CN104316760A - Dominant frequency signal decision circuit and decision method for microwave frequency counter - Google Patents

Dominant frequency signal decision circuit and decision method for microwave frequency counter Download PDF

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CN104316760A
CN104316760A CN201410554440.1A CN201410554440A CN104316760A CN 104316760 A CN104316760 A CN 104316760A CN 201410554440 A CN201410554440 A CN 201410554440A CN 104316760 A CN104316760 A CN 104316760A
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frequency
signal
voltage
unit
control voltage
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CN104316760B (en
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凌伟
蒙海瑛
杜念文
张士峰
白轶荣
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CETC 41 Institute
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Abstract

The invention discloses a dominant frequency signal decision circuit and decision method for a microwave frequency counter. The dominant frequency signal decision circuit for the microwave frequency counter comprises a frequency mixer, a local oscillation unit, a band-pass filter, a voltage controlled attenuator, a power comparison unit, a digital-to-analogue conversion unit, a CPU unit and a counting unit. The local oscillation unit provides a frequency mixing local oscillation signal for a frequency meter, and the frequency mixer mixes the measured signal with the local oscillation signal to obtain an intermediate-frequency signal; the band-pass filter filters the intermediate-frequency signal output by the frequency mixer; the voltage controlled attenuator attenuates the power of the intermediate-frequency signal output from the band-pass filter, and the attenuation amplitude is linear to control voltage; the power comparison unit detects the peak of the intermediate-frequency signal input from the voltage controlled attenuator to obtain a peak voltage, samples and holds the peak voltage, compares the sampled and held voltage with a comparison voltage to obtain a control voltage and enables the control voltage to act on the voltage controlled attenuator to attenuate the input intermediate-frequency signal.

Description

A kind of dominant frequency signal determinating circuit and decision method being applied to microwave frequency counter
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of measurement and test, particularly a kind of dominant frequency signal determinating circuit being applied to microwave frequency counter, also relate to a kind of dominant frequency signal determining method being applied to microwave frequency counter.
Background technology
Along with the development of modern electronic technology, in the field such as information communication and military radar, the microwave frequency that people utilize, towards more high band development, can reach the frequency range that Terahertz is even higher.The mode that real world applications high frequency signal mostly is the additional spread spectrum module of main frame obtains, and main frame produces fundamental signal, can produce the high order frequency signal of first-harmonic after spread spectrum module.Inevitably comprise in the actual high-frequency signal obtained and reveal fundamental signal, the higher hamonic wave signal (non-dominant frequency signal) of fundamental signal and other intermodulation signals of coming by spread spectrum module.In this large bandwidth, the phenomenon of multi-frequency signal coexistence brings difficulty to common frequency measurement technology, because natively comprise multiple harmonic signal and the intermodulation signal of dominant frequency signal in signal, microwave frequency counter cannot judge which signal is dominant frequency signal, exist with regard to decision signal after often recording first signal and complete measurement, and can not the maximum dominant frequency signal of measuring amplitude, cause measuring error.
Existing solution adopts pre-frequency-selecting technology and power detection techniques to judge dominant frequency signal.Its composition as shown in Figure 1.The program is primarily of pre-frequency-selecting unit, frequency mixer, local oscillator unit, power detecting unit, counting unit, CPU element six unit compositions.
Before pre-frequency-selecting unit is positioned at the high band frequency mixer of frequency meter, by suppressing the harmonic wave of input signal, border frequently and other spurious signals, improve frequency meter to the selectivity of input signal.Pre-frequency-selecting unit is made up of YIG electrically tunable filter (i.e. YTF) usually, and it is by the control of YTF driving circuit, its center frequency points of change that can be linear.
The function of frequency mixer realizes frequency transformation, and the radiofrequency signal of upper frequency is transformed into easy to handle low intermediate frequency signal by nonlinear device.It has two input ports, an output port, and wherein Fx is input measured signal, and Lo is input local oscillation signal, and IF is for exporting intermediate-freuqncy signal, and its computing formula is Fx=N × Lo ± IF, and N is overtone order, is determined by the characteristic of frequency mixer.
Local oscillator unit produces radiofrequency signal for mixing under harmonic wave, is usually made up of YTO, VCO or comb spectrum generator.The center frequency points that local frequency value and pre-frequency-selecting unit set meets the computing formula of frequency mixer.
The effect of counting unit carries out filtering, amplification, shaping and counting to intermediate-freuqncy signal under the control of CPU element.
