CN104175891B - Pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method - Google Patents

Pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method Download PDF

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CN104175891B
CN104175891B CN201410384563.5A CN201410384563A CN104175891B CN 104175891 B CN104175891 B CN 104175891B CN 201410384563 A CN201410384563 A CN 201410384563A CN 104175891 B CN104175891 B CN 104175891B
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braking
moment
brake
signal
motor
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CN104175891A (en
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胡云峰
朱大吉
吴雨徽
陈虹
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Jilin Province Qixing Kunda Electric Appliance Co., Ltd.
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Jilin University
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Abstract

A kind of pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method, belongs to field of automobile control.The braking procedure that the purpose of the present invention is primarily directed in pure electric automobile has been designed and developed based on the pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method driving axle moment information.The present invention is driving signal, brake signal and motor speed, battery SOC state, cell voltage, speed and the driving axle moment information sent with pilot model is input, to control output mechanical braking signal and what the size to the torque demand of motor was modeled, it is divided into operating mode to judge link and control for brake link.The present invention improves the effect of energy regenerating, it is only necessary to carrying out the demarcation of maximum regenerative braking force square map, development cost is relatively low.

Description

Pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of automobile control.
Background technology
Pure electric automobile is because the advantage of high energy efficiency low emission becomes the new focus of current development of automobile industry, but course continuation mileage is short becomes the bottleneck restricting its development.The introducing of Brake energy recovery technology so that electric automobile efficiency is greatly improved, and adds course continuation mileage.Regenerative braking mainly has problems with in controlling:
1. accurately judge current working, if regenerative braking can be carried out, if it is possible to carry out regenerative braking, then just have the distribution carrying out electric braking moment and regenerative braking moment.If can not, mechanical braking to be carried out by brake gear.
2. in regenerative braking operating mode, operator brake demand should be met, many recovering energy of trying one's best again;Brake gear and electric braking need to coordinate to control.
3. for ensureing the driving performance of vehicle, it is necessary to the front and back wheel brake force of vehicle is carried out reasonable distribution.
In the process of regenerative braking that presently, there are, only driving wheel can be recycled with the mechanical energy on driving axle, but traditional tandem regenerative braking method is left out driving axle moment information, and braking effect and energy recovery efficiency can be affected.Additionally, this ECU internal arithmetic process is simple, it is only necessary to carrying out the demarcation of a number table, development process is relatively easy.
Summary of the invention
The braking procedure that the purpose of the present invention is primarily directed in pure electric automobile has been designed and developed based on the pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method driving axle moment information.
The present invention is driving signal, brake signal and motor speed, battery SOC state, cell voltage, speed and the driving axle moment information sent with pilot model is input, to control output mechanical braking signal and what the size to the torque demand of motor was modeled, it is divided into operating mode to judge link and control for brake link;
Operating mode judges link:
Vehicle sensors detection driver intention also gathers whole vehicle state information, it may be judged whether enter regenerative braking control model;When allowing to carry out regenerative braking, obtain out total braking force square according to brake pedal signal;Judge whether that the coordination needing regenerative braking moment and mechanical braking moment controls;Draw the expected value of mechanical braking moment and the expected value of regenerative braking moment;Wherein the expected value of regenerative braking moment obtains is combine to drive the moment information of axle and motor maximum regenerative braking force square to obtain;
During signal for faster Accsig > 0,
(1)
(2)
(3)
It is the torque demand of driver,It is the maximum moment that can provide of motor,It is the moment starting actual output,Got by motor maximum torque map figure;
It is the mechanical braking moment of actual output;
When signal for faster is 0, then in conjunction with brake signal, battery SOC state, GES, need to determine whether that vehicle is in regenerative braking state or non-renewable on-position;
Brake signal is more than 0.95, it is believed that vehicle is currently at the state of bringing to a halt;For ensureing braking ability, conventional brake device it is quickly accomplished whole braking requirement;
Brake signal is not more than 0.95, then the SOC state in conjunction with battery carries out second step judgement: based on the judgement of battery SOC state, and the SOC state of battery is between [0,80];
When battery SOC state is in [0,80] scope, carries out the 3rd step and judge: based on the judgement of speed, braking when speed is less than 1m/s is all completed by mechanical braking;Speed is not less than 1m/s, then enter regenerative braking operating mode, and namely ECU enters second link: control for brake link;
Control for brake link:
The shape set of cells terminal voltage of ECU collection vehicle, motor speed, driving axle moment, speed;Obtain regenerative braking moment and two control signals of traditional mechanical brake force, and control signal is dealt into respectively conventional brake device and motor;
Driver's expected value to braking moment:
(4)
WhereinIt is brake signal,It it is the available maximum machine braking moment of brake gear;
Obtain the moment information when drive axle:
(5)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It it is desired braking moment;
Obtain mechanical braking moment:
(6)
WhereinIt is mechanical braking moment,It is the desired braking moment of driver,It it is maximum renewable braking moment;
Driving axle moment after braking:
(7)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It is mechanical braking moment;
Obtain regeneration torque expected value:
(8)
(9)
It is proportion integral modulus respectively;
Obtain the expected value of regenerative braking momentExpectation with traditional mechanical brakingTwo control signals, the two signal is respectively issued to the controller of electric machine controller and brake gear by ECU.
