Inner, R_{E}=R_{e}(1+esin^{2}L)
Wherein：R_{e}For the major axis radius of reference ellipsoid；Ovalitys of the e for ellipsoid, L is local latitude；
F_{37}=2 ω_{ie} cosLV_{E}
F_{57}=ω_{ie} sinL
C_{ij}For attitude transfer matrixElement
F_{LBL}=0_{3×3}；
(3) SINS/LBL tight integration measurement equations are set up；
Tight integration system is using the hydrophone that SINS the is calculated difference conduct poor with the oblique distance that LBL measurements are obtained with the oblique distance difference of AUV
Observed quantity；In tight integration system, if the oblique distance difference that LBL is measured is ρ_{LBLi}, the position of waterbed transponder arrays primitive is P_{i}(x_{i},
y_{i},z_{i}), the AUV positions that SINS is measured are P_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}), the AUV positions P measured by SINS_{SINS}(x_{S},y_{S},z_{S}) and it is waterbed
The position of transponder arrays primitive is P_{i}(x_{i},y_{i},z_{i}) determined by oblique distance difference be ρ_{SINSi}；
SINS oblique distances are poor
ρ_{SINSi}=R_{i}R_{0}+(G_{ix}G_{0x})δx+(G_{iy}G_{0y})δy+(G_{iz}G_{0z})δz
=R_{i}R_{0}+e_{ix}δx+e_{iy}δy+e_{iz}δz
LBL oblique distances are poor
Then measure and can be write as
Then have：
When system adopts earth rectangular coordinate system (Ox_{e}y_{e}z_{e}) as navigational coordinate system when, with above formula construct system measurements equation；
It is that, with longitude and latitude and altitude location, therefore dx, dy, dz dl, d λ, dh are represented in practical application；
By
Measurement equation is Z_{3×1}=H_{3×18}X_{18×1}+V_{ΔR(3×1)}
In formula,
IfWherein a_{ij}For matrix H_{1}Element, i=1,2,3；J=1,2,3；
H_{1}Nonzero element is as follows:
a_{i1}=(R_{N}+h)sin L cosλe_{1x}(R_{N}+h)sin L sinλe_{1y}+[R_{N}(1e^{2})+h]cos Le_{1z}
a_{i2}=(R_{N}+h)cos L sinλe_{2x}(R_{N}+h)cos L cosλe_{2y}
a_{i3}=cos L cos λ e_{3x}+cos L sinλe_{3y}+sin Le_{3z}I=1,2,3.
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