Power detecting unit is made up of power-sensing circuit and analog to digital converter, and its effect is that the relative amplitude of the intermediate-freuqncy signal of self-mixing device is in the future converted to digital signal, and is sent in CPU element.
CPU element controls the normal operation of all unit in system, comprises the center frequency points, the local oscillator element output signal frequency that arrange pre-frequency-selecting unit; Control counting unit and carry out counting process; Receive the relative amplitude data from power detecting unit.
The job step of the program is:
The first step: system starts to be measured, and CPU element arranges center frequency points and the local oscillator unit output frequency of pre-frequency-selecting units tune wave filter, and system starts scanning.When back-end circuit detects intermediate-freuqncy signal, power detecting unit can the intermediate-freuqncy signal power conversion of in the future self-mixing device be the relative power value of digital quantity, and this relative power value and IF-FRE and local frequency is all stored in CPU element.
Second step: after completing storage, CPU element continues the pre-frequency-selecting unit of control and local oscillator unit scans according to certain frequency stepping, when intermediate-freuqncy signal being detected again, then record the relative power value of this intermediate-freuqncy signal and IF-FRE value and local frequency value again.If intermediate-freuqncy signal do not detected, scanning will be proceeded, until complete the scanning of full frequency band.
3rd step: after completing full band scan, the relative power value of the intermediate-freuqncy signal that CPU element can occur in the more whole scan period, maximum one of relative power value is dominant frequency signal.Then CPU element according to the data stored, can reset center frequency points and the local frequency point of pre-frequency-selecting unit, and starts counting unit, measures the frequency values of dominant frequency signal.
Shortcoming based on the dominant frequency signal deteching circuit of pre-frequency-selecting technology and power detection techniques is:
1, pre-frequency-selecting technology is formed primarily of YIG tuned filter (i.e. YTF), it is tuning is subject to the factors such as non-linear, hysteresis effect, temperature drift affects, and the combined action of these factors makes YTF be difficult in the frequency range of large bandwidth, realize the pre-frequency-selecting to input signal.Therefore engineering needs usually to carry out control treatment to it, the comparatively accurate Linear Driving of YTF is realized by the method for driving data refinement, the temperature data being gathered YTF cavity by temperature sensor carries out real-time temperature compensation, is effectively overcome the impact of the hysteresis effect of YTF by design degaussing circuit.YTF to be made in a word normally to work, need the complicated compensating circuit of design could meet the requirement of system.
2, YIG tuned filter (i.e. YTF) is subject to the restriction such as manufacturing process, material, it is very high that its frequency range is difficult to do, coaxial product is up to 50GHz at present, Waveguide Product is up to 75GHz, so its range of application is difficult to again toward high-frequency band expansion, even if very high frequency range can be accomplished in the future, be subject to the impact of the factors such as non-linear, warm drift, hysteresis effect, its control and compensation circuit will become more complicated, and cost can become higher.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the problem, the present invention devises a kind of the dominant frequency signal determinating circuit and the decision method that are applied to microwave frequency counter, the amplitude magnitude relationship of dominant frequency signal, harmonic signal and intermodulation signal can be judged, and then can judge that the maximum signal of amplitude is dominant frequency signal, then can be processed dominant frequency signal by rear end counting circuit unit, measure the frequency of dominant frequency signal.
Technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that
Be applied to a dominant frequency signal determinating circuit for microwave frequency counter, comprise: frequency mixer, local oscillator unit, bandpass filter, voltage controlled attenuator, power comparison module, D/A conversion unit, CPU element and counting unit;
Local oscillator unit provides the local oscillation signal of mixing for frequency meter, and local oscillation signal drives frequency mixer to carry out down-converted to high-frequency signal, and measured signal and local oscillation signal are carried out mixing and obtained intermediate-freuqncy signal by frequency mixer;
Bandpass filter carries out filtering to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that frequency mixer exports;
Voltage controlled attenuator carries out power attenuation to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that bandpass filter exports, attenuation amplitude and control voltage linear;
The detecting circuit of power comparison module carries out peak detection to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that voltage controlled attenuator inputs, obtain crest voltage, sampling hold circuit carries out sampling to crest voltage and keeps, sampling keeps voltage and comparative voltage to compare by comparator circuit, obtain control voltage, described control voltage is applied to voltage controlled attenuator, power attenuation is carried out to input intermediate-freuqncy signal;
AD conversion unit receives from the control voltage of power comparison module, control voltage is carried out amplifying, analog to digital conversion, after level translation, the control voltage of digital quantization is transferred to CPU element;
The intermediate-freuqncy signal of counting unit received power comparing unit input, is transferred to FPGA after carrying out shaping, filtering, amplification, level conversion, carries out counting frequency measurement at FPGA to intermediate-freuqncy signal;
CPU element controls the signal that local oscillator unit exports different frequency, controls counting unit and carries out counting process; Receive the digital signal from AD conversion unit; Control system and extraneous interface arrange and system shows.