The present invention judges based on battery SOC state: as preventing momentary charge electric current from impacting the excessive service life to battery and motor, when the SOC state of battery carries out regenerative braking and energy regenerating in [0,80] within the scope of this;Beyond this scope, do not carry out regenerative braking, conventional brake device be quickly accomplished whole braking requirement.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1. traditional control method majority is left out driving axle moment information, but in actual reproduction braking procedure, only driving wheel can be recycled with the mechanical energy on driving axle.Control strategy combines the moment information driving axle, drives the moment of axle moment information and vehicle overall design and regeneration to be all closely related.Design this effect that improve energy regenerating on the one hand based on the ECU driving axle moment information, improve braking effect on the other hand.
2. the development process of orthodox car ECU needs substantial amounts of experience and rating test.Having only to carry out the demarcation of maximum regenerative braking force square map in control method of the present invention, development cost is relatively low.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 implements regenerative braking of the present invention to control the overview flow chart of process;
Fig. 2 is that the braking mode that enforcement regenerating brake control method of the present invention adopts judges flow process;
Fig. 3 is the control principle block diagram in regenerating brake control method of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the flow process implementing regenerative braking controller of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the maximum regenerative braking force square map number table adopting regenerative braking of the present invention to control in embodiment;
Fig. 6 is operator brake signal and mechanical braking signal contrast in embodiment 1 of the present invention, wherein solid line represents the brake signal that driver sends, and dotted line represents the brake signal that vehicle mechanical brake unit receives, and both are 1 at unit, abscissa is the time, unit s;
Fig. 7 is the driving axle moment variations curve in embodiment 1 of the present invention, and unit Nm, abscissa is the time, unit s;
Fig. 8 is actual value and the expected value contrast of embodiment 1 motor output torque of the present invention, and wherein solid line represents that actual value, dotted line represent that expected value, unit are Nm, and abscissa is the time, unit s;
Fig. 9 is the contrast of actual vehicle speed and desired speed in embodiment 1 of the present invention, and wherein solid line represents that actual vehicle speed, dotted line represent that desired speed, unit are m/s, and abscissa is the time, unit s;
Figure 10 is that embodiment 1 set of cells SOC of the present invention changes change curve, and unit is %, and abscissa is the time, unit s;
Figure 11 is operator brake signal and mechanical braking signal contrast in embodiment 2 of the present invention, wherein solid line represents the brake signal that driver sends, and dotted line represents the brake signal that vehicle mechanical brake unit receives, and both are 1 at unit, abscissa is the time, unit s;
Figure 12 is the driving axle moment variations curve in embodiment 2 of the present invention, and unit Nm, abscissa is the time, unit s;
Figure 13 is actual value and the expected value contrast of embodiment 2 motor output torque of the present invention, and wherein solid line represents that actual value, dotted line represent that expected value, unit are Nm, and abscissa is the time, unit s;
Figure 14 is the contrast of actual vehicle speed and desired speed in embodiment 2 of the present invention, and wherein solid line represents that actual vehicle speed, dotted line represent that desired speed, unit are m/s, and abscissa is the time, unit s;
Figure 15 is that embodiment 2 set of cells SOC of the present invention changes change curve, and unit is %, and abscissa is the time, unit s.
Detailed description of the invention
The present invention is driving signal, brake signal and motor speed, battery SOC state, cell voltage, speed and the driving axle moment information sent with pilot model is input, to control output mechanical braking signal and what the size to the torque demand of motor was modeled, it is divided into operating mode to judge link and control for brake link;
Operating mode judges link:
Vehicle sensors detection driver intention also gathers whole vehicle state information, it may be judged whether enter regenerative braking control model;When allowing to carry out regenerative braking, draw total braking force square according to brake pedal signal;Judge whether that the coordination needing regenerative braking moment and mechanical braking moment controls;Obtain the expected value of mechanical braking moment and the expected value of regenerative braking moment;Wherein the expected value of regenerative braking moment obtains is combine to drive the moment information of axle and motor maximum regenerative braking force square to obtain;
During signal for faster Accsig > 0,
(1)
(2)
(3)
It is the torque demand of driver,It is the maximum moment that can provide of motor,It is the moment starting actual output,Got by motor maximum torque map figure;
It is the mechanical braking moment of actual output;
When signal for faster is 0, then in conjunction with brake signal, battery SOC state, GES, need to determine whether that vehicle is in regenerative braking state or non-renewable on-position;
Brake signal is more than 0.95, it is believed that vehicle is currently at the state of bringing to a halt;For ensureing braking ability, conventional brake device it is quickly accomplished whole braking requirement;
Brake signal is not more than 0.95, then the SOC state in conjunction with battery carries out second step judgement: based on the judgement of battery SOC state, and the SOC state of battery is between [0,80];
When battery SOC state is in [0,80] scope, carries out the 3rd step and judge: based on the judgement of speed, braking when speed is less than 1m/s is all completed by mechanical braking;Speed is not less than 1m/s, then enter regenerative braking operating mode, and namely ECU enters second link: control for brake link;
Control for brake link:
The shape set of cells terminal voltage of ECU collection vehicle, motor speed, driving axle moment, speed;Obtain regenerative braking moment and two control signals of traditional mechanical brake force, and control signal is dealt into respectively conventional brake device and motor;
Driver's expected value to braking moment:
(4)
WhereinIt is brake signal,It it is the available maximum machine braking moment of brake gear;
Obtain the moment information when drive axle:
(5)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It it is desired braking moment;
Obtain mechanical braking moment:
(6)
WhereinIt is mechanical braking moment,It is the desired braking moment of driver,It it is maximum renewable braking moment;
Driving axle moment after braking:
(7)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It is mechanical braking moment;
Obtain regeneration torque expected value:
(8)
(9)
It is proportion integral modulus respectively;
Obtain the expected value of regenerative braking momentExpectation with traditional mechanical brakingTwo control signals, the two signal is respectively issued to the controller of electric machine controller and brake gear by ECU.
The present invention judges based on battery SOC state: as preventing momentary charge electric current from impacting the excessive service life to battery and motor, when the SOC state of battery carries out regenerative braking and energy regenerating in [0,80] within the scope of this;Beyond this scope, do not carry out regenerative braking, conventional brake device be quickly accomplished whole braking requirement.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is done further detailed description:
It is an aspect of the invention to provide a kind of regenerating brake control method based on the pure electric automobile driving axle moment information, solved existing regenerating brake control method braking effect and energy recovery efficiency cannot ensure this problem.
The regenerative braking that research method of the present invention is energy regenerating controls, and comprises the following steps:
Vehicle sensors detection driver intention also gathers whole vehicle state information, it may be judged whether enter regenerative braking control model;
When allowing to carry out regenerative braking, obtain out total braking force square according to brake pedal signal;Judge whether that the coordination needing regenerative braking moment and mechanical braking moment controls;Obtain the expected value of mechanical braking moment and the expected value of regenerative braking moment.The expected value of described regenerative braking moment obtains the moment information being to combine and drive axle and motor maximum regenerative braking force square obtains.
For solving above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that realization:
Regenerating brake control method of the present invention is to be realized by the associative simulation of software system.Software system is made up of Matlab/Simulink and AMESim compiler.Wherein AMESim software is a commercial modeling and simulating of complex system platform, its Main Function in the present invention is to provide concentration electric motor type pure electric automobile model and the pilot model of high-fidelity, and in emulation experiment, this model replaces real vehicles to be used as the objective for implementation of control method;MATLAB/Simulink software is then that the phantom for controller is built, and has namely programmed the computing of ECU in this control method by Simulink.