Alternatively, described voltage controlled attenuator is one-level attenuating structure.
Alternatively, described voltage controlled attenuator is the structure of two-stage or three grades of decay series connection.
Based on foregoing circuit, present invention also offers a kind of dominant frequency signal determining method being applied to microwave frequency counter, comprise the following steps:
The first step: system starts to be measured, local oscillator unit is frequency step scanning from comparatively low-frequency range, when back-end circuit detects intermediate-freuqncy signal, namely local oscillation signal is adjusted, complete a count measurement, record the control voltage value of frequency values and correspondence thereof, by AD conversion unit, control voltage value is converted into digital signal, and passes data back CPU element;
Second step: after completing one-shot measurement, local oscillator unit continues scanning according to certain frequency stepping, searches the local frequency of intermediate-freuqncy signal then record controls magnitude of voltage and correspondence again, otherwise will proceed to scan, until complete the scanning of full frequency band;
3rd step: after completing full band scan, the data of the control voltage value of all intermediate-freuqncy signals from AD conversion unit that CPU element analysis receives, judge that control voltage is worth maximum signal and is dominant frequency signal, reset the local frequency that dominant frequency signal is corresponding, again produce intermediate-freuqncy signal, start counting unit, complete count measurement, the frequency of display dominant frequency signal.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
(1) directly utilize local oscillator to carry out frequency sweep to full frequency band, simplify the circuit of front-end processing, avoid the technical barrier such as control, compensation using pre-frequency-selecting technology to bring, reduce technical difficulty, provide cost savings.
(2) directly utilize local oscillation signal to drive frequency mixer to carry out down-converted to high-frequency signal, can process high-frequency signal, and be subject to the restriction of preliminary election bandwidth based on the dominant frequency signal determining method of pre-frequency-selecting technology, it processes the limited in one's ability of high-frequency signal.
(3) the present invention devises the fixed amplitude circuit being made up of closed loop voltage controlled attenuator, power comparison module, by the power blockage of intermediate-freuqncy signal in default performance number, both rear end counting unit process intermediate-freuqncy signal had been facilitated, control voltage value can be used for again weighing input signal power size, control voltage is worth maximum signal can be judged to be dominant frequency signal, eliminate power-sensing circuit like this, simplify design, provide cost savings.
Accompanying drawing explanation
In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, be briefly described to the accompanying drawing used required in embodiment or description of the prior art below, apparently, accompanying drawing in the following describes is only some embodiments of the present invention, for those of ordinary skill in the art, under the prerequisite not paying creative work, other accompanying drawing can also be obtained according to these accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is the theory diagram of the existing dominant frequency signal deteching circuit based on pre-frequency-selecting technology and power detection techniques;
Fig. 2 is the theory diagram that the present invention is applied to the dominant frequency signal determinating circuit of microwave frequency counter;
Fig. 3 is the theory diagram of power comparison module of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the process flow diagram that the present invention is applied to the dominant frequency signal determining method of microwave frequency counter.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, be clearly and completely described the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention, obviously, described embodiment is only the present invention's part embodiment, instead of whole embodiments.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art, not making the every other embodiment obtained under creative work prerequisite, belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
The present invention devises a kind of microwave frequency counter dominant frequency signal determinating circuit, dominant frequency signal in microwave frequency counter Measurement bandwidth can be judged, can be weighed the relative power size of all signals in Measurement bandwidth by power comparator circuit, the maximum signal of relative power is dominant frequency signal.
As shown in Figure 2, the dominant frequency signal determinating circuit being applied to microwave frequency counter of the present invention comprises: frequency mixer, local oscillator unit, bandpass filter, voltage controlled attenuator, power comparison module, D/A conversion unit, CPU element and counting unit.
Measured signal and local oscillation signal are carried out mixing and are obtained intermediate-freuqncy signal by frequency mixer.Because rear end counting unit is subject to the restriction of Measurement bandwidth, directly can not measure high-frequency signal, so need high-frequency signal to carry out frequency translation, so that counting unit is measured by the mode of mixing.