Functionally the present invention can include following a few part: controller simulation module and centralized pure electric automobile model.Effect the following detailed description of each several part:
The Main Function of Driver Model is, according to current speed and driver, the expectation of following speed is provided signal for faster and brake signal, i other words this module simulation operation behavior of driver.
The Main Function of controller module is that the various status informations to electric automobile model such as speed, battery SOC, operator brake signal etc. are acquired, then carry out tabling look-up and computing, produce moment expectation and mechanical braking signal and the actuator motor and the traditional mechanical arrestment mechanism that send the signal to electric automobile of control signal motor;
Electric automobile model includes three parts such as power drive system model, change speed gear box model, vehicle dynamic model.Its effect is to produce corresponding driving or braking moment according to the ECU control signal provided, and changes the dynamic motor output torque of vehicle, mechanical braking moment, speed, SOC state etc..
Overall flow figure that a kind of regenerating brake control method of the present invention is implemented as it is shown in figure 1, in figure ECU be vehicle regenerative brake monitor.Regenerating brake control method is divided into two links: operating mode judges link and control for brake link.
First link is the judgement to vehicle movement operating mode, and for pure electric automobile, energy regenerating can only carry out under braking procedure, and not all braking procedure can be carried out the recovery of energy, it is therefore desirable to operating mode residing for vehicle is judged.If the first link being judged, vehicle is in driving or non-renewable damped condition, then regenerative braking controller does not play a role, and namely the second link does not work, and braking procedure is completed by conventional brake device completely.If vehicle is in renewable damped condition, then entering second link, in second link, regenerative braking controller plays a role.
The internal arithmetic of ECU under second namely regenerated control for brake pattern of link.ECU collection vehicle status signal carries out computing and gathers the braking expectation of driver, judges regenerative braking moment and the expected value of mechanical braking moment respectively, and the two control signal is sent to motor and brake gear.Brake gear directly produces mechanical braking force and is applied in front and back wheel, and motor then produces regenerative braking moment under the dragging driving axle.Braking mode coordinative role, changes speed jointly, produces braking effect;Regenerative braking moment drive motor acting simultaneously, produces charging current and charges to on-vehicle battery group, and enable is recycled.
The invention provides a set of based on the device operating above principle and running.Namely based on the regenerated offline control for brake test platform platform of PC.Build and running be as follows:
1, software selects
The controlled device of this control system and the phantom of controller are built respectively through software Matlab/Simulink and AMESim, and software version is MatlabR2010a and AMESimR10 respectively, and solver selects respectively.Simulation step length is variable step.
2, associative simulation is arranged
Realize both associative simulations, it is necessary first in AMESim interface, add output interface module;Then the form with S-function after System build of the model information in AMESim is retained in Simulink.When running Simulink phantom, AMESim model also carries out at the same time.Simulation process constantly carries out the exchange of data between the two.It is modified if the model structure in AMESim or parameter are arranged, then needs to recompilate.
3, the phantom of electric automobile and driver is built
1) whole electric vehicle simulation model includes three parts: power drive system part, driveline components and longitudinal direction of car kinetic part.
Power drive system includes battery compartment and motor part, the set of cells of pure electric automobile is to be made up of multiple battery bag connection in series-parallel, and battery Bao Ze is in series by battery cell, so whole set of cells loss power be single battery loss power and, and the terminal voltage that set of cells externally exports be single battery output voltage and, battery system outlet terminal voltage and set of cells are supplied to the voltage of motor;What adopt in the present invention is the motor that can be operated under motor and electromotor both of which, and in the generator mode, mechanical energy is electric energy by motor, stores in the battery, and power of motor is negative;In a motor mode, electrical consumption electric energy, power of motor is just, produces power, and power is sent to wheel via drive system.
Drive system includes variator, differential mechanism and driving three parts of axle.The power of motor output produces different speed ratio thus carrying out deceleration increment via variator by different tooth radius, the present invention have ignored the lateral dynamic of vehicle, so the output speed of differential mechanism both sides is identical, namely differential mechanism is inoperative, differential mechanism output speed is the input speed driving axle, and driving the output speed of axle equal with vehicle wheel rotational speed, on axle, the moment of transmission obtains by driving end shaft speed discrepancy.
Longitudinal direction of car kinetic part, describes vehicle and is driven the effect of power, brake force and running resistance in the process of moving, and wherein running resistance includes air drag, resistance to rolling and frictional resistance.The speed model that vehicle travels can be drawn based on Newton's second law.
2) pilot model
Pilot model is for the behavior of drive simulating person, namely according to current vehicle speed with the expectation of speed provides self braking or throttle signal.In this process, driver is first from input element (eye, ear, hands etc.) environment of accepting, information of road surface and be transferred to brain, and brain produces control signal after carrying out thinking deeply and judge, and is performed by organ (hands, foot etc.), completes this control process.Consider delay during delay and the execution brain instruction of health sense organ of driver's observation signal in this process, therefore adoption rate-integral controller draws the operation behavior that driver makes according to the deviation of actual vehicle speed and desired speed.Self the speed in current time and next moment is expected because driver knows again, then for the two, desired deviation driver also has certain operation behavior.The braking or throttle signal of expecting to provide can be drawn by the two operation behavior.
4, the phantom of regenerative braking controller is built
In this patent, refresh controller is the driving signal, the brake signal that send with pilot model, and motor speed, battery SOC state, cell voltage, speed and driving axle moment information are input, to control output mechanical braking signal and what the size to the torque demand of motor was modeled, include operating mode and judge link, control for brake link.
1) operating mode judges link
Operating mode judges that link is based on brake signal and the signal for faster that driver sends, battery SOC state, and four physical quantitys such as speed are determined.In this judgement link, ECU first has to accept accelerator pedal signal and the brake pedal signal that driver sends;If driver steps on the throttle pedal at current time, then there is signal for faster;Signal for faster when making pedal displacement maximum is 1, and the signal in all the other moment is that actual pedal displacement is divided by maximum pedal displacement.In like manner, brake signal is also determined according to brake pedal change in displacement.The excursion of signal for faster and brake signal is [0,1], and unit is 1.The SOC status signal of vehicle obtains from battery management system, and its excursion is [0,100], and unit is 1.GES is gathered by vehicle speed sensor, and the unit that unit is the various moments described in m/s. this patent is Nm.
As in figure 2 it is shown, be first link of the present invention and the operating mode flow chart that judges link.Equation can be listed below according to flow chart, as signal for faster Accsig > 0,
(1)
(2)
(3)
It is the torque demand of driver,It is the maximum moment that can provide of motor,It is the moment starting actual output,Got by motor maximum torque map figure.It is the mechanical braking moment of actual output.
If signal for faster is 0, then in conjunction with brake signal, battery SOC state, GES, need to determine whether that vehicle is in regenerative braking state or non-renewable on-position.Judge further according to brake signal, if brake signal is more than 0.95, it is believed that vehicle is currently at the state of bringing to a halt;For ensureing braking ability, conventional brake device it is quickly accomplished whole braking requirement.As brake signal is not more than 0.95, then the SOC state in conjunction with battery carries out second step judgement: based on the judgement of battery SOC state.For preventing momentary charge electric current from impacting the excessive service life to battery and motor, when the SOC state of battery is to carry out regenerative braking and energy regenerating in [0,80] within the scope of this.If beyond this scope, then do not carry out regenerative braking, conventional brake device be quickly accomplished whole braking requirement.When battery SOC state is in [0,80] scope, carries out the 3rd step and judge: based on the judgement of speed.If speed is less than 1m/s, now vehicle speed braking moment change is very sensitive.Compared to the generation of regenerative braking moment, conventional brake device produces this process of mechanical braking moment more accurately and reliably.For ensureing that speed change can closely conform to driver's expectation, the braking when speed is less than 1m/s is all completed by mechanical braking.If speed is not less than 1m/s, then enter regenerative braking operating mode, namely ECU enters second link: control for brake link.
2) control for brake link
The flow process of control for brake link as it is shown on figure 3, in this link ECU need the status information of collection vehicle, including set of cells terminal voltage, motor speed, driving axle moment, speed etc..Obtain regenerative braking moment and two control signals of traditional mechanical brake force, and control signal is dealt into respectively conventional brake device and motor.