According to the design concept of frequency mixer, measured signal odd harmonic that is usual and local oscillator carries out mixing, as 1,3,5,7 subharmonic of local oscillation signal, the frequency of such measured signal can be expressed as: Fx=N × Lo ± IF, in formula, Fx is by measured frequency, and Lo is local frequency, and IF is intermediate-freuqncy signal, N is the overtone order of local oscillator, and N is given by frequency mixer characteristic.
Local oscillator unit provides the local oscillation signal of mixing for frequency meter, requires to have less frequency resolution and meets the driving power that frequency mixer requires, be used for driving frequency mixer.The present invention directly utilizes local oscillator unit to carry out frequency sweep to full frequency band, simplifies the circuit of front-end processing, avoids the technical barrier such as control, compensation using pre-frequency-selecting technology to bring, reduces technical difficulty, provide cost savings; And local oscillation signal drives frequency mixer to carry out down-converted to high-frequency signal, can process high-frequency signal, and is subject to the restriction of preliminary election bandwidth based on the dominant frequency signal determining method of pre-frequency-selecting technology, and it processes the limited in one's ability of high-frequency signal.
Bandpass filter carries out filtering to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that frequency mixer exports, because rear end counting unit is subject to the restriction of Measurement bandwidth, so intermediate-freuqncy signal system could must be measured it within the scope of certain frequency.The filter action of bandpass filter in Fig. 2, the intermediate-freuqncy signal that frequency mixer exports only could trigger CPU element in certain frequency power bracket, and then flip-flop number unit carries out counting frequency measurement.
Voltage controlled attenuator adopt be integrated chip, its to bandpass filter export intermediate-freuqncy signal carry out power attenuation, attenuation amplitude and control voltage linear.In order to meet the sensitivity requirement of system, this voltage controlled attenuator has the feature of high attenuation scope, if one-level decay can not meet system requirements, the mode of two-stage or three grades of decay series connection can be adopted to provide large attenuation range.
Power comparison module is core cell of the present invention, the control block diagram of power comparison module as shown in Figure 3, first detecting circuit carries out peak detection to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that voltage controlled attenuator inputs, obtain crest voltage, then sampling hold circuit carries out sampling maintenance to crest voltage, and sampling keeps voltage and comparative voltage to compare by comparator circuit, just can obtain a control voltage, this control voltage is applied to voltage controlled attenuator, power attenuation is carried out to input intermediate-freuqncy signal.
Voltage controlled oscillator and power comparison module form a closed-loop system, no matter input signal power size, after this closed-loop system, the power of intermediate-freuqncy signal is all locked in constant power value, high-power like this signal attenuation is large, and its control voltage value is large, and the little signal attenuation of power is little, its control voltage value is little, so can using the reference point of control voltage value as gauge signal watt level.
The fixed amplitude circuit of closed loop is made up of voltage controlled attenuator, power comparison module, by the power blockage of intermediate-freuqncy signal in default performance number, both rear end counting unit process intermediate-freuqncy signal had been facilitated, control voltage value can be used for again weighing input signal power size, control voltage is worth maximum signal can be judged to be dominant frequency signal, eliminate power-sensing circuit like this, simplify design, provide cost savings.
AD conversion unit is formed primarily of the analog to digital converter of 12 or 16, and it receives the control voltage from power comparison module, control voltage is carried out amplifying, analog to digital conversion, after level translation, the control voltage of digital quantization is transferred to CPU module.
Counting unit comprises FPGA circuit, and the effect of counting unit is receiving intermediate frequency signal, is transferred to FPGA, inside FPGA, carries out counting frequency measurement to intermediate-freuqncy signal after carrying out shaping, filtering, amplification, level conversion.
CPU element controls the operation of whole system, comprises and controls local oscillator module exports different frequency signal according to design proposal; Control counting unit and carry out counting process; Receive the digital signal from AD conversion unit; Control system and extraneous interface are arranged and system display etc.
Based on above-mentioned decision circuit, present invention also offers a kind of dominant frequency signal determining method being applied to microwave frequency counter, as shown in Figure 4, job step is:
The first step: system starts to be measured, local oscillator is frequency step scanning from comparatively low-frequency range, when back-end circuit detects intermediate-freuqncy signal, namely local oscillation signal is adjusted, complete a count measurement, record the control voltage value of frequency values and correspondence thereof, by AD conversion unit, control voltage value is converted into digital signal, and passes data back CPU element.
Second step: after completing one-shot measurement, local oscillator continues scanning according to certain frequency stepping, searches the local frequency of intermediate-freuqncy signal then record controls magnitude of voltage and correspondence again, otherwise will proceed to scan, until complete the scanning of full frequency band.