Second link is to be completed by four steps.
The first step, obtains, according to brake signal, the braking moment that driver intentionally gets, maximum regenerative braking force squareWith the driving axle moment after braking.Driver's expected value to braking momentIt is multiplied by the available maximum machine braking moment of brake gear equal to current brake signal
(4)
WhereinIt is brake signal,It it is the available maximum machine braking moment of brake gear.In order to improve energy recovery efficiency, under the operating mode that can carry out regenerative braking, pay the utmost attention to and expect to the braking completing driver with regenerative braking moment.Regenerative braking moment is to be produced by dragging of the driven moving axis of motor, thus under concrete operating mode, the maximum regenerative braking force square that motor can produce is subject to the impact of motor terminal voltage and external characteristics.Rotating speed and set of cells terminal voltage herein according to motor are tabled look-up and are obtained the issuable maximum regenerative braking force square of Current vehicle, this number table requires over calibration experiment and obtains.
First have to obtain the moment information when drive axle, drive the moment information of axle can be obtained by estimation.The first step show the desired braking moment of driver, then the driving axle moment after braking will be changed to former driving axle moment and deduct desired braking moment, namely
(5)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It it is desired braking moment.
Second step, it is thus achieved that mechanical braking moment.In renewable braking procedure, if regenerative braking moment can complete the braking expectation of driver, if so mechanical braking moment is 0. regenerative braking moment braking moment expected value less than driver, so not enough part is braked by traditional mechanical and is supplemented, so mechanical braking moment is the desired braking moment of driver and deducts maximum renewable braking moment, namely
(6)
WhereinIt is mechanical braking moment,It is the desired braking moment of driver,It it is maximum renewable braking moment.Driving axle moment after so braking only with traditional mechanical will be changed to former driving axle moment and deduct mechanical braking moment, namely
(7)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It is mechanical braking moment.
3rd step, it is thus achieved that regeneration torque expected value, this numerical value is the braking moment that motor produces under driving axle to drag.By first two steps it can be seen that the braking effect that regenerative braking to reach make exactly driving axle moment byBecomeIf actual reproduction braking moment is not reaching to requirement, then the braking requirement of the expected value and driver that do not reach driver can not be met by the change of speed.Secondly may gather bigger energy on the driving shaft, cause the waste of the violent of power train and energy.In order to ensure braking effect and improve energy recovery efficiency, must account for driving axle moment variations when obtaining current regenerative braking moment expectation.Here in connection with the current regenerative braking moment expectation driving axle moment information passing ratio-integral way to obtain motor, namely
(8)
It is proportion integral modulus respectively, it is considered under fixing operating mode, the maximum regenerative braking force square of motor exists restriction, then regenerative braking moment is
(9)
The expected value of regenerative braking moment can be obtained by above-mentioned wayExpectation with traditional mechanical brakingTwo control signals, the two signal is respectively issued to the controller of electric machine controller and brake gear by ECU.Motor and brake gear combined effect cause the change of speed.At subsequent time, driver can give the signal for faster or brake signal that make new advances, and this ECU re-starts judgement and controls.
5, experimental verification
1) embodiment 1: even experiment of slowing down
Parameter is arranged: battery SOC state is 70, Fig. 5 maximum regenerative braking force square values showing that vehicle can produce when different terminal voltages and output speed.
The flow process of being changed at the uniform velocity of car speed-even deceleration-at the uniform velocity-even deceleration-parking in embodiment 1.Namely vehicle has twice braking, and first time braking is only slowed down, and second time braking is first slowed down and then stopped.The simulation experiment result is as follows:
Consult Fig. 6, the expected value solid line as shown in FIG. of mechanical braking moment signal can be obtained by operator brake signal and maximum regenerative braking force square, dotted line is the brake signal of driver, and curve comparison can be seen that in the braking requirement of driver, only some is completed by mechanical braking.
Consult Fig. 7, drive the change of moment of axle as shown in the figure.Wherein drive axle moment be on the occasion of time, illustrate that moment is produced by motor and reaches driving wheel through drive system, i.e. vehicle consumed energy;When driving axle moment is 0, illustrate not carry out the transmission of moment and the transfer of energy;When driving axle moment is negative value, illustrating that moment is from driving axle and driving wheel to do work via drive system drive motor, motor carries out the recovery of energy and produces electric current to energy storage device charging.At the uniform velocity driving axle moment in driving process is just, namely motor produces power;It is negative for driving axle moment in twice braking procedure, namely drives the acting of axle drive motor.
Consult Fig. 8, according to driving axle moment information and mechanical braking moment value, adopt PI algorithm to obtain the expected value of regenerative braking moment, solid line as shown in FIG., dotted line is the regenerative braking moment of real electrical machinery output, and the tracking expected value curve that actual value can be good, tracking error is only small.Because direction of motor rotation is positive direction, so when motor torque is timing, illustrating that motor is in electric motor mode, producing output torque, consumed energy;Motor torque is for time negative, and motor enters generator mode, and motor produces regenerative braking moment, and produces energy.The tracking expected value curve that actual value can be good as can be seen from Figure 8, tracking error is only small.
Consult Fig. 9, final actual vehicle speed situation of change contrasts situation as shown in FIG. with desired speed, in figure, twice braking procedure can be carried out regenerative braking, can be seen that pure electric automobile actual vehicle speed that the present invention controls can fast and stable follow desired speed, namely the braking requirement of driver is met.
Consulting Figure 10, final set of cells SOC situation of change as shown in FIG., can see that battery SOC state in process of regenerative braking rises, and energy is recycled.
The obtained image of above emulation experiment can illustrate that regenerating brake control method of the present invention can make regenerative braking moment and traditional mechanical braking moment co-ordination under becoming deceleration situations, ensure that the change fast and stable ground of speed reaches the desired braking effect of driver, enabled by the regeneration of motor simultaneously and be recycled.
2) embodiment 2: become experiment of slowing down
The regenerating brake control method proposed by the known present invention of the simulation result of example 1 disclosure satisfy that demand for control under even decelerating mode, in order to further illustrate control effect, the energy regenerating regenerating brake control method of electric automobile is carried out simulating, verifying when becoming deceleration by the present embodiment, and parameter arranges same embodiment 1.Consulting Figure 11 to Figure 15, the speed that reach is the dotted line shown in Figure 14.
In this embodiment, vehicle enters the regenerative braking stage after 115 seconds.Consulting Figure 11 to Figure 15, the speed that reach is the dotted line shown in Fig. 6.According to aforementioned regenerating brake control method step, the simulation experiment result is as follows:
Consulting Figure 11, mechanical braking moment signal solid line as shown in FIG., dotted line is the brake signal of driver.Curve comparison can be seen that in the braking requirement of driver, only fraction is completed by mechanical braking;Major part is completed by regenerative braking;
Consult Figure 12, drive the change of moment of axle as shown in the figure.Before 115 seconds, vehicle is still within the state of giving it the gun, and driving axle moment is just, the rear vehicle of 115 seconds enters on-position, drives axle moment to become negative value, namely drives the acting of axle dragging motor;
Consulting Figure 13, the moment solid line as shown in FIG. that motor produces, in figure, the front motor of 115 seconds is in drive pattern, produces driving moment.After 115 seconds, motor enters braking mode, produces regenerative braking moment.In figure, dotted line is the regenerative braking moment of real electrical machinery output, simulation curve after 115 seconds it can be seen that actual value can be good tracking expected value curve, tracking error is only small.
Consulting Figure 14, final actual vehicle speed situation of change contrasts situation as shown in FIG. with desired speed, and in figure, the rear vehicle of 115 seconds enters renewable braking procedure, and driver expects vehicle deceleration, and vehicle enters braking mode and braking acceleration is variate.Fig. 9 demonstrate the present invention control pure electric automobile actual vehicle speed can fast and stable follow desired speed, namely the braking requirement of driver is met.
Consulting Figure 15, final set of cells SOC situation of change is as shown in FIG., it can be seen that in battery process of regenerative braking after 115 seconds, SOC state rises, and energy is recycled.
Can be illustrated that regenerating brake control method of the present invention still enables to each physical quantity under the continuous decelerating mode of vehicle and includes entering expected value in motor regenerative braking moment and the quick and stable tracking of speed by the image that above emulation experiment is obtained.