3rd step: after completing full band scan, the data of the control voltage value of all intermediate-freuqncy signals from AD conversion unit that CPU element analysis receives, judge that control voltage is worth maximum signal and is dominant frequency signal, local frequency corresponding to dominant frequency signal is reset according to program design, again produce this intermediate-freuqncy signal, start counting unit, complete count measurement, the frequency of display dominant frequency signal.
The present invention is applied to dominant frequency signal determinating circuit and the decision method of microwave frequency counter, directly utilize local oscillator to carry out frequency sweep to full frequency band, simplify the circuit of front-end processing, avoid the technical barrier such as control, compensation using pre-frequency-selecting technology to bring, reduce technical difficulty, provide cost savings; The present invention directly utilizes local oscillation signal to drive frequency mixer to carry out down-converted to high-frequency signal, and can process high-frequency signal, and be subject to the restriction of preliminary election bandwidth based on the dominant frequency signal determining method of pre-frequency-selecting technology, it processes the limited in one's ability of high-frequency signal; The present invention devises the fixed amplitude circuit being made up of closed loop voltage controlled attenuator, power comparison module, by the power blockage of intermediate-freuqncy signal in default performance number, both rear end counting unit process intermediate-freuqncy signal had been facilitated, control voltage value can be used for again weighing input signal power size, control voltage is worth maximum signal can be judged to be dominant frequency signal, eliminate power-sensing circuit like this, simplify design, provide cost savings.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. be applied to a dominant frequency signal determinating circuit for microwave frequency counter, it is characterized in that, comprising: frequency mixer, local oscillator unit, bandpass filter, voltage controlled attenuator, power comparison module, D/A conversion unit, CPU element and counting unit;
Local oscillator unit provides the local oscillation signal of mixing for frequency meter, and local oscillation signal drives frequency mixer to carry out down-converted to high-frequency signal, and measured signal and local oscillation signal are carried out mixing and obtained intermediate-freuqncy signal by frequency mixer;
Bandpass filter carries out filtering to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that frequency mixer exports;
Voltage controlled attenuator carries out power attenuation to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that bandpass filter exports, attenuation amplitude and control voltage linear;
The detecting circuit of power comparison module carries out peak detection to the intermediate-freuqncy signal that voltage controlled attenuator inputs, obtain crest voltage, sampling hold circuit carries out sampling to crest voltage and keeps, sampling keeps voltage and comparative voltage to compare by comparator circuit, obtain control voltage, described control voltage is applied to voltage controlled attenuator, power attenuation is carried out to input intermediate-freuqncy signal;
AD conversion unit receives from the control voltage of power comparison module, control voltage is carried out amplifying, analog to digital conversion, after level translation, the control voltage of digital quantization is transferred to CPU element;
The intermediate-freuqncy signal of counting unit received power comparing unit input, is transferred to FPGA after carrying out shaping, filtering, amplification, level conversion, carries out counting frequency measurement at FPGA to intermediate-freuqncy signal;
CPU element controls the signal that local oscillator unit exports different frequency, controls counting unit and carries out counting process; Receive the digital signal from AD conversion unit; Control system and extraneous interface arrange and system shows.
2. be applied to the dominant frequency signal determinating circuit of microwave frequency counter as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described voltage controlled attenuator is one-level attenuating structure.
3. be applied to the dominant frequency signal determinating circuit of microwave frequency counter as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described voltage controlled attenuator is the structure of two-stage or three grades of decay series connection.
4., based on a dominant frequency signal determining method for circuit described in any one of claims 1 to 3, comprise the following steps:
The first step: system starts to be measured, local oscillator unit is frequency step scanning from comparatively low-frequency range, when back-end circuit detects intermediate-freuqncy signal, namely local oscillation signal is adjusted, complete a count measurement, record the control voltage value of frequency values and correspondence thereof, by AD conversion unit, control voltage value is converted into digital signal, and passes data back CPU element;
Second step: after completing one-shot measurement, local oscillator unit continues scanning according to certain frequency stepping, searches the local frequency of intermediate-freuqncy signal then record controls magnitude of voltage and correspondence again, otherwise will proceed to scan, until complete the scanning of full frequency band;
3rd step: after completing full band scan, the data of the control voltage value of all intermediate-freuqncy signals from AD conversion unit that CPU element analysis receives, judge that control voltage is worth maximum signal and is dominant frequency signal, reset the local frequency that dominant frequency signal is corresponding, again produce intermediate-freuqncy signal, start counting unit, complete count measurement, the frequency of display dominant frequency signal.
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