Above-mentioned two embodiment examines the performance based on the regenerating brake control method driving the electric automobile energy of axle moment information to reclaim of the present invention respectively, first the correctness of authentication control method and integrity under even decelerating mode, then verify further control system under becoming the operating mode slowed down.Showing from Fig. 9 and Figure 14, the velocity variations of vehicle can meet the expectation of driver preferably, say, that the braking requirement of driver is met.Showing from Fig. 9 and Figure 14, under regenerative braking state, the Motor torque under PI adjustment can reach desired regenerative braking moment, thus ensure that the braking effect of entirety.Figure 10, Figure 15 show simultaneously, and the SOC state of battery rises, and namely battery electric quantity increases.
The design object having reached the present invention based on the energy regenerating regenerating brake control method driving axle moment information of the present invention, and achieve good control effect, such that it is able to prove that control method of the present invention can ensure that whole braking effect can meet driver's expectation accurately, and its function admirable, no matter it is that braking effect and energy regenerating effect can meet control accuracy requirement at even deceleration or change decelerating mode.

Claims (2)

1. a pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method, it is characterized in that: be driving signal, brake signal and motor speed, battery SOC state, cell voltage, speed and the driving axle moment information sent with pilot model be input, to control output mechanical braking signal and what the size to the torque demand of motor was modeled, it is divided into operating mode to judge link and control for brake link;
Operating mode judges link:
Vehicle sensors detection driver intention also gathers whole vehicle state information, it may be judged whether enter regenerative braking control model;When allowing to carry out regenerative braking, calculate total braking force square according to brake pedal signal;Judge whether that the coordination needing regenerative braking moment and mechanical braking moment controls;The expected value of calculating machine braking moment and the expected value of regenerative braking moment;Wherein the expected value of regenerative braking moment calculates is that combination drives the moment information of axle and motor maximum regenerative braking force square to calculate and obtain;
During signal for faster Accsig > 0,
(1)
(2)
(3)
It is the torque demand of driver,It is the maximum moment that can provide of motor,It is the moment starting actual output,Got by motor maximum torque map figure;
It is the mechanical braking moment of actual output;
When signal for faster is 0, then in conjunction with brake signal, battery SOC state, GES, need to determine whether that vehicle is in regenerative braking state or non-renewable on-position;
Brake signal is more than 0.95, it is believed that vehicle is currently at the state of bringing to a halt;For ensureing braking ability, conventional brake device it is quickly accomplished whole braking requirement;
Brake signal is not more than 0.95, then the SOC state in conjunction with battery carries out second step judgement: based on the judgement of battery SOC state, and the SOC state of battery is between [0,80];
When battery SOC state is in [0,80] scope, carries out the 3rd step and judge: based on the judgement of speed, braking when speed is less than 1m/s is all completed by mechanical braking;Speed is not less than 1m/s, then enter regenerative braking operating mode, and namely ECU enters second link: control for brake link;
Control for brake link:
The shape set of cells terminal voltage of ECU collection vehicle, motor speed, driving axle moment, speed;Obtain regenerative braking moment and two control signals of traditional mechanical brake force, and control signal is dealt into respectively conventional brake device and motor;
Driver's expected value to braking moment:
(4)
WhereinIt is brake signal,It it is the available maximum machine braking moment of brake gear;
Obtain the moment information when drive axle:
(5)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It it is desired braking moment;
Obtain mechanical braking moment:
(6)
WhereinIt is mechanical braking moment,It is the desired braking moment of driver,It it is maximum renewable braking moment;
Driving axle moment after braking:
(7)
WhereinDriving axle moment after braking,It is mechanical braking moment;
Obtain regeneration torque expected value:
(8)
(9)
Being proportion integral modulus respectively, under fixing operating mode there is restriction in the maximum regenerative braking force square of motor
Obtain the expected value of regenerative braking momentExpectation with traditional mechanical brakingTwo control signals, the two signal is respectively issued to the controller of electric machine controller and brake gear by ECU.
2. pure electric automobile energy regenerating regenerating brake control method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: based on judging of battery SOC state: as preventing momentary charge electric current from impacting the excessive service life to battery and motor, when the SOC state of battery carries out regenerative braking and energy regenerating in [0,80] within the scope of this;Beyond this scope, do not carry out regenerative braking, conventional brake device be quickly accomplished whole braking requirement.